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A translation into Anglish of Darwin’s On the Origin of Species


Alderlong thanks to the beshaper of ednewenglish.tripod.com from whence the mosthood of the wordbook comes, and without whom this undertaking would have been much harder

Bookdeallist

1. Sundriness under housening


2. Sundriness under ikind


3. Struggle for wist


4. Kindly choosing


5. Laws of sundriness


6. Arveths on thoughlay


7. Inborndrive


8. Twibloodtudderness


9. On the unfullcomeliness of the earthlorely edferth

10. On the earthlorely afterfollowingness of lifesome beings


11. Earthlorely brittening


12. Earthlorely brittening—through stood


13. Two-way sibreds of lifesome beings: shapelore: forebirthlinglore: leftlingish bodyworkths


14. Edheading and ashut



Foreword Is not ‘aftertale’ better sounding and more transparent in its etymology than ‘epilogue,’ and is ‘lawcraft’ not more homely and English-sounding than ‘jurisprudence,’ and ‘wordbook’ clearer than ‘dictionary,’ and ‘manslaughter’ more image-evoking and powerful than ‘homicide.’ And some more examples of englishized English, or Anglish--fordo (destroy), forsend (dismiss), forespeak (predict), winterwone (hibernate), elderdom (supremacy), owndom (property), speechlore (linguistics), starcraft (astronomy), withfare (escape), withlead (abduct) and the list goes on. English is often obscured by our use of Latin and Greek words. So often a word newly met cannot be understood from its parts, and one must have recourse to a wordbook to find its meaning. ‘Consanguinity,’ for example. What on earth could that possibly mean? Says every english speaker upon first encountering it. We recognize that it is made up of several parts, the ‘con-,’ like in ‘confess,’ ‘concede,’ ‘conceive,’ and the ‘-ity’ we recognize. We know the -ity’ makes the word a noun (or how about a thingword), but the ‘con’ and the ‘sanguin’ we do not the meaning of unless we are familiar with a Latin language. So, how then are we to deduce its meaning? Truth be told, we simply cannot, not without the help of a dictionary, our beloved wordbook. This is a rather unfortunate thing, for what is the value of words if they are not understood? Forhaps we should be more like the Germans, or any other Germanic-language-speaking folk for that matter, and use more fully our native English morphemes— wordbits that English speakers can understand without the accursed dictionary that makes learning our tongue so detached, and so cold and intellectual. That way we could talk to any English speaker about virtually anything, abstract topics included, and use words like ‘samebloodedness’ instead of ‘consanguinity’ to express them. One could even speak to a five year old about samebloodedness and be understood. But how lofty and pretentious one seems when one uses words like ‘consanguinity.’ Consanguinity— bah, please, English, speak thine own tongue. Does ‘con’ not mean ‘same,’ does ‘sanguin’ not mean ‘blood’, and is ‘ity’ not alike unto ‘ness?’ And do they not all three— ‘same,’ ‘blood,’ and ‘ness,’ have as their sustenance the very depth and core of the soul of English? Do they not subsist on the flesh and blood of Englishness, and take it up into themselves, heralding the glory of its lifeblood and provider with every utterance of themselves that cometh forth out of the tongues of English speakers? And the same goes for ‘assume,’ translated from its latin parts into ‘take on;’ and ‘presume’ into ‘foretake,’ and ‘deduce’ into ‘lead off,’ and ‘anatomy’ into ‘bodylore,’ ‘dermatology’ into ‘skinlore,’ ‘biology’ into ‘lifelore,’ ‘aerology’ onto ‘skylore,’ ‘transcribe’ into ‘yondwrite’ and ‘compare’ into ‘aliken.’ In almost all cases the Anglish word simply makes more sense, the meaning of the word can be seen in its parts, without knowledge of Latin or French or Greek, without a dictionary that shows etymology, for its parts are English indeed. This makes English more transparent, and for the aesthetically inclined, more beautiful, as it connects structure (English structure) to meaning Not in all cases though, is the Anglish word gotten by a simple translation of the Latin word. Sometimes this produces words that simply don’t capture the desired meaning. ‘Defeat’ translated morpheme by morpheme is ‘undo,’ though having a similar figurative meaning as ‘defeat,’ is forhaps not good enough. Anglish then is forced to innovate, using native English words and morphemes, mixing and combining them. ‘netherlay,’ a cognate of the German ‘niederlagen,’ forhaps works better for ‘destroy’ than does ‘undo,’ or how about the more colloquial sounding ‘to down under,’ as in “the spartans downed the enemy under.” Sometimes Anglish becomes simply about choosing native, or Germanic words over their French equivalents whenever mightly (another cognate from Germanic tongues— like the German ‘mӧglich’) — choosing ‘motherly’ instead of ‘maternal,’ ‘earthly’ instead of ‘terrestrial,’ ‘water’ instead of ‘aqua,’ at least using these native English words often enough to ensure they don’t meet the same fate as the sorry lot of our many lost and forsaken Anglo-Saxon words. Still other times Anglish looks to English’s birth-giver, Old English, and uses Old English words that did not make it into modern English. This is sometimes done out of necessity, as neither translation of foreign morphemes into English morphemes, nor coining seems to work. Often times though OE words are resurrected simply because Anglish looks upon them with great regret and sorrow— so many lovely words of English spirit left to perish in history— the shame of it is to intense not to bring some back to life. Though if you are not convinced of the above-mentioned reasons for Anglish, one reason for it still stands— its being an academic pursuit that explores the Germanic side of English, and of its Germanic potential; and that plays with the idea of what English would be like had history taken another route. In considering the above, I realized that what this movement lacked was a body of literature. All this talk about the sorry state of English is fine to whet the interest at least, but with no significant written works, and very little readable material save for a bit on the internet, the movement would never go far. Thus was born the idea of translating a written work into Anglish. The criteria I went by in choosing what to translate were the following:

1. The work had to be well known. The more widely known the better, and the work would preferably be known world-wide.

2. The work would be of great importance, groundbreaking historically or as part of a field or body of knowledge or literature.

3. The work would ideally be relevant to our time. It ought ideally to have been written in modern to modern-ish times. 4. It should contain a high amount of Greek and Latinate words. In this way there will be a stark contrast between the Anglish version and the original English version, making the nature and inner-workings of Anglish all the more apparent. Translating a highly Latinate and Greek text also means a high number of Anglish words required to translate the text, which in turn means more exposure to Anglish for readers. These four criteria would maximize interest, accessibility, relevance and effectiveness and so would maximize likelihood of catching people’s attention, and thus of being read and profited from. On the origin of the species fits these criteria rather well. It is a work known world-wide. It revolutionized science. It remains relevant to our times, with evolution being at the core of many scientific fields. Lastly, it fulfills the fourth criterion perfectly. On the origin of the species is highly Greek and Latinate, typical of high-sounding, jargon-filled scientific writing. Because of this high percentage of Greek and Latinate words in the text, translation proved fun but challenging at times, with seemingly endless word after word requiring translation, calling for quite some creativity on my part. The translation is thorough, with the great majority of “foreign’’ words replaced with Anglish ones, including species names where feasible. As a comparison with other Germanic languages, to gauge the “purity” of the work, it is for sure at par with German, and more than often surpasses it, much of the time looking like an English as pure as Icelandic. Anglish then challenges the claim that English is made all the better for its mongrelness, that it is enriched and made expressive by the influx of foreign vocabulary that it so readily takes up. Anglish answers first by pointing out that English already had equivalents for much of the foreign vocabulary that entered the language. Deceive, compare, destroy, establish, punish, all had perfectly fine English equivalents— swike, withmete, fordo, stathel, wite respectively. These were ousted out of English in favour of the foreign ones. For much of what was gained then, an equal amount was lost, making the net gain nothing. The praises of foreignness will often be sung in claiming that foreign words offer English speakers two or more words for the same concept, greatly enriching the variety of the language’s wordstock. There is the native ‘might’ and the foreign ‘power’ for example. What is not mentioned, however, is that English already had plenty of other words for ‘might’ like ‘thrith’ and ‘wold,’ and many others, all of which were abandoned to history. There is the native ‘lovely’ and the foreign ‘beautiful’ (granted the ‘ful’ is native). Again English already had the words ‘litty’ and ‘sheen.’ Then there is the native ‘help’ and the foreign ‘aid’ and ‘assist’. Yet English was already just as rich with its words ‘filst’ and ‘ferk,’ ‘ai’ and ‘assist’ respectively. Surely the modern English speaker might say, surely English didn’t have all the words necessary to express the vast array of human emotions. Again English shows its ancient richness and proves otherwise. There is ‘yomer’ ‘moodcare’ ‘gnom’, for sorrow, anxiety, and sadness. ‘eddy’ for ‘joyous’, ‘wodely,’ for ‘furious,’ ‘grame’ for ‘rage,’ ‘torn’ for ‘anger,’ eathmood for ‘humble,’ ‘evensorrow’ for ‘compassion,’ ‘thildy’ for ‘patient.’ so there are countless examples of English measuring up when it comes to having words for abstract concepts—‘sie’ or ‘sigor’ for victory,’ ‘costen’ for ‘tempt’ ‘quothe’ for lament, ‘dwolm’’ for ‘chaos’ the list goes on and on . And the same goes for not so abstract concepts— ‘tungle’ for ‘star,’ ‘trundle’ for ‘sphere,’ wooth’ for ‘sound,’ ‘irord’ for ‘language,’ ‘lich’ for ‘corpse.’ So English losing a lot of its native words and gaining foreign ones means that it really didn’t gain much, at least with respect to the concepts for which it already had words. But what about concepts for which English didn’t have words, how was English to solve this without borrowing? Well, by coining new words from its own very rich morphology and wordstock, just as other Germanic languages did, and continue to do. Many of our scientific terms for example were themselves coinages from Latin and Greek. Instead of combing ‘micro’ and ‘scope’ to make ‘microscope,’ native English morphemes could just as well have been chosen to make ‘smallseer’ or ‘littlelookthor’ or ‘minshowtool’ or something of the sort. ‘Atom,’ from Greek, literally ‘uncleft,’ could have been just that. ‘agriculture,’ and ‘biology’ could have been rendered ‘cropcraft’ and ‘lifelore’ much more English sounding and etymologically transparent terms. And so on and so forth, the point being that English didn’t really need foreignness and could have fared very well indeed using its own words and morphemes. It is in the spirit of celebrating this native richness of English, and in proposing and promoting a more English English, that this work was done. Here’s to looking hopefully, forhaps foolishly, towards a future English where its Anglo-Saxon roots are more widely recognized and held dear, ushering in a more English English. The Anglish words found in this work are a mixture of resurrections of old English words left behind, and coinages form English roots. The resurrected old English words get there proposed modern forms by having had applied to them the phonological and orthographical changes English went through to get to its now-time form. These words in their original old English form can be found in clark hall’s a concise anglo-saxon dictionary university of toronto press; 4th edition edition (april 1 1984)— the best old English wordbook i know of. The rest are either archaic words or words coined from Saxon roots. These words, as well as many more words not found in this text, can be found in the word-hoard found at the end of the writ.











On the fromth of wightkin ————— Inlead When on board h.m.s. 'Beagle,' as ikindlorer, i was much struck with somel deedsakes in the brittening of the inwoners of south america, and in the earthlorely maithred of the nowtime to the aforetime inwoners of that earthdeal. These deedsakes seemed to me to throw some light on the fromth of wightkin—that rown of rowns, as it has been called by one of our greatest outhwiters. On my edwend home, it hit me, in 1837, that something might maybe be made out on this fraign by thildily heaping up and yondthinking on all kinds of deedsakes which could acomingly have any bearing on it. After five years' work i allowed myself to think throught on the underthrow, and drew up some short ontokenings; these i michelened in 1844 into a sketch of the ashuts, which then seemed to me likely: from that timespan to the andward day i have steadily followed after the same goal. I hope that i may be unbeguilted for coming upon these selfly atcuts, as i give them to show that i have not been hasty in coming to a beshut. My work is now nearly beended; but as it will take me two or three more years to fullwork it, and as my health is far from strong, i have been thraffed to forlay this shortwrit. I have more besunders been thringed on to do this, as mr. Wallace, who is now throughloreing the ikindly yorelore of the malay island-cluster, has tocome at almost weetil the same ally ashuts that i have on the fromth of wightkin. Last year he sent to me a minwrit on this underthrow, with a besoken that i would forward it to sir charles lyell, who sent it to the linnean folkship, and it is forlaid in the third writsamen of the daybook of that folkship. Sir c. Lyell and dr. Hooker, who both knew of my work—the latter having read my sketch of 1844— ored me by thinking it atreadbere to forlay, with mr. Wallace's thungen minwrit, some brief outcuts from my handwrit. This shortwrit, which i now forlay, must tharfly be unfullwrought. I cannot here give bepullings and bebodereds for my manysome quids; and i must trust to the reader stelling some trust in my targeockfastness. No twight dwilds will have crept in, though i hope i have always been careful in trusting to good bebodereds alone. I can here give only the allmeanly ashuts at which i have come to, with a few deedsakes in ondrawing, but which, i hope, in most happenlays will enoughen. No one can feel more iwis than i do of the tharf of hereafter forlaying in atcut all the deedsakes, with bepullings, on which my ashuts have been grounded; and i hope in a to-comely work to do this. For i am well aware that hardly a onele ord is imbspoken in this writsamen on which deedsakes cannot be bisened, often seemingly leading to ashuts fullthrough againstwise to those at which i have come to. A fair outcome can be underfanged only by fully queathing and evenweighting the deedsakes and kneatings on both sides of each fraign; and this cannot mightly be here done. I much edgret that want of room forecomes my having the befrithedness of acknowledging the givsome filst which i have thidged from very many ikindlorers, some of them selfly unknown to me. I cannot, however, [bookleaf] 3 inleading. Let this tideliness pass without outthringing my deep beholdennesss to dr. Hooker, who for the last fifteen years has ferked me in every acomingly way by his michel stores of knowledge and his thungen deeming. In hidging the fromth of wightkin, it is quite kenbere that an ikindlorer, imbthinking on the two-way sibreds of lifesome beings, on their forebirthly sibreds, their earthlorely brittening, earthlorely afterfollowingness, and other such deedsakes, might come to the ashut that each wightkin had not been unoffhangingly beshaped, but had netherastien, like isunders, from other wightkin. Nevertheless, such an ashut, even if well founded, would be unbefrithing, until it could be shown how the unarimebere wightkin inwoning this world have been awended, so as to underfang that fullcomeliness of upbuild and together-throughfitting which most rightly whets our bewondering. Ikindlorers throughstandingly bepull to outly hodes, such as loftlay, food, &c., as the only acomingly bewhy of sundriness. In one very narrowened way, as we shall hereafter see, this may be true; but it is laughterly to knode to mere outly hodes, the upbuild, for bisen, of the woodpecker, with its feet, tail, beak, and tongue, so bewonderberely throughfit to fang bugs under the bark of trees. In the happenlay of the misseltoe, which draws its bylive from somel trees, which has seeds that must be yondborne by somel birds, and which has bloomworts with totweemed akenbodyworkthsplits fullthroughly tharfing the deeding of somel bugs to bring bloomdust from one bloomwort to the other, it is evenworthly laughterly to rake for the upbuild of this stealeater, with its sibreds to manysome toshed lifesome beings, by the onworkings of outly hodes, or of wone, or of the will of the plant itself. The writmaker of the 'leftdeals of ishaft' would, i foretake, say that, after a somel unknown rime of B 2 [bookleaf] 4 inleading. Strinds, some bird had given birth to a woodpecker, and some plant to the misseltoe, and that these had been tiddered fullcome as we now see them; but this foretaking seems to me to be no aclearing, for it leaves the happenlay of the together-throughfittings of lifesome beings to each other and to their bodily hodes of life, unrinen and unacleared. It is, therefore, of the highest weightiness to gain a clear insight into the means of awending and together-throughfitting. At the beginning of my behowings it seemed to me likely that a careful throughlore of housened wights and of bebuilt plants would offer the best whate of making out this mistfull arveth. Nor have i been tothwited; in this and in all other bemazing happenlays i have everywhen found that our knowledge, unfullcome though it be, of sundriness under housening, afforded the best and safest clue. I may whethapfare to outthring my belief of the high worthhood of such throughlores, although they have been very imeanly forheemed by ikindlorers. From these hidgings, i shall devote the first bookdeal of this oryolster to isunder under houselyenion. We shall thus see that a michel muchth of ervesome awending is at least acomingly, and, what is evenworthly or more weighty, we shall see how great is the wold of man in beheaping by his choosing afterfollowly slight sundrinesss. I will then pass on to the sundriness of wightkin in a onlay of ikind; but i shall, unluckily, be thraffed to treat this underthrow far too briefly, as it can be treated davenly only by giving long listbooks of deedsakes. We shall, however, be bemayened to imbspeak what imbstands are most rithbere to sundriness. In the next bookdeal the struggle for wist amongst all lifesome beings throughout the world, which unforecomeberely follows from their high metelorely wolds of [bookleaf] 5 inleading. Eak, will be treated of. This is the alderbeliefword of malthus, belaid to the whole wight and vegetable kingdoms. As many more untodealels of each wightkin are born than can acomingly overlive; and as, infollowingly, there is a loomly edhappening struggle for wist, it follows that any being, if it forsunder however slightly in any way notesome to itself, under the throughtangly and sometimes forsundering hodes of life, will have a better whate of overliving, and thus be quithenly chosen. From the strong thoughsetlay of erve, any chosen isunder will nige to forspread its new and awended form. This groundsetly underthrow of ikindly choosing will be treated at some length in the fourth bookdeal; and we shall then see how ikindly choosing almost unforecomeberely bewhys much fornaughting of the less bettered forms of life, and beleads what i have called towhirft of suchness. In the next bookdeal i shall imbspeak the throughtangly and little known laws of sundriness and of togethersibred of growth. In the four aftercoming bookdeals, the most opensightly and gravest arveths on the thoughtlay will be given: namely, first, the arveths of overgangs, or in understanding how a onelay being or a onelay bodyworkth can be awended and fullfremmed into a highly andwound being or highwroughtly abuilt bodyworkth; twothly, the underthrow of inborndrive, or the mindly wolds of wights; thirdly, twibloodtudderism, or the intudderfastness of wightkin and the tudderfastness of isunders when betwixtrooded; and fourthly, the unfullcomeliness of the earthlorely edferth. In the next bookdeal i shall hidge the earthlorely afterfollowingness of lifesome beings throughout time; in the eleventh and twelfth, their earthlorely brittening throughout roomhood; in the thirteenth, their isunderening or two-way sibreds, both when full-grown and in an forebirthlingsome hode. In the last bookdeal i shall give a [bookleaf] 6 inleading. Brief edheading of the whole work, and a few beshuting edmarks. No one ought to feel surprise at much beliving as yet unacleared in sight to the fromth of wightkin and isunders, if he enoughsomely hidges our deep unwareship in sight to the two-way sibreds of all the beings which live imb us. Who can aclear why one wightkin scopes widely and is very rimeful, and why another alinked wightkin has a narrow scope and is seldly? Yet these sibreds are of the highest weightiness, for they toend the andward welfare, and, as i believe, the to-come success and awending of every inwoner of this world. Still less do we know of the two-way relations of the unarimebere inwoners of the world during the many eretide earthlorely yoretimelaystarts in its yorelore. Although much belives mistfull, and will long belive mistfull, i can betweenhold no twight, after the most beweighed throughlore and andfeelingsome deeming of which i am canfast, that the onsight which most ikindlorers betweenhold, and which i formerly betweenheld—namely, that each wightkin has been unoffhangingly beshaped—is dwolesome. I am fully overtold that wightkin are not unawendbere; but that those belonging to what are called the same wightkinds are linealnetherastiends of some other and allmeanly fornaughted wightkin, in the same way as the acknowledged isunders of any one wightkin are the netherastiendsof that wightkin. Furthermore, i am overtold that ikindly choosing has been the main but not outshutly means of awending. [bookleaf] 7 chap. I. Sundriness under housening. Bookdeal i. Sundriness under housening. Bewhys of sundriness — onworkings of wone — togethersibred of growth — erve — character of housely isunders — arveth of tosheding between isunders and wightkin — fromth of housely isunders from one or more wightkin — housely plumpdoves, their undersheds and fromth — thoughsetlay of choosing alderoldly followed, its onworkings — do-wayly and underawared choosing — unknown fromth of our housely tidderings — imbstands rithbere to man's wold of choosing. When we look to the untodealels of the same isunder or under-isunder of our older bebuilt plants and wights, one of the first ords which strikes us, is, that they allmeanly andsame much more from each other, than do the untodealels of any one wightkin or isunder in a onlay of ikind. When we imbthink on the vast manyotheredness of the plants and wights which have been bebuilt, and which have besundered during all eldths under the most undershedsome loftlays and behandling, i think we are driven to ashut that this greater sundriness is sinfold due to our housely tidderings having been raised under hodes of life not so oneshaped as, and somewhat undershedsome from, those to which the akennend-wightkin have been outset under ikind. There is, also, i think, some likelihood in the onsight forthstelled by andrew knight, that this sundriness may be deally belinked with overmuch of food. It seems pretty clear that lifesome beings must be outset during manysome strinds to the new hodes of life to bewhy any unhefty muchth of sundriness; and that when the dight has once begun to forsunder, it allmeanly throughstands to forsunder for many strinds. [bookleaf] 8 sundriness chap. I. No happenlay is on edferth of a sunderly being blinning to be sunderly under bebuilding. Our oldest bebuilt plants, such as wheat, still often yield new isunders: our oldest housened wights are still canfast of quick bettering or awending. It has been flitten at what timedeal of life the bewhys of sundriness, whatever they may be, allmeanly bedo; whether during the early or late timedeal of andwinding of the forebirthling, or at the timeord of conception. Geoffroy st. Hilaire's fands show that unikindsome behandling of the forebirthling bewhys owleechsomenesses; and owleechsomenesses cannot be totweemed by any clear line of ished from mere sundrinesss. But i am strongly bighfast to underlook that the most loom bewhy of sundriness may be knoded to the seedlifer and birthlifer edtidderly firststuffs having been onworked prior to the bedo of conception. Manysome thinkcrafts make me believe in this; but the chief one is the edmarkbere onworking which benarrowenedness or bebuilding has on the workhoods of the edtidderly setlay; this setlay thenching to be far more opentakely than any other deal of the dight, to the deedship of any awend in the hodes of life. Nothing is more easy than to tame a wight, and few things more arvethfast than to get it to breed freely under benarrowenedness, even in the many happenlays when the seedlifer and birthlifer beone. How many wights there are which will not breed, though living long under not very close benarrowenedness in their inhomeish landred! This is allmeanly knoded to downsuched inborndrives; but how many bebuilt plants ewe the utmost lifethrith, and yet seldom or never seed! In some few such happenlays it has been found out that very trifling awends, such as a little more or less water at some dealocksome timedeal of growth, will toend whether or not the plant sets a seed. I cannot here enter on the fullfast atcuts which i have gathered on [bookleaf] 9 chap. I. Under housening. This frimdy underthrow; but to show how sunderfast the laws are which toend the edtiddering of wights under benarrowenedness, i may just quid that meat-eating wights, even from the tropics, breed in this landred pretty freely under benarrowenedness, with the outtake of the footsolewalkings or bear huered; whereas, meat-eating birds, with the seldlyst outtakes, hardly ever lay tudderfast eggs. Many ely plants have bloomdust utterly worthless, in the same weetil hode as in the most unwassombearing twibloodtudders. When, on the one hand, we see housened wights and plants, though often weak and sickly, yet breeding quite freely under benarrowenedness; and when, on the other hand, we see untodealels, though taken young from a onlay of ikind, fullcomely tamed, long-lived, and healthy (of which i could give rimeful bisens), yet having their edtidderly setlay so seriously onworked by unongot bewhys as to fail in bedoing, we need not be overnome at this setlay, when it does bedo under benarrowenedness, bedoing not quite woneshapefastnessly, and tiddering offspring not fullcomely like their akennends or sunderly. Unwassombearingness has been said to be the bane of wortgrowingcraft; but on this onsight we owe sundriness to the same bewhy which tidders unwassombearingness; and sundriness is the outspring of all the choicest tidderings of the garden. I may ateak, that as some lifers will breed most freely under the most unikindsome hodes (for bisen, the rabbit and ferret kept in hutches), showing that their edtidderly setlay has not been thus onworked; so will some wights and plants withstand housening or bebuilding, and forsunder very slightly—forhaps hardly more than in a onlay of ikind. A long list could easily be given of "sporting plants;" by this term gardeners mean a onele bud or offset, which suddenly foretakes a new and sometimes very undershedsome suchness from that of the rest of the plant. B 3 [bookleaf] 10 sundriness chap. I. Such buds can be forspread by grafting, &c., and sometimes by seed. These "sports" are outestly seldly under ikind, but far from seldly under bebuilding; and in this happenlay we see that the behandling of the akennend has onworked a bud or offset, and not the foreseeds or bloomdust. But it is the onthink of most bodylorers that there is no essential undershed between a bud and a foreseed in their earliest stepocks of beshaping; so that, in deedsake, "sports" underbear my onsight, that sundriness may be michelly knoded to the foreseeds or bloomdust, or to both, having been onworked by the behandling of the akennend prior to the bedo of conception. These happenlays anyhow show that sundriness is not needbehovely belinked, as some writmakers have understelled, with the bedo of akenning. Seedlings from the same ovet, and the young of the same litter, sometimes andsame hidgeberely from each other, though both the young and the akennends, as müller has edmarked, have opensightly been outset to weetilly the same hodes of life; and this shows how unweighty the straightfast onworkings of the hodes of life are in withmeting with the laws of edtiddering, and of growth, and of erve; for had the deedship of the hodes been straightfast, if any of the young had besundered, all would likely have besundered in the same way. To deemend how much, in the happenlay of any sundriness, we should knode to the straightfast deedship of heat, moisture, light, food, &c., is most arvethfast: my inthringion is, that with wights such deedships have tiddered very little straightfast onworking, though opensightly more in the happenlay of plants. Under this ord of onsight, mr. Buckman's short-ago fands on plants seem outestly worthsome. When all or nearly all the untodealels outset to somel hodes are onworked in the same way, the awend at first thenches to be wissly due to such hodes; but in some happenlays it can be shown that quite witherrights hodes tidder [bookleaf] 11 chap. I. Under housening. Alike awends of upbuild. Nevertheless some slight muchth of awend may, i think, be knoded to the straightfast deedship of the hodes of life—as, in some happenlays, eaked size from muchth of food, colour from dealocksome kinds of food and from light, and forhaps the thickness of fur from loftlay. Wone also has a beshut inflowmayen, as in the timedeal of bloomworting with plants when yondborne from one loftlay to another. In wights it has a more marked onworking; for bisen, i find in the housely duck that the bones of the wing weigh less and the bones of the leg more, in ondeal to the whole boneframework, than do the same bones in the wild-duck; and i foretake that this awend may be safely knoded to the housely duck flying much less, and walking more, than its wild akennend. The great and erved andwinding of the udders in cows and goats in landreds where they are wonely misundered, in withmeting with the onlay of these bodyworkths in other landreds, is another bisen of the onworking of use. Not a onele housely animal can be named which has not in some landred drooping ears; and the onsight behinted by some writmakers, that the drooping is due to the andnote of the muscles of the ear, from the wights not being much alarmed by freech, seems likely. There are many laws regulating sundriness, some few of which can be dimly seen, and will be hereafter briefly quided. I will here only atpull to what may be called togethersibred of growth. Any awend in the forebirthling or forebug will almost iwis imblink awends in the full-grown wight. In owleechsomenesses, the togethersibreds between quite toshed deals are very frimdy; and many bisens are given in isidore geoffroy st. Hilaire's great work on this underthrow. Breeders believe that long limbs are almost always afered by a lengthened head. Some bisens of togethersibred are quite whimsical: thus [bookleaf] 12 sundriness. Cats with blue eyes are everywhen deaf; colour and setnessly oddnesses go together, of which many edmarkbere happenlays could be given amongst wights and plants. From the deedsakes gathered by heusinger, it thenches that white sheep and pigs are undershedsomely onworked from coloured untodealels be somel vegetable atters. Hairless dogs have unfullcome teeth; long-haired and coarse-haired wights are apt to have, as is forthstomped, long or many horns; plumpdoves with feathered feet have skin between their outer toes; plumpdoves with short beaks have small feet, and those with long beaks michel feet. Hence, if man goes on choosing, and thus morening, any oddness, he will almost iwis orawarely awend other deals of the upbuild, owing to the rownfast laws of the togethersibred of growth. The outfollow of the sundry, quite unknown, or dimly seen laws of sundriness is boundlessly throughtangly and sunderlyened. It is well worth while carefully to throughlore the manysome writlays forlaid on some of our old bebuilt plants, as on the hyacinth, potato, even the dahlia, &c.; and it is really overnimming to ontoken the endless ords in upbuild and setness in which the isunders and under-isunders andsame slightly from each other. The whole dight seems to have become plastic, and tends to wite in some small andstep from that of the akennendal type. Any sundriness which is not erved is unweighty for us. But the rime and manyotheredness of ervebere andwayings of upbuild, both those of slight and those of hidgebere bodylorely weightiness, is endless. Dr. Prosper lucas's writlay, in two michel writheaps, is the fullest and the best on this underthrow. No breeder twights how strong is the niging to erve: like tidders like is his groundsetly belief: twights have been thrown on this thoughsetlay by thoughtlayly writers alone. When an [bookleaf] 13 chap. I. Under housening. Andwaying shows up not unloomly, and we see it in the father and child, we cannot tell whether it may not be due to the same fromly bewhy bedoing on both; but when amongst untodealels, opensightly outset to the same hodes, any very seldly andwaying, due to some orwoneliness togetherstellings of imbstands, shows up in the akennend—say, once amongst manysome tenfoldhundthousand untodealels—and it edupshows in the child, the mere alderbeliefword of whates almost thrafs us to knode its edupshowing to erve. Every one must have heard of happenlays of whiteship, prickly skin, hairy bodies, &c., showing up in manysome members of the same huered. If selcouth and seldly andwayings of upbuild are truly erved, less selcouth and imeaner andwayings may be freely throughgiven to be ervebere. Forhaps the rightsome way of looking at the whole underthrow, would be, to look at the erve of every suchness whatever as the rule, and non-erve as the oddship. The laws awielding erve are quite unknown; no one can say why the same oddness in undershedsome untodealels of the same wightkin, and in untodealels of undershedsome wightkin, is sometimes erved and sometimes not so; why the child often edwends in somel suchnesses to its alderfather or aldermother or other much more far-off beforecomer; why a oddness is often yondstelled from one akenbodyworkthsplit to both akenbodyworkthsplits, or to one akenbodyworkthsplit alone, more imeanly but not outshutly to the like akenbodyworkthsplit. It is a deedsake of some little weightiness to us, that oddnesses showing up in the seedlifers of our housely breeds are often yondstelled either outshutly, or in a much greater andstep, to seedlifers alone. A much more weighty rule, which i think may be trusted, is that, at whatever timedeal of life a oddness first shows up, it tends to show up in the offspring at a togetheranswering eldth, though sometimes earlier. In many happenlays this could [bookleaf] 14 sundriness. Chap. I. Not be otherwise: thus the erved oddnesses in the horns of orf could show up only in the offspring when nearly mature; oddnesses in the silkworm are known to show up at the togetheranswering forebutterfly or forebutterflybed stepock. But ervesome cothes and some other deedsakes make me believe that the rule has a wider outstretching, and that when there is no opensightly thinkcraft why a oddness should shpw up at any dealocksome eldth, yet that it does nige to show up in the offspring at the same timedeal at which it first showed up in the akennend. I believe this rule to be of the highest weightiness in aclearing the laws of forebirthlinglore. These edmarks are iwis benarrowened to the first upshowing of the oddness, and not to its firstsome bewhy, which may have acted on the foreseeds or seedlifer firststuff; in nearly the same way as in the rooded offspring from a short-horned cow by a long-horned bull, the greater length of horn, though showing up late in life, is clearly due to the seedlifer firststuff. Having atpulled to the underthrow of edwhirft, i may here bepull to a quid often made by ikindlorers—namely, that our housely isunders, when run wild, stepmeally but iwis edwend in suchness to their fromthfast stocks. Hence it has been outgrounded that no deductions can be drawn from housely races to wightkin in a onlay of ikind. I have in ordless bestriven to anddeck on what becutsome deedsakes the above quid has so often and so boldly been made. There would be great arveth in afanding its truth: we may safely ashut that very many of the most strongly-marked housely isunders could not acomingly live in a wild onlay. In many happenlays we do not know what the fromthfast stock was, and so could not tell whether or not nearly fullcome edwhirft had befollowed. It would be quite needbehovely, in order to forecome the onworkings of betwixtrooding, that only a [bookleaf] 15 chap. I. Under housening. Onele isunder should be turned loose in its new home. Nevertheless, as our isunders iwis do otherwhile edwend in some of their suchnesses to forebearersome forms, it seems to me not imlikely, that if we could spow in ikindening, or were to bebuild, during many strinds, the manysome races, for bisen, of the cabbage, in very arm soil (in which happenlay, however, some onworking would have to be knoded to the straightfast deedship of the arm soil), that they would to a michel scope, or even wholly, edwend to the wild fromthfast stock. Whether or not the fand would spow, is not of great weightiness for our line of groundhood; for by the fand itself the hodes of life are awended. If it could be shown that our housely isunders manifested a strong niging to edwharve,—that is, to lose their underfanged suchnesses, whilst kept under unawended hodes, and whilst kept in a hidgebere body, so that free betwixtrooding might check, by blending together, any slight andwayings of upbuild, in such happenlay, i grant that we could offlead nothing from housely isunders in sight to wightkin. But there is not a shadow of outshow in rith of this onsight: to forthstomp that we could not breed our cart and race-horses, long and short-horned orf, and fowl of sundry breeds, and eatbere vegetables, for an almost boundless rime of strinds, would be withlaid to all outfand. I may ateak, that when under ikind the hodes of life do awend, sundrinesss and edwhirfts of suchness likely do betide; but ikindsome choosing, as will hereafter be acleared, will toend how far the new suchnesses thus arising shall be aspared. When we look to the ervesome isunders or races of our housely wights and plants, and withmete them with wightkin closely alinked together, we allmeanly onget in each housely race, as already edmarked, less oneshapedness of suchness than in true wightkin. Housely races of [bookleaf] 16 sundriness. Chap. I. The same wightkin, also, often have a somewhat owleechsome suchness; by which i mean, that, although andsaming from each other, and from the other wightkin of the same wightkind, in manysome trifling edsights, they often andsame in an outest andstep in some one deal, both when withmeted one with another, and more besunders when withmeted with all the wightkin in ikind to which they are nearest alinked. With these outtakes (and with that of the fullcome tudderfastness of isunders when rooded,—a underthrow hereafter to be imbspoken), housely races of the same species andsame from each other in the same way as, only in most happenlays in a lesser andstep than, do closely-alinked wightkin of the same wightkind in a onlay of ikind. I think this must be throughgiven, when we find that there are hardly any housely races, either amongst wights or plants, which have not been ranked by some cansome deemends as mere isunders, and by other cansome deemends as the netherastiendsof fromthfast toshed wightkin. If any marked ished wesened between housely races and wightkin, this outspring of twight could not so perpetually edhappen. It has often been quided that housely races do not andsame from each other in suchnesses of allmeanly worthhood. I think it could be shown that this quid is hardly rightsome; but ikindlorers andsame most widely in toending what suchnesses are of allmeanly worthhood; all such valuations being at andward empirical. Moreover, on the onsight of the fromth of wightkinds which i shall andwardly give, we have no right to bewait often to meet with allmeanly undersheds in our housened tidderings. When we costen to forereckon the muchth of upbuildly undershed between the housely races of the same wightkin, we are soon forwound in twight, from not knowing whether they have netherastien from one or manysome akennend-wightkin. This ord, if it could be cleared up, would be interesting; if, for bisen, it could be shown that the grey- [bookleaf] 17 chap. I. Under housening. Hound, bloodhound, terrier, spaniel, and bull-dog, which we all know forspread their kind so truly, were the offspring of any onele wightkin, then such deedsakes would have great weight in making us twight about the unawendbereness of the many very closely alinked and ikindsome wightkin—for bisen, of the many foxes—inwoning undershedsome fourths of the world. I do not believe, as we shall andwardly see, that all our dogs have netherastien from any one wild wightkin; but, in the happenlay of some other housely races, there is presumptive, or even strong, outshow in rith of this onsight. It has often been foretaken that man has chosen for housening animals and plants having an orwoneliness inborn niging to forsunder, and likewise to withstand sundry loftlays. I do not flite that these canhoods have ateaked michelly to the worth of most of our housened tidderings; but how could a wildsoulbearend acomingly know, when he first tamed a wight, whether it would forsunder in aftercoming strinds, and whether it would thole other loftlays? Has the little sundriness of the ass or guinea-fowl, or the small wold of tholing of warmth by the rein-deer, or of cold by the imean olfend, forecame their housening? I cannot twight that if other wights and plants, evenworth in rime to our housened tidderings, and belonging to evenworthly sundry ilks and landreds, were taken from a onlay of ikind, and could be made to breed for an evenworth rime of strinds under housening, they would forsunder on an throughsnithe as michelly as the akennend wightkin of our wesening housened tidderings have besundered. In the happenlay of most of our alderoldly housened wights and plants, i do not think it is acomingly to come to any bindfast ashut, whether they have netherastien from one or manysome wightkin. The groundhood mainly relied on by those who believe in the manyfast fromth [bookleaf] 18 sundriness. Chap. I. Of our housely wights is, that we find in the most alderold edferths, more besunders on the edmindships of egypt, much manyotheredness in the breeds; and that some of the breeds closely onlike, forhaps are selfsame with, those still wesening. Even if this latter deedsake were found more strictly and allmeanly true than seems to me to be the happenlay, what does it show, but that some of our breeds outstemmed there, four or five thousand years ago? But mr. Horner's researches have made it in some andstep likely that man enoughsomely couthened to have manudeedsakeured pottery wesened in the dean of the nile thirteen or fourteen thousand years ago; and who will belike to say how long before these alderold timedeals, wildsoulbearends, like those of tierra del fuego or australia, who besit a half-housely dog, may not have wesened in egypt? The whole underthrow must, i think, belive cloudfast; neverthelsss, i may, without here entering on any atcuts, onlay that, from earthlorely and other hidgings, i think it highly likely that our housely dogs have netherastien from manysome wild wightkin. In sight to sheep and goats i can form no onthink. I should think, from deedsakes betwixtrorded to me by mr. Blyth, on the wones, steven, and setness, &c., of the humped indian orf, that these had netherastien from an undershedsome fromthfast stock from our european orf; and manysome cansome deemends believe that these latter have had more than one wild akennend. With edsight to horses, from thinkcrafts which i cannot give here, i am twightfully bighfast to believe, in withersetness to manysome writmakers, that all the races have netherastien from one wild stock. Mr. Blyth, whose onthink, from his michel and besundered stores of knowledge, i should beworth more than that of almost any one, thinks that all the breeds of fowl have come from the imean wild [bookleaf] 19 chap. I. Under housening. Indian fowl (gallus bankiva). In sight to ducks and rabbits, the breeds of which andsame hidgeberely from each other in upbuild, i do not twight that they all have netherastien from the imean wild duck and rabbit. The alderbeliefword of the fromth of our manysome housely races from manysome fromthfast stocks, has been borne to an absurd outest by some writmakers. They believe that every race which breeds true, let the toshedive suchnesses be ever so slight, has had its wild fromkind. At this rimespeed there must have wesened at least a score of wightkin of wild orf, as many sheep, and manysome goats in europe alone, and manysome even within great britain. One writmaker believes that there formerly wesened in great britain eleven wild wightkin of sheep odd to it! When we bear in mind that britain has now hardly one odd sucklewight, and france but few toshed from those of germany and otherwayly, and so with hungary, spain, &c., but that each of these kingdoms besits manysome odd breeds of orf, sheep, &c., we must throughgive that many housely breeds have outstemmed in europe; for whence could they have been offstreamed, as these manysome landreds do not besit a rime of odd wightkin as toshed akennend-stocks? So it is in india. Even in the happenlay of the housely dogs of the whole world, which i fully throughgive have likely netherastien from manysome wild wightkin, i cannot twight that there has been an widemichel muchth of erved sundriness. Who can believe that wights closely onliking the italian greyhound, the bloodhound, the bull-dog, or blenheim spaniel, &c.—so unlike all wild canidæ—ever wesened freely in a onlay of ikind? It has often been loosely said that all our races of dogs have been tiddered by the rooding of a few fromthfast wightkin; but by rooding we can get only forms in some andstep betweenly between their akennends; and if we [bookleaf] 20 housely plumpdoves. Chap. I. Rake for our manysome housely races by this forthhappen, we must throughgive the former wist of the most outest forms, as the italian greyhound, bloodhound, bull-dog, &c., in the wild onlay. Moreover, the acomingliness of making toshed races by rooding has been greatly overdriven. There can be no twight that a race may be awended by otherwhile roods, if ferked by the careful choosing of those untodealel mongrels, which andward any frickled suchness; but that a race could be fanged nearly betweenly between two outestly undershedsome races or speceies, i can hardly believe. Sir j. Sebright outthringly fanded for this towardsthing, and failed. The offspring from the first rood between two siver breeds is brookberely and sometimes (as i have found with plumpdoves) outestly oneshaped, and everything seems onelay enough; but when these mongrels are rooded one with another for manysome strinds, hardly two of them will be alike, and then the outest arveth, or rather utter hopelessness, of the task becomes opensightly.somelly, a breed betweenly between two very toshed breeds could not be got without outest care and long-throughstood choosing; nor can i find a onele happenlay on edferth of a foreversome race having been thus ashaped. On the breeds of the housely plumpdove.—believing that it is always best to throughlore some sunderful maith, i have, after beweighing, taken up housely plumpdoves. I have kept every breed which i could purchase or fang, and have been most kindly rithed with skins from manysome fourths of the world, more besunders by the hon. W. Elliot from india, and by the hon. C. Murray from persia. Many writlays in undershedsome irords have been forlaid on plumpdoves, and some of them are very weighty, as being of hidgebere furnness. I have onbound with manysome highoutly fanciers, and have been thaved to fay two [bookleaf] 21 chap. I. Housely plumpdoves. Of the london plumpdove clubs. The manyotheredness of the breeds is something aweing. Withmete the English bearer and the short-faced tumbler, and see the wonderful undershed in their beaks, imblinking togetheranswering undersheds in their skulls. The bearer, more besunders the seedlifer bird, is also edmarkbere from the wonderful andwinding of the fleshoutgrowthed skin about the head, and this is afered by greatly lengthened eyelids, very michel outly openings to the nostrils, and a wide gape of mouth. The short-faced tumbler has a beak in outline almost like that of a finch; and the imean tumbler has the sunderfast and strictly erved wone of flying at a great height in a compact flock, and tumbling in the air head over heels. The runt is a bird of great size, with long, massive beak and michel feet; some of the under-breeds of runts have very long necks, others very long wings and tails, others sunderfastly short tails. The barb is alinked to the bearer, but, instead of a very long beak, has a very short and very broad one. The pouter has a much lengthened body, wings, and legs; and its aldermichelly andwound crop, which it woulders in blowing up, may well whet awedness and even laughter. The rufflebreastplumpdove has a very short and conical beak, with a line of edwhorven feathers down the breast; and it has the wone of throughstandingly expanding slightly the upper deal of the sallowtharm. The jacobin has the feathers so much edwhorven along the back of the neck that they form a hood, and it has, ondealy to its size, much lengthened wing and tail feathers. The trumpeter and laugher, as their names outthring, utter a very undershedsome coo from the other breeds. The fantail has thirty or even forty tail-feathers, instead of twelve or fourteen, the everywhenhapfast rime in all members of the great plumpdove huered; and these feathers are kept expanded, and are borne so upstelled that in good birds the head and tail [bookleaf] 22 housely plumpdoves. Chap. I. Touch; the oil-gland is quite nethersnithen. Manysome other less toshed breeds might have been insundered. In the boneframeworks of the manysome breeds, the andwinding of the bones of the face in length and breadth and curvature andsames aldermichelly. The shape, as well as the breadth and length of the outbone of the lower jaw, forsunders in a highly edmarkbere way. The rime of the tailbone and roodbone backbonelings forsunder; as does the rime of the ribs, together with their akinsome breadth and the andwardness of forthhappenes. The size and shape of the wholelings in the breastbone are highly sunderly; so is the andstep of towhirft and akinsome size of the two arms of the forkbone. The ondealy width of the gape of mouth, the ondealy length of the eyelids, of the opening of the nostrils, of the tongue (not always in strict togethersibred with the length of beak), the size of the crop and of the upper deal of the sallowtharm; the andwinding and nethersnithing of the oil-gland; the rime of the firstsome wing and tailbone feathers; the akinsome length of wing and tail to each other and to the body; the akinsome length of leg and of the feet; the rime of shieldling on the toes, the andwinding of skin between the toes, are all ords of upbuild which are sunderly. The timedeal at which the fullcome feathers is underfanged forsunders, as does the onlay of the down with which the nestling birds are clothed when hatched. The shape and size of the eggs forsunder. The way of flight andsames edmarkberely; as does in some breeds the steven and andhowstand. Lastly, in somel breeds, the seedlifers and birthlifers have come to andsame to a slight andstep from each other. Altogether at least a score of plumpdoves might be chosen, which if shown to an birdlorer, and he were told that they were wild birds, would iwis, i think, be ranked by him as well-bebound wightkin. Moreover, i do not believe that any birdlorer would stell [bookleaf] 23 chap. I. Housely plumpdoves. The English bearer, the short-faced tumbler, the runt, the barb, pouter, and fantail in the same wightkind; more besunders as in each of these breeds manysome truly-erved under-breeds, or wightkin as he might have called them, could be shown him. Great as the undersheds are between the breeds of plumpdoves, i am fully overtold that the imean onthink of ikindlorers is rightsome, namely, that all have netherastien from the rock-plumpdove (columba livia), imbhaving under this term manysome earthlorely races or under-wightkin, which andsame from each other in the most trifling edsights. As manysome of the thinkcrafts which have led me to this belief are in some andstep belaybere in other happenlays, i will here briefly give them. If the manysome breeds are not isunders, and have not come from the rock-plumpdove, they must have netherastien from at least seven or eight fromthfast stocks; for it is unacomingly to make the andward housely breeds by the rooding of any lesser rime: how, for bisen, could a pouter be tiddered by rooding two breeds unless one of the akennend-stocks besat the suchnessly aldermichel crop? The understelled fromthfast stocks must all have been rock-plumpdoves, that is, not breeding or willingly perching on trees. But besides bushlilly, with its earthlorely under-wightkin, only two or three other wightkin of rock-plumpdoves are known; and these have not any of the suchnesses of the housely breeds. Hence the understelled fromthfast stocks must either still wesen in the landreds where they were fromly housened, and yet be unknown to birdlorers; and this, hidging their size, wones, and edmarkbere suchnesses, seems very imlikely; or they must have become fornaughted in the wild onlay. But birds breeding on steepcliffs, and good fliers, are unlikely to be benothinged; and the imean rock-plumpdove, which has the same wones with the housely breeds, has not been benothinged [bookleaf] 24 housely plumpdoves. Chap. I. Even on manysome of the smaller british islets, or on the shores of the mediterranean. Hence the understelled benothinging of so many wightkin having alike wones with the rock-plumpdove seems to me a very rash foretaking. Moreover, the manysome above-named housened breeds have been yondborne to all deals of the world, and, therefore, some of them must have been borne back again into their inhomeish landred; but not one has ever become wild or wild, though the dovecot-plumpdove, which is the rock-plumpdove in a very slightly awended onlay, has become feral in manysomesteads. Again, all short-ago outfand shows that it is most arvethfast to get any wild animal to breed freely under housening; yet on the fore-thoughtlay of the manyfast fromth of our plumpdoves, it must be foretaken that at least seven or eight wightkin were so thoroughly housened in alderold times by half-couthened man, as to be quite michelmaking under benarrowenedness. An groundhood, as it seems to me, of great weight, and belaybere in manysome other happenlays, is, that the above-insundered breeds, though agreeing allmeanly in setness, wones, steven, colouring, and in most deals of their upbuild, with the wild rock-plumpdove, yet are iwis highly uneverywhenhapfast in other deals of their upbuild: we may look in ordless throughout the whole great huered of columbidæ for a beak like that of the English bearer, or that of the short-faced tumbler, or barb; for edwhorven feathers like those of the jacobin; for a crop like that of the pouter; for tail-feathers like those of the fantail. Hence it must be foretaken not only that half-couthened man spowed in thoroughly houselyening manysome wightkin, but that he inwhelvely or by whate picked out orwoneliness uneverywhenhapfast wightkin; and further, that these very wightkin have since all become fornaughted or unknown. So many selcouth offhanginesses seem to me imlikely in the highest andstep. [bookleaf] 25 chap. I. Housely plumpdoves. Some deedsakes in sight to the colouring of plumpdoves well andtheen hidging. The rock-plumpdove is of a slaty-blue, and has a white rump (the indian under-wightkin, c. Intermedia of strickland, having it bluish); the tail has a terminal dark bar, with the bottomlays of the outer feathers outly edged with white; the wings have two black bars; some half-housely breeds and some opensightly truly wild breeds have, besides the two black bars, the wings chequered with black. These manysome marks do not betide together in any other wightkin of the whole huered. Now, in every one of the housely breeds, taking thoroughly well-bred birds, all the above marks, even to the white edging of the outer tail-feathers, sometimes thweer fullcomely andwound. Moreover, when two birds belonging to two toshed breeds are rooded, neither of which is blue or has any of the above-insundered marks, the mongrel offspring are very apt suddenly to underfang these suchnesses; for bisen, i rooded some oneshapedly white fantails with some oneshapedly black barbs, and they tiddered mottled brown and black birds; these i again rooded together, and one michelchild of the siver white fantail and siver black barb was of as litty a blue colour, with the white rump, double black wing-bar, and barred and white-edged tail-feathers, as any wild rock-plumpdove! We can understand these deedsakes, on the well-known thoughsetlay of edwhirft to forebearersome suchnesses, if all the housely breeds have netherastien from the rock-plumpdove. But if we deny this, we must make one of the two following highly imlikely beguessings. Either, firstly, that all the manysome hyeshowd fromthfast stocks were coloured and marked like the rock-plumpdove, although no other wesening wightkin is thus coloured and marked, so that in each totweemed breed there might be a niging to edwend to the very same colours and markings. Or, twothly, [bookleaf] 26 housely plumpdoves. Chap. I. That each breed, even the siverst, has within a dozen or, at most, within a score of strinds, been rooded by the rock-plumpdove: i say within a dozen or twenty strinds, for we know of no deedsake countenancing the belief that the child ever edwends to some one beforecomer, removed by a greater rime of strinds. In a breed which has been rooded only once with some toshed breed, the niging to edwharve to any suchness offstreamed from such rood will quithenly become less and less, as in each aftercoming strind there will be less of the ellandish blood; but when there has been no rood with a toshed breed, and there is a niging in both akennends to edwend to a suchness, which has been lost during some former strind, this tendency, for all that we can see to the againstwise, may be yondstelled unaquinen for an unbindfast rime of strinds. These two toshed happenlays are often fordwilmed in writlays on erve. Lastly, the hybrids or mongrels from between all the housely breeds of plumpdoves are fullcomely tudderfast. I can onlay this from my own behowings, sakely made on the most toshed breeds. Now, it is arvethfast, forhaps impossible, to bring forward one happenlay of the twibloodtudder offspring of two wights clearly toshed being themselves fullcomely tudderfast. Some writmakers believe that long-throughstood housening eliminates this strong niging to unwassombearingness: from the yorelore of the dog i think there is some likelihood in this fore-thoughtlay, if belaid to wightkin closely akinned together, though it is ununderborne by a onele fand. But to outstretch the fore-thoughtlay so far as to understell that wightkin, fromthfast as toshed as bearers, tumblers, pouters, and fantails now are, should yield offspring fullcomely tudderfast, among themselves, seems to me rash in the outest. From these manysome thinkcrafts, namely, the unacomingliness of man having formerly got seven or eight understelled [bookleaf] 27 chap. I. Housely plumpdoves. Wightkin of plumpdoves to breed freely under housening; these understelled wightkin being quite unknown in a wild onlay, and their becoming nowhere wild; these wightkin having very uneverywhenhapfast suchnesses in somel edsights, as withmeted with all other columbidæ, though so like in most other edsights to the rock-plumpdove; the blue colour and sundry marks otherwhile showing up in all the breeds, both when kept siver and when rooded; the mongrel offspring being fullcomely tudderfast;—from these manysome thinkcrafts, taken together, i can feel no twight that all our housely breeds have netherastien from the columba livia with its earthlorely under-wightkin. In rith of this onsight, i may ateak, firstly, that bushlilly, or the rock-plumpdove, has been found canfast of housening in europe and in india; and that it agrees in wones and in a great rime of ords of upbuild with all the housely breeds. Twothly, although an english bearer or short-faced tumbler andsames widemichelly in somel suchnesses from the rock-plumpdove, yet by withmeteing the manysome under-breeds of these breeds, more besunders those brought from farfast landreds, we can make an almost fullcome followth between the outests of upbuild. Thirdly, those suchnesses which are mainly toshedive of each breed, for bisen the wattle and length of beak of the bearer, the shortness of that of the tumbler, and the rime of tail-feathers in the fantail, are in each breed highoutlyly sunderly; and the aclearing of this deedsake will be opensightly when we come to treat of choosing. Fourthly, plumpdoves have been watched, and yeamed with the utmost care, and loved by many folk. They have been housened for thousands of years in manysome fourths of the world; the earliest known edferth of plumpdoves is in the fifth ægyptian dynasty, about 3000 b.c., as was orded out to me by lorefather lepsius; but mr. Birch inkens me that plumpdoves are given in a bill C 2 [bookleaf] 28 housely plumpdoves. Chap. I. Of fare in the previous dynasty. In the time of the romans, as we hear from pliny, immense prices were given for plumpdoves; "nay, they are come to this pass, that they can reckon up their forekintree and race." plumpdoves were much beworthed by akber khan in india, about the year 1600; never less than 20,000 plumpdoves were taken with the court. "the monarchs of iran and turan sent him some very seldly birds;" and, throughstands the courtly yorelorer, "his majesty by rooding the breeds, which do-way was never practised before, has bettered them aweingly." about this same timedeal the dutch were as eager about plumpdoves as were the old romans. The yondmichelweighty weightiness of these hidgings in aclearing the widemichel muchth of sundriness which plumpdoves have undergone, will be opensightly when we treat of choosing. We shall then, also, see how it is that the breeds so often have a somewhat owleechsome suchness. It is also a most rithbere imbstand for the tiddering of toshed breeds, that seedlifer and birthlifer plumpdoves can be easily mated for life; and thus undershedsome breeds can be kept together in the same aviary. I have imbspoken the likely fromth of housely plumpdoves at some, yet quite unenoughsome, length; forwhy when i first kept plumpdoves and watched the manysome kinds, knowing well how true they bred, i felt fully as much arveth in believing that they could ever have netherastien from a imean akennend, as any ikindlorer could in coming to a alike ashut in sight to the many wightkin of finches, or other michel maiths of birds, in ikind. One imbstand has struck me much; namely, that all the breeders of the sundry housely wights and the bebuilders of plants, with whom i have ever spoken, or whose treatises i have read, are trumly overtold that the manysome breeds to which each has yeamed, are netherastien from so many fromthfast toshed wightkin. [bookleaf] 29 chap. I. Choosing by man. Ask, as i have asked, a widemear raiser of hereford orf, whether his orf might not have netherastien from long-horns, and he will laugh you to scorn. I have never met a plumpdove, or fowl, or duck, or rabbit fancier, who was not fully overtold that each main breed was netherastien from a toshed wightkin. Van mons, in his writlay on pears and apples, shows how utterly he disbelieves that the manysome sorts, for bisen a ribston-pippin or codlin-apple, could ever have come from the seeds of the same tree. Unarimebere other bisens could be given. The aclearing, i think, is onelay: from long-throughstood throughlore they are strongly inthrung with the undersheds between the manysome races; and though they well know that each race forsunders slightly, for they win their prizes by choosing such slight undersheds, yet they ignore all allmeanly groundhoods, and lean off to sum up in their minds slight undersheds upheaped during many followly strinds. May not those ikindlorers who, knowing far less of the laws of erve than does the breeder, and knowing no more than he does of the betweenly links in the long lines of netherastieing, yet throughgive that many of our housely races have netherastien from the same akennends—may they not learn a lesson of imbheediness, when they deride the thinkling of wightkin in a onlay of ikind being linealnetherastiends of other wightkin? Choosing.—let us now briefly hidge the steps by which housely races have been tiddered, either from one or from manysome alinked wightkin. Some little onworking may, forhaps, be knoded to the straightfast deedship of the outly hodes of life, and some little to wone; but he would be a bold man who would rake by such deedships for the undersheds of a dray and race horse, a greyhound and bloodhound, a bearer and tumbler plumpdove. One of the most edmarkbere ownships in our housened races [bookleaf] 30 choosing by man. Chap. I. Is that we see in them throughfitting, not indeed to the wight's or plant's own good, but to man's use or fancy. Some sundrinesss nitworth to him have likely arisen suddenly, or by one step; many wortlorers, for bisen, believe that the fuller's teazle, with its hooks, which cannot be rivalled by any workcraftsome acraft, is only a isunder of the wild dipsacus; and this muchth of awend may have suddenly arisen in a seedling. So it has likely been with the turnspit dog; and this is known to have been the happenlay with the ancon sheep. But when we withmete the dray-horse and race-horse, the dromedary and olfend, the sundry breeds of sheep fitted either for bebuilt land or barrow leasow, with the wool of one breed good for one sake, and that of another breed for another sake; when we withmete the many breeds of dogs, each good for man in very undershedsome ways; when we withmete the game-cock, so graspfast in hild, with other breeds so little quarrelsome, with "everlasting layers" which never frickle to sit, and with the dwarfhomefowl so small and smicker; when we withmete the host of cropcraftsome, cookly, orchard, and bloomwort-garden races of plants, most nitworth to man at undershedsome yeartides and for undershedsome sakes, or so litty in his eyes, we must, i think, look further than to mere sundriness. We cannot understell that all the breeds were suddenly tiddered as fullcome and as nitworth as we now see them; indeed, in manysome happenlays, we know that this has not been their yorelore. The key is man's wold of upheapsome choosing: ikind gives afterfollowly sundrinesss; man adds them up in somel stightings nitworth to him. In this spoor he may be said to make for himself nitworth breeds. The great wold of this thoughsetlay of choosing is not fore-thoughtlaylly. It is fullknown that manysome of our highoutly breeders have, even within a onele lifetime, awended to [bookleaf] 31 chap. I. Choosing by man. A michel scope some breeds of orf and sheep. In order fully to realise what they have done, it is almost needbehovely to read manysome of the many writlays thitherlaid to this underthrow, and to inlook the wights. Breeders wonely speak of a wight's dight as something quite mouldbere, which they can shape almost as they please. If i had roomhood i could quote rimeful writfares to this onworking from highly cansome alderdoms. Youatt, who was likely better acquainted with the works of cropcraftsomeists than almost any other untodealel, and who was himself a very good deemend of a wight, speaks of the thoughsetlay of choosing as "that which bemayens the cropcrafter, not only to awend the suchness of his flock, but to awend it altogether. It is the dwimmercrafter's wand, by means of which he may call forth into life whatever form and mould he pleases." lord somerville, speaking of what breeders have done for sheep, says:—"it would seem as if they had chalked out upon a wall a form fullcome in itself, and then had given it wist." that most skilful breeder, sir john sebright, used to say, with edsight to plumpdoves, that "he would tidder any given feather in three years, but it would take him six years to fang head and beak." in saxony the weightiness of the thoughsetlay of choosing in sight to merino sheep is so fully edknown, that men follow it as a trade: the sheep are stelled on a table and are throughlored, like a meteshow by a highwitter; this is done three times at timestretchs of months, and the sheep are each time marked and isunderened, so that the very best may endfastly be chosen for breeding. What english breeders have soothly onworked is afanded by the aldermichel prices given for wights with a good forekintree; and these have now been outborne to almost every fourth of the world. The bettering is by no means allmeanlyly due to rooding undershedsome breeds; [bookleaf] 32 choosing by man. Chap. I. All the best breeders are strongly withlaid to this doship, nimth sometimes amongst closely alinked under-breeds. And when a rood has been made, the closest choosing is far more aldertharfly even than in wonely happenlays. If choosing consisted merely in totweeming some very toshed isunder, and breeding from it, the thoughsetlay would be so opensightly as hardly to be worth bemark; but its weightiness consists in the great onworking tiddered by the upheaping in one stighting, during afterfollowly strinds, of undersheds fullthroughly inunhefty by an unbelored eye—undersheds which i for one have ordlessly costened to beworth. Not one man in a thousand has targeockfastness of eye and deeming enoughsome to become an highoutly breeder. If gifted with these suchnesses, and he throughlores his underthrow for years, and devotes his lifetime to it with unoverweighbere throughholdingness, he will spow, and may make great betterings; if he wants any of these suchnesses, he will assuredly fail. Few would readily believe in the ikindsome canmayen and years of doship needed to become even a skilful plumpdove-fancier. The same thoughsetlays are followed by cropcrafters; but the sundrinesss are here often more inbreakly. No one understells that our choicest tidderings have been tiddered by a onele sundriness from the fromthfast stock. We have afands that this is not so in some happenlays, in which weetil edferths have been kept; thus, to give a very trifling bisen, the steadily-eaking size of the imean gooseberry may be quoted. We see an aweing bettering in many florists' bloomworts, when the bloomworts of the andward day are withmeted with drawings made only twenty or thirty years ago. When a race of plants is once pretty well statheled, the seed-raisers do not pick out the best plants, but merely go over their seed-beds, and pull up the "rogues," as they call the plants that andway from the davenly standord. With wights this [bookleaf] 33 chap. I. Do-wayly choosing. Kind of choosing is, in deedsake, also followed; for hardly any one is so careless as to allow his worst wights to breed. In sight to plants, there is another means of behowing the upheaped onworkings of choosing—namely, by withmeteing the manyotheredness of bloomworts in the undershedsome isunders of the same wightkin in the bloomwort-garden; the manyotheredness of leaves, pods, or tubers, or whatever deal is beworthed, in the kitchen-garden, in withmeting with the bloomworts of the same isunders; and the manyotheredness of ovet of the same wightkin in the orchard, in withmeting with the leaves and bloomworts of the same set of isunders. See how undershedsome the leaves of the cabbage are, and how outestly alike the bloomworts; how unlike the bloomworts of the heartsease are, and how alike the leaves; how much the ovet of the undershedsome kinds of gooseberries andsame in size, colour, shape, and hairiness, and yet the bloomworts andward very slight undersheds. It is not that the isunders which andsame michelly in some one ord do not andsame at all in other ords; this is hardly ever, forhaps never, the happenlay. The laws of togethersibred of growth, the weightiness of which should never be overlooked, will ensure some undersheds; but, as a allmeanly rule, i cannot twight that the throughstood choosing of slight sundrinesss, either in the leaves, the bloomworts, or the ovet, will tidder races andsaming from each other chiefly in these suchnesses. It may be withthrown that the thoughsetlay of choosing has been lowerd to do-wayly doship for hardly more than three-fourths of a yearhundred; it has iwis been more yeamed to of late years, and many writlays have been forlaid on the underthrow; and the outfollow, i may ateak, has been, in a togetheranswering andstep, quick and weighty. But it is very far from true that the thoughsetlay is a now-time anddeck. I could give manysome bepullings to the full acknowledging of the weightiness of the thoughsetlay in works of high furnness. In rude and C 3 [bookleaf] 34 do-wayly choosing. Chap. I. Barbarous timedeals of english yorelore choice wights were often imported, and laws were passed to forecome their outbearing: the fordoing of horses under a somel size was ordered, and this may be withmeted to the "roguing" of plants by nurserymen. The thoughsetlay of choosing i find toshedly given in an alderold chinese alderlorebook. Swettle rules are laid down by some of the roman ilkical writers. From writfares in genesis, it is clear that the colour of housely wights was at that early timedeal yeamed to. Wildsoulbearends now sometimes rood their dogs with wild dogly wights, to better the breed, and they formerly did so, as is becostened by writfares in pliny. The wildsoulbearends in south africa match their draught orf by colour, as do some of the esquimaux their teams of dogs. Livingstone shows how much good housely breeds are beworthe by the negroes of the inly of africa who have not onbound with europeans. Some of these deedsakes do not show soothly choosing, but they show that the breeding of housely wights was carefully yeamed to in alderold times, and is now yeamed to by the lowest wildsoulbearends. It would, indeed, have been a selcouth deedsake, had mindlook not been paid to breeding, for the erve of good and bad suchnesses is so opensightly. At the andward time, highoutly breeders try by do-wayly choosing, with a toshed towardsthing in onsight, to make a new strain or under-breed, oversome to anything wesening in the landred. But, for our sake, a kind of choosing, which may be called underawared, and which outfollows from every one trying to besit and breed from the best untodealel wights, is more weighty. Thus, a man who inwhelves keeping orders quithenly tries to get as good dogs as he can, and afterwards breeds from his own best dogs, but he has no wish or bewaiting of foreversomely awending the breed. Nevertheless i cannot [bookleaf] 35 chap. I. Underawared choosing. Twight that this forthhappen, throughstood during yearhundreds, would better and awend any breed, in the same way as bakewell, collins, &c., by this very same forthhappen, only borne on more do-wayly, did greatly awend, even during their own lifetimes, the forms and suchnesses of their orf. Slow and unspoorbere awends of this kind could never be edknown unless soothly ameteing or careful drawings of the breeds in fraign had been made long ago, which might serve for withmeting. In some happenlays, however, unawended or but little awended untodealels of the same breed may be found in less couthened andlays, where the breed has been less bettered. There is thinkcraft to believe that king charles's spaniel has been orawarely awended to a michel scope since the time of that monarch. Some highly cansome alderdoms are overtold that the setter is wissly offstreamed from the spaniel, and has likely been slowly awended from it. It is known that the english order has been greatly awended within the last yearhundred, and in this happenlay the awend has, it is believed, been chiefly onworked by roods with the fox-hound; but what bemeets us is, that the awend has been onworked orawarely and stepmeally, and yet so onworkingsomely, that, though the old spanish order iwis came from spain, mr. Borrow has not seen, as i am inkenned by him, any inhomeish dog in spain like our order. By a alike forthhappen of choosing, and by careful training, the whole body of english racehorses have come to surpass in fleetness and size the akennend arab stock, so that the latter, by the regulations for the goodwood races, are rithed in the weights they bear. Lord spencer and others have shown how the orf of england have eaked in weight and in early full-grownness, withmeted with the stock formerly kept in this landred. By withmeteing the berimes given in old plumpdove writlays of bearers [bookleaf] 36 underawared choosing. Chap. I. And tumblers with these breeds as now wesening in britain, india, and persia, we can, i think, clearly trace the stepocks through which they have unspoorberely passed, and come to andsame so greatly from the rock-plumpdove. Youatt gives an highmood onlight of the onworkings of a foor of choosing, which may be hidged as orawarely followed, in so far that the breeders could never have bewaited or even have wished to have tiddered the outfollow which befollowed—namely, the tiddering of two toshed strains. The two flocks of leicester sheep kept by mr. Buckley and mr. Burgess, as mr. Youatt edmarks, "have been siverly bred from the fromly stock of mr. Bakewell for upwards of fifty years. There is not a underlook wesening in the mind of any one at all acquainted with the underthrow that the owner of either of them has andwayed in any one bisen from the siver blood of mr. Bakewell's flock, and yet the undershed between the sheep besat by these two gentlemen is so great that they have the upshowing of being quite undershedsome isunders." If there wesen wildsoulbearends so barbarous as never to think of the erved suchness of the offspring of their housely wights, yet any one wight dealocksomely nitworth to them, for any sunderful sake, would be carefully aspared during hungerwhiles and other misfalls, to which wildsoulbearends are so atiely, and such choice wights would thus allmeanly leave more offspring than the undersome ones; so that in this happenlay there would be a kind of underawared choosing going on. We see the worth set on wights even by the barbarians of tierra del fuego, by their killing and forglendering their old women, in times of dearth, as of less worthhood than their dogs. In plants the same stepmeal forthhappen of bettering, through the otherwhile asparing of the best untodealels, whether or not enoughsomely toshed to be ranked [bookleaf] 37 chap. I. Underawared choosing. At their first upshowing as toshed isunders, and whether or not two or more wightkin or races have become blended together by rooding, may plainly be edknown in the eaked size and fairhood which we now see in the isunders of the heartsease, rose, storkbillseedvatwort, dahlia, and other plants, when withmeted with the older isunders or with their akennend-stocks. No one would ever bewait to get a first-rimespeed heartsease or dahlia from the seed of a wild plant. No one would bewait to raise a first-rimespeed melting pear from the seed of the wild pear, though he might spow from an arm seedling growing wild, if it had come from a garden-stock. The pear, though bebuilt in ilkical times, thenches, from pliny's bewriting, to have been a ovet of very undersome suchness. I have seen great overnim outthringed in cropcraftsome works at the wonderful skill of gardeners, in having tiddered such shimefast outfollows from such arm materials; but the art, i cannot twight, has been onelay, and, as far as the endsome outfollow is bemet, has been followed almost orawarely. It has consisted in always bebuilding the best known isunder, sowing its seeds, and, when a slightly better isunder has whated to show up, choosing it, and so onwards. But the gardeners of the ilkical timedeal, who bebuilt the best pear they could infang, never thought what shimefast ovet we should eat; though we owe our highmood ovet, in some small andstep, to their having quithenly chosen and aspared the best isunders they could anywhere find. A michel muchth of awend in our bebuilt plants, thus slowly and orawarely upheaped, aclears, as i believe, the well-known deedsake, that in a vast rime of happenlays we cannot edknow, and therefore do not know, the wild akennend-stocks of the plants which have been longest bebuilt in our bloomwort and kitchen gardens. If it has taken centuries or thousands of years to better [bookleaf] 38 choosing by man. Chap. I. Or awend most of our plants up to their andward standord of nitworthness to man, we can understand how it is that neither australia, the cape of good hope, nor any other ard inwoned by quite uncouthened man, has afforded us a onele plant worth culture. It is not that these landreds, so rich in wightkin, do not by a selcouth whate besit the fromthfast stocks of any nitworth plants, but that the inhomeish plants have not been bettered by throughstood choosing up to a standord of fullcomeliness withmetebere with that given to the plants in landreds alderoldly couthened. In sight to the housely wights kept by uncouthened man, it should not be overlooked that they almost always have to struggle for their own food, at least duringsomel yeartides. And in two landreds very undershedsomely imbstandd, untodealels of the same wightkin, having slightly undershedsome setnesss or upbuild, would often spow better in the one landred than in the other, and thus by a forthhappen of "ikindsome choosing," as will hereafter be more fully acleared, two under-breeds might be ashaped. This, forhaps, deally aclears what has been edmarked by some writmakers, namely, that the isunders kept by wildsoulbearends have more of the suchness of wightkin than the isunders kept in couthened landreds. On the onsight here given of the all-weighty deal which choosing by man has played, it becomes at once opensightly, how it is that our housely races show throughfitting in their upbuild or in their wones to man's wants or fancies. We can, i think, further understand the loomly uneverywhenhapfast suchness of our housely races, and likewise their undersheds being so great in outly suchnesses and akinsomely so slight in inly deals or bodyworkths. Man can hardly choose, or only with much arveth, any andwaying of upbuild nimth such as is outly seebere; and indeed he seldom cares for what is inly. He can never bedo by choosing, nimth on sundrinesss [bookleaf] 39 chap. I. Choosing by man. Which are first given to him in some slight andstep by ikind. No man would ever try to make a fantail, till he saw a plumpdove with a tail andwound in some slight andstep in an unwonely way, or a pouter till he saw a plumpdove with a crop of somewhat unwonely size; and the more uneverywhenhapfast or unwonely any suchness was when it first showed up, the more likely it would be to fang his mindlook. But to use such an outthring as trying to make a fantail, is, i have no twight, in most cases, utterly inrightsome. The man who first chose a plumpdove with a slightly michelr tail, never dreamed what the netherastiends of that plumpdove would become through long-throughstood, deally underawared and deally do-wayly choosing. Forhaps the akennend bird of all fantails had only fourteen tail-feathers somewhat expanded, like the andward java fantail, or like untodealels of other and toshed breeds, in which as many as seventeen tail-feathers have been arimed. Forhaps the first pouter-plumpdove did not blow its crop up much more than the rufflebreastplumpdove now does the upper deal of its sallowtharm,—a wone which is andlooked by all fanciers, as it is not one of the ords of the breed. Nor let it be thought that some great andwaying of upbuild would be tharfly to fang the fancier's eye: he ongets outestly small undersheds, and it is in soulbearend ikind to adear any newness, however slight, in one's own besitting. Nor must the worthhood which would formerly be set on any slight undersheds in the untodealels of the same wightkin, be deemed of by the worth which would now be set on them, after manysome breeds have once fairly been statheled. Many slight undersheds might, and indeed do now, arise amongst plumpdoves, which are withset as faults or andwayings from the standord of fullcomeliness of each breed. The imean goose has not given rise to any marked isunders; hence the thoulouse and the imean breed, which andsame only in colour, that [bookleaf] 40 choosing by man. Chap. I. Most fleeting of suchnesses, have lately been outstelled as toshed at our fowl-shows. I think these onsights further aclear what has sometimes been bemarked—namely that we know nothing about the fromth or yorelore of any of our housely breeds. But, in deedsake, a breed, like a underirord of a irord, can hardly be said to have had a bindfast fromth. A man aspares and breeds from an untodealel with some slight andwaying of upbuild, or takes more care than wonely in matching his best wights and thus betters them, and the bettered untodealels slowly spread in the forthwith neighbourhood. But as yet they will hardly have a toshed name, and from being only slightly beworthe, their yorelore will be andlooked. When further bettered by the same slow and stepmeal forthhappen, they will spread more widely, and will get edknown as something toshed and worthsome, and will then likely first thidge a selfwieldlandidole-name. In half-couthened landreds, with little free betwixtrord, the spreading and knowledge of any new under-breed will be a slow forthhappen. As soon as the ords of worthhood of the new under-breed are once fully acknowledged, the thoughsetlay, as i have called it, of underawared choosing will always nige,—forhaps more at one timedeal than at another, as the breed rises or falls in fashion,—forhaps more in one andlay than in another, according to the onlay of couthdom of the inwoners,—slowly to ateak to the suchnessly ownships of the breed, whatever they may be. But the whate will be boundlessly small of any edferth having been aspared of such slow, forsundering, and unspoorbere awends. I must now say a few words on the imbstands, rithbere, or the edwharve, to man's wold of choosing. A high andstep of sundriness is opensightlyly rithbere, as freely giving the materials for choosing to work on; not that mere untodealel undersheds are not amply [bookleaf] 41 chap. I. Imbstands rithbere to choosing. Enoughsome, with outest care, to allow of the upheaping of a michel muchth of awending in almost any frickled stighting. But as sundrinesss manifestly nitworth or pleasing to man show up only otherwhile, the whate of their upshowing will be much eaked by a michel rime of untodealels being kept; and hence this comes to be of the highest weightiness to success. On this thoughsetlay marshall has edmarked, with edsight to the sheep of deals of yorkshire, that "as they allmeanly belong to arm folk, and are mostly in small lots, they never can be bettered." on the other hand, nurserymen, from raising michel stocks of the same plants, are allmeanly far more successful than amateurs in getting new and worthsome isunders. The keeping of a michel rime of untodealels of a wightkin in any landred tharfs that the wightkin should be stelled under rithbere hodes of life, so as to breed freely in that landred. When the untodealels of any wightkin are scanty, all the untodealels, whatever their suchness may be, will allmeanly be allowed to breed, and this will effectually forecome choosing. But likely the most weighty ord of all, is, that the wight or plant should be so highly nitworth to man, or so much beworthe by him, that the closest mindlook should be paid to even the slightest andwaying in the suchnesses or upbuild of each untodealel. Unless such mindlook be paid nothing can be onworked. I have seen it gravely edmarked, that it was most fortunate that the strawberry began to forsunder just when gardeners began to yeam closely to this plant. No twight the strawberry had always besundered since it was bebuilt, but the slight isunders had been forheemed. As soon, however, as gardeners picked out untodealel plants with slightly michelr, earlier, or better ovet, and raised seedlings from them, and again picked out the best seedlings and bred from them, then, there showed up (ferked by some [bookleaf] 42 summary on sundriness. Chap. I. Rooding with toshed wightkin) those many bewonderbere isunders of the strawberry which have been raised during the last thirty or forty years. In the happenlay of wights with totweemed akenbodyworkthsplits, eathyness in forecomeing roods is a weighty firststuff of success in the ashaping of new races,—at least, in a landred which is already stocked with other races. In this edsight inshutness of the land plays a deal. Wandering wildsoulbearends or the inwoners of open plains seldom besit more than one breed of the same wightkin. Plumpdoves can be mated for life, and this is a great limpfulness to the fancier, for thus many races may be kept true, though mingled in the same aviary; and this imbstand must have michelly rithed the bettering and ashaping of new breeds. Plumpdoves, i may ateak, can be forspread in great rimes and at a very quick rimespeed, and undersome birds may be freely withset, as when killed they serve for food. On the other hand, cats, from their nightsome rambling wones, cannot be matched, and, although so much beworthe by women and children, we hardly ever see a toshed breed kept up; such breeds as we do sometimes see are almost always imported from some other landred, often from islands. Although i do not twight that some housely wights forsunder less than others, yet the seldomness or unandwardness of toshed breeds of the cat, the donkey, peacock, goose, &c., may be knoded in main deal to choosing not having been brought into play: in cats, from the arveth in pairing them; in donkeys, from only a few being kept by arm folk, and little mindlook paid to their breeding; in peacocks, from not being very easily reared and a michel stock not kept; in geese, from being worthsome only for two sakes, food and feathers, and more besunders from no pleasure having been felt in the ewe of toshed breeds. [bookleaf] 43 chap. I. Under housening. To sum up on the fromth of our housely races of wights and plants. I believe that the hodes of life, from their deedship on the edtidderly setlay, are so far of the highest weightiness as bewhying sundriness. I do not believe that sundriness is an inborn and needbehovely offhanginess, under all imbstands, with all lifesome beings, as some writmakers have thought. The onworkings of sundriness are awended by sundry andsteps of erve and of edwhirft. Sundriness is awielded by many unknown laws, more besunders by that of togethersibred of growth. Something may be knoded to the straightfast deedship of the hodes of life. Something must be knoded to use and andnote. The endsome outfollow is thus made boundlessly throughtangly. In some happenlays, i do not twight that the betwixtrooding of wightkin, fromthfast toshed, has played a weighty deal in the fromth of our housely tidderings. When in any landred manysome housely breeds have once been statheled, their otherwhile betwixtrooding, with the ferk of choosing, has, no twight, michelly ferked in the ashaping of new under-breeds; but the weightiness of the rooding of isunders has, i believe, been greatly overdriven, both in sight to wights and to those plants which are forspread by seed. In plants which are whilenly forspread by cuttings, buds, &c., the weightiness of the rooding both of toshed wightkin and of isunders is widemichel; for the bebuilder here quite andlooks the outest sundriness both of twibloodtudders and mongrels, and the loom unwassombearingness of twibloodtudders; but the happenlays of plants not forspread by seed are of little weightiness to us, for their tholing is only whilen. Over all these bewhys of awend i am overtold that the upheapsome deedship of choosing, whether belaid do-wayly and more quickly, or underawaredly and more slowly, but more onworkfully, is by far the preoverweighing power. [bookleaf] 44 sundriness under ikind. Chap. Ii. Bookdeal ii. Sundriness under ikind. Sundriness — untodealel undersheds — twightful wightkin — wide ranging, much tospread, and imean wightkin forsunder most — wightkin of the michelr wightkinds in any landred forsunder more than the wightkin of the smaller wightkinds — many of the wightkin of the michelr wightkinds onlike isunders in being very closely, but unevenworthly, akinned to each other, and in having intightened scopes. Before belaying the principles tocome at in the last bookdeal to lifesome beings in a onlay of ikind, we must briefly imbspeak whether these latter are underthrow to any sundriness. To treat this underthrow at all davenly, a long listbook of dry deedsakes should be given; but these i shall sidekeep for my to-come work. Nor shall i here imbspeak the sundry bebindings which have been given of the term wightkin. No one bebinding has as yet befrithed all ikindlorers; yet every ikindlorer knows cloudfastly what he means when he speaks of a wightkin. Allmeanly the term imbhaves the unknown firststuff of a toshed bedo of ishaft. The term "isunder" is almost evenworthly arvethfast to bebind; but here imeanship of netherastieing is almost allhomely implied, though it can seldom be afanded. We have also what are called owleechsomenesses; but they bestep into isunders. By a owleechsomeness i foretake is meant some hidgebere andwaying of upbuild in one deal, either demsome to or not nitworth to the wightkin, and not allmeanly forspread. Some writmakers use the term "sundriness" in a builtcraftsome spoor, as infolding a awending wissly due to the bodily hodes of life; and "sundrinesss" in this spoor are understelled not to be erved: but who can say that the dwarfed hode of shells in the brackish waters of the baltic, or dwarfed [bookleaf] 45 chap. Ii. Sundriness under ikind. Plants on alpine knaps, or the thicker fur of a wight from far northwards, would not in some happenlays be erved for at least some few strinds? And in this happenlay i foretake that the form would be called a isunder. Again, we have many slight undersheds which may be called untodealel undersheds, such as are known loomly to show up in the offspring from the same akennends, or which may be foretaken to have thus arisen, from being loomly behowed in the untodealels of the same wightkin inwoning the same benarrowened stowlyity. No one understells that all the untodealels of the same wightkin are cast in the very same mould. These untodealel undersheds are highly weighty for us, as they afford materials for ikindsome choosing to upheap, in the same way as man can upheap in any given stighting untodealel undersheds in his housened tidderings. These untodealel undersheds allmeanly onwork what ikindlorers hidge unweighty deals; but i could show by a long listbook of deedsakes, that deals which must be called weighty, whether onsighted under a bodylorely or ilkificatory ord of onsight, sometimes forsunder in the untodealels of the same wightkin. I am overtold that the most outfanded ikindlorer would be overnome at the rime of the happenlays of sundriness, even in weighty deals of upbuild, which he could gather on good alderdom, as i have gathered, during a foor of years. It should be muned that setlaylorers are far from pleased at finding sundriness in weighty suchnesses, and that there are not many men who will laboriously underseek inly and weighty bodyworkths, and withmete them in many neeslings of the same wightkin. I should never have bewaited that the branching of the main feelingsinews close to the great imbmid feelingsinewbodyworkhouselinglay of an bug would have been sunderly in the same wightkin; i should have bewaited that awends of this ikind could have been onworked only [bookleaf] 46 sundriness under ikind. Chap. Ii. By slow andsteps: yet quite short-agoly mr. Lubbock has shown a andstep of sundriness in these main feelingsinews in coccus, which may almost be withmeted to the unwoneshapefastness branching of the stem of a tree. This philosophical ikindlorer, i may ateak, has also quite short-agoly shown that the muscles in the forebugs of somel bugs are very far from oneshaped. Writmakers sometimes outground in a circle when they onlay that weighty bodyworkths never forsunder; for these same writmakers dowisely rank that suchness as weighty (as some few ikindlorers have fertly andetted) which does not forsunder; and, under this ord of onsight, no bisen of a weighty deal forsundering will ever be found: but under any other ord of onsight many bisens assuredly can be given. There is one ord belinked with untodealel undersheds, which seems to me outestly bemazing: i bepull to those wightkinds which have sometimes been called "suchnessawending" or "manyshaped," in which the wightkin show an imbthinkdinate muchth of sundriness; and hardly two ikindlorers can agree which forms to rank as wightkin and which as isunders. We may bisen rubus, rosa, and hieracium amongst plants, manysome wightkinds of bugs, and manysome wightkinds of armpodwight shells. In most manyshaped wightkinds some of the wightkin have fixed and bindfast suchnesses. Wightkinds which are manyshaped in one landred seem to be, with some few outtakes, manyshaped in other landreds, and likewise, deeming from armpodwight shells, at former timedeals of time. These deedsakes seem to be very bemazing, for they seem to show that this kind of sundriness is unoffhanging of the hodes of life. I am bighfast to underlook that we see in these manyshaped wightkinds sundrinesss in ords of upbuild which are of no thanered or andthuet to the wightkin, and which afollowsomely have not been fanged on and made bindfast by ikindsome choosing, as hereafter will be acleared. [bookleaf] 47 chap. Ii. Twightful wightkin. Those forms which besit in some hidgebere andstep the suchness of wightkin, but which are so closely alike to some other forms, or are so closely linked to them by betweenly steplings, that ikindlorers do not like to rank them as toshed wightkin, are in manysome edsights the most weighty for us. We have every thinkcraft to believe that many of these twightful and closely-alinked forms have foreversomely bekept their suchnesses in their own landred for a long time; for as long, as far as we know, as have good and true wightkin. Dowisely, when an ikindlorer can beone two forms together by others having betweenly suchnesses, he treats the one as a isunder of the other, ranking the most imean, but sometimes the one first bewritten, as the wightkin, and the other as the isunder. But happenlays of great arveth, which i will not here arime, sometimes betide in becutting whether or not to rank one form as a isunder of another, even when they are closely belinked by betweenly links; nor will the imeanly-foretaken twibloodtudder ikind of the betweenly links always take away the arveth. In very many happenlays, however, one form is ranked as a isunder of another, not forwhy the betweenly links have soothly been found, but forwhy analogy leads the behower to understell either that they do now somewhere wesen, or may formerly have wesened; and here a wide door for the entry of twight and beguess is opened. Hence, in toending whether a form should be ranked as a wightkin or a isunder, the onthink of ikindlorers having sound deeming and wide outfand seems the only guide to follow. We must, however, in many happenlays, becut by a mosthood of ikindlorers, for few well-marked and well-known isunders can be named which have not been ranked as wightkin by at least some cansome deemends. [bookleaf] 48 twightful wightkin. Chap. Ii. That isunders of this twightful ikind are far from unimean cannot be flitten. Withmete the manysome wortmaiths of great britain, of france or of the beoned onlays, drawn up by undershedsome wortlorers, and see what a overnimming rime of forms have been ranked by one wortlorer as good wightkin, and by another as mere isunders. Mr. H. C. Watson, to whom i lie under deep beholdenness for filst of all kinds, has marked for me 182 british plants, which are allmeanly hidged as isunders, but which have all been ranked by wortlorers as wightkin; and in making this list he has omitted many trifling isunders, but which nevertheless have been ranked by some wortlorers as wightkin, and he has wholely omitted manysome highly manyshaped wightkinds. Under wightkinds, imbhaving the most manyshaped forms, mr. Babington gives 251 wightkin, whereas mr. Bentham gives only 112,—an undershed of 139 twightful forms! Amongst wights which beone for each birth, and which are highly aquetchfull, twightful forms, ranked by one wightlorer as a wightkin and by another as a isunder, can seldom be found within the same landred, but are imean in totweemed areas. How many of those birds and bugs in north america and europe, which andsame very slightly from each other, have been ranked by one highoutly ikindlorer as untwighted wightkin, and by another as isunders, or, as they are often called, as earthlorely races! Many years ago, when withmeteing, and seeing others withmete, the birds from the totweemed islands of the galapagos islandmaith, both one with another, and with those from the american mainland, i was much struck how wholely cloudfast and arbitrary is the ished between wightkin and isunders. On the islets of the little madeira maith there are many bugs which are suchnessized as isunders in mr. Wollaston's bewonderbere work, but which it cannot [bookleaf] 49 chap. Ii. Twightful wightkin. Be twighted would be ranked as toshed wightkin by many buglorers. Even ireland has a few wights, now allmeanly seen as isunders, but which have been ranked as wightkin by some wightlorers. Manysome most outfanded birdlorers hidge our british red grouse as only a strongly-marked race of a norwegia wightkin, whereas the greater rime rank it as an untwighted wightkin odd to great britain. A wide farth between the homes of two twightful forms leads many ikindlorers to rank both as toshed wightkin; but what farth, it has been well asked, will enoughen? If that between america and europe is michel, will that between the earthdeal and the azores, or madeira, or the yellowfinches, or ireland, be enoughsome? It must be throughgiven that many forms, hidged by highly-cansome deemends as isunders, have so fullcomely the suchness of wightkin that they are ranked by other highly cansome deemends as good and true wightkin. But to imbspeak whether they are rightly called wightkin or isunders, before any bebinding of these terms has been allmeanly anome, is ordlessly to beat the air. Many of the happenlays of strongly-marked isunders or twightful wightkin well andtheen hidging; for manysome interesting lines of groundhood, from earthlorely brittening, samerunsome sundriness, twibloodtudderism, &c., have been brought to bear on the costen to toend their rank. I will here give only a onele bisen,—the well-known one of the firstrose and cowslip, or primula veris and elatior. These plants andsame hidgeberely in upshowing; they have an undershedsome flavour and emit an undershedsome odour; they bloomwort at slightly undershedsome timedeals; they grow in somewhat undershedsome standsteads; they astie barrows to undershedsome heights; they have undershedsome earthlorely scopes; and lastly, according to very rimeful fands made during manysome years by D [bookleaf] 50 twightful wightkin. Chap. Ii. That most careful behower gärtner, they can be rooded only with much arveth. We could hardly wish for better outshow of the two forms being insunderly toshed. On the other hand, they are beoned by many betweenly links, and it is very twightful whether these links are hybrids; and there is, as it seems to me, an overwhelming muchth of fandsome outshow, showing that they netherastie from imean akennends, and infollowingly must be ranked as isunders. Close underfanding, in most happenlays, will bring ikindlorers to an thweerness how to rank twightful forms. Yet it must be andetted, that it is in the best-known landreds that we find the greatest rime of forms of twightful worthhood. I have been struck with the deedsake, that if any wight or plant in a onlay of ikind be highly nitworth to man, or from any bewhy closely onpull his mindlook, isunders of it will almost allhomely be found edferthed. These isunders, moreover, will be often ranked by some writmakers as wightkin. Look at the imean oak, how closely it has been throughlored; yet a german writmaker makes more than a dozen wightkin out of forms, which are very allmeanly hidged as isunders; and in this landred the highest wortlorely alderdoms and practical men can be quoted to show that the stemfayed and stalkfeelingsinewbundlewighted oaks are either good and toshed wightkin or mere isunders. When a young ikindlorer begins the throughlore of a maith of lifers quite unknown to him, he is at first much throughtwined to toend what undersheds to hidge as insunderly, and what as isunders; for he knows nothing of the muchth and kind of sundriness to which the maith is underthrow; and this shows, at least, how very allmeanly there is some sundriness. But if he benarrowen his mindlook to one ilk within one landred, he will soon make up his mind how to rank most of the twightful forms. His [bookleaf] 51 chap. Ii. Twightful wightkin. Allmeanly niging will be to make many wightkin, for he will become inthrung, just like the plumpdove or fowl-fancier before atpulled to, with the muchth of undershed in the forms which he is throughstandingly throughloreing; and he has little allmeanly knowledge of samerunsome sundriness in other maiths and in other landreds, by which to rightsome his first inthringions. As he outstretchs the scope of his behowings, he will meet with more happenlays of arveth; for he will enwith a greater rime of closely-alinked forms. But if his behowings be widely stretched out, he will in the end allmeanly be bemayened to make up his own mind which to call isunders and which wightkin; but he will spow in this at the aspend of throughgiving much sundriness,—and the truth of this throughgiving will often be flitten by other ikindlorers. When, moreover, he comes to throughlore alinked forms brought from landreds not now throughstanding, in which happenlay he can hardly hope to find the betweenly links between his twightful forms, he will have to trust almost wholely to samerun, and his arveths will rise to a peak. Iwis no clear line of offmarking has as yet been drawn between wightkin and under-wightkin—that is, the forms which in the onthink of some ikindlorers come very near to, but do not quite tocome at the rank of wightkin; or, again, between under-wightkin and well-marked isunders, or between lesser isunders and untodealel undersheds. These undersheds blend into each other in an unspoorbere series; and a followth inthringes the mind with the thinkling of an soothly throughfare. Hence i look at untodealel undersheds, though of small interest to the setlaylorer, as of high weightiness for us, as being the first step towards such slight isunders as are barely thought worth edferthing in works on ikindsome yorelore. And i look at isunders which are in any andstep more toshed and foreversome, as steps leading to more D 2 [bookleaf] 52 isunders bestep into wightkin. Chap. Ii. Strongly marked and more foreversome ilks; and at these latter, as leading to under-wightkin, and to wightkin. The throughfare from one stepock of undershed to another and higher stepock may be, in some happenlays, due merely to the long-throughstood deedship of undershedsome bodily hodes in two undershedsome ards; but i have not much faith in this onsight; and i knode the throughfare of a isunder, from a onlay in which it andsames very slightly from its akennend to one in which it andsames more, to the deedship of ikindsome choosing in beheaping (as will hereafter be more fully acleared) undersheds of upbuild in somel bindfast stightings. Hence i believe a well-marked isunder may be rightly called an beginsome wightkin; but whether this belief be justifiable must be deemed of by the allmeanly weight of the manysome deedsakes and onsights given throughout this work. It need not be understelled that all isunders or beginsome wightkin needbehovely areach the rank of wightkin. They may whilst in this beginsome onlay become fornaughted, or they may thole as isunders for very long timedeals, as has been shown to be the happenlay by mr. Wollaston with the isunders of somel stonewight land-shells in madeira. If a isunder were to flourish so as to outgo in rimes the akennend wightkin, it would then rank as the wightkin, and the wightkin as the isunder; or it might come to undersole and benothing the akennend wightkin; or both might together-wesen, and both rank as unoffhanging wightkin. But we shall hereafter have to edwend to this underthrow. From these edmarks it will be seen that i look at the term wightkin, as one arbitrarily given for the sake of limpfulness to a set of untodealels closely onliking each other, and that it does not isshiply andsame from the term isunder, which is given to less toshed and more fluctuating forms. The term isunder, again, in withmeting with mere untodealel undersheds, is also belaid arbitrarily, and for mere limpfulness sake. [bookleaf] 53 chap. Ii. Overweighing wightkin forsunder most. Guided by thoughtlayly hidgings, i thought that some interesting outfollows might be fanged in sight to the ikind and sibreds of the wightkin which forsunder most, by meatboardening all the isunders in manysome well-worked wortmaiths. At first this seemed a onelay task; but mr. H. C. Watson, to whom i am much beholden for worthsome rede and filst on this underthrow, soon overtold me that there were many arveths, as did underfollowingly dr. Hooker, even in stronger terms. I shall sidekeep for my to-come work the imbspeech of these arveths, and the tables themselves of the ondealy rimes of the forsundering wightkin. Dr. Hooker thaves me to ateak, that after having carefully read my manuscript, and undersought the tables, he thinks that the following quids are fairly well statheled. The whole underthrow, however, treated as it needbehovely here is with much shorthood, is rather bemazing, and atpullings cannot be forbowed to the "struggle for wist," "towhirft of suchness," and other fraigns, hereafter to be imbspoken. Alph. De candolle and others have shown that plants which have very wide scopes allmeanly andward isunders; and this might have been bewaited, as they become outset to sundry bodily hodes, and as they come into witherstrive (which, as we shall hereafter see, is a far more weighty imbstand) with undershedsome sets of lifesome beings. But my tables further show that, in any narrowened landred, the wightkin which are most imean, that is abound most in untodealels, and the wightkin which are most widely tospread within their own landred (and this is an undershedsome hidging from wide scope, and to a somel scope from imeanness), often give rise to isunders enoughsomely well-marked to have been edferthed in wortlorely works. Hence it is the most flourishing, or, as they may be called, the overweighing wightkin,— [bookleaf] 54 overweighing wightkin forsunder most. Chap. Ii. Those which scope widely over the world, are the most tospread in their own landred, and are the most rimeful in untodealels,—which oftenest tidder well-marked isunders, or, as i hidge them, beginsome wightkin. And this, forhaps, might have been forefollowed; for, as isunders, in order to become in any andstep foreversome, needbehovely have to struggle with the other inwoners of the landred, the wightkin which are already overweighing will be the most likely to yield offspring which, though in some slight andstep awended, will still erve those foredeals that bemayened their akennends to become overweighing over their compatriots. If the plants inwoning a landred and bewritten in any wortmaith be todealt into two evenworth masses, all those in the michelr wightkinds being stelled on one side, and all those in the smaller wightkinds on the other side, a somewhat michelr rime of the very imean and much tospread or overweighing wightkin will be found on the side of the michelr wightkinds. This, again, might have been forefollowed; for the mere deedsake of many wightkin of the same wightkind inwoning any landred, shows that there is something in the lifesome or inlifefast hodes of that landred rithbere to the wightkind; and, infollowingly, we might have bewaited to have found in the michelr wightkinds, or those imbhaving many wightkin, a michel ondealy rime of overweighing wightkin. But so many bewhys nige to mistfull this outfollow, that i am overnome that my tables show even a small mosthood on the side of the michelr wightkinds. I will here atpull to only two bewhys of mistfullness. Fresh-water and salt-loving plants have allmeanly very wide scopes and are much tospread, but this seems to be belinked with the ikind of the standsteads inwoned by them, and has little or no maithred to the size of the wightkinds to which the wightkin belong. Again, plants low in the scale of dight are [bookleaf] 55 chap. Ii. Wightkin of michel wightkinds sunderly. Allmeanly much more widely tospread than plants higher in the scale; and here again there is no close maithred to the size of the wightkinds. The bewhy of lowly-dighted plants ranging widely will be imbspoken in our bookdeal on earthlorely brittening. From looking at wightkin as only strongly-marked and well-bebound isunders, i was led to forefollow that the wightkin of the michelr wightkinds in each landred would oftener andward isunders, than the wightkin of the smaller wightkinds; for wherever many closely akinned wightkin (i.e. Wightkin of the same wightkind) have been ashaped, many isunders or beginsome wightkin ought, as a allmeanly rule, to be now forming. Where many michel trees grow, we bewait to find saplings. Where many wightkin of a wightkind have been ashaped through sundriness, imbstands have been rithbere for sundriness; and hence we might bewait that the imbstands would allmeanly be still rithbere to sundriness. On the other hand, if we look at each wightkin as a sunderful bedo of ishaft, there is no opensightly thinkcraft why more isunders should betide in a maith having many wightkin, than in one having few. To test the truth of this forefollowing i have dighted the plants of twelve landreds, and the coleopterous bugs of two andlays, into two nearly evenworth masses, the wightkin of the michelr wightkinds on one side, and those of the smaller wightkinds on the other side, and it has everywhen afanded to be the happenlay that a michelr ondeal of the wightkin on the side of the michelr wightkinds andward isunders, than on the side of the smaller wightkinds. Moreover, the wightkin of the michel wightkinds which andward any isunders, everywhen andward a michelr throughsnithe rime of isunders than do the wightkin of the small wightkinds. Both these outfollows follow when another idole is made, and when all the smallest wightkinds, with from only one to four wightkin, are fullthroughly excluded from the tables. These [bookleaf] 56 wightkin of michel wightkinds. Chap. Ii. Deedsakes are of plain meaning on the onsight that wightkin are only strongly marked and foreversome isunders; for wherever many wightkin of the same wightkind have been ashaped, or where, if we may use the outthring, the manudeedsakeory of wightkin has been dofast, we ought allmeanly to find the manudeedsakeory still in deedship, more besunders as we have every thinkcraft to believe the forthhappen of manudeedsakeuring new wightkin to be a slow one. And this iwis is the happenlay, if isunders be looked at as beginsome wightkin; for my tables clearly show as a allmeanly rule that, wherever many wightkin of a wightkind have been ashaped, the wightkin of that wightkind andward a rime of isunders, that is of beginsome wightkin, beyond the throughsnithe. It is not that all michel wightkinds are now forsundering much, and are thus eaking in the rime of their wightkin, or that no small wightkinds are now forsundering and eaking; for if this had been so, it would have been deathfast to my thoughtlay; inasmuch as earthlore plainly tells us that small wightkinds have in the whilestitch of time often eaked greatly in size; and that michel wightkinds have often come to their heighthood, toleesed, and swund. All that we want to show is, that where many wightkin of a wightkind have been ashaped, on an throughsnithe many are still forming; and this holds good. There are other sibreds between the wightkin of michel wightkinds and their edferthed isunders which andtheen bemark. We have seen that there is no dwildless deemock by which to toshed wightkin and well-marked isunders; and in those happenlays in which betweenly links have not been found between twightful forms, ikindlorers are thraffed to come to a determination by the muchth of undershed between them, deeming by samerun whether or not the muchth enoughens to raise one or both to the rank of wightkin. Hence the muchth of undershed is one very weighty deemock in settling whether two forms [bookleaf] 57 chap. Ii. Onlike isunders. Should be ranked as wightkin or isunders. Now fries has edmarked in sight to plants, and westwood in sight to bugs, that in michel wightkinds the muchth of undershed between the wightkin is often outgoingly small. I have bestriven to test this rimely by throughsnithes, and, as far as my unfullcome outfollows go, they always atrum the onsight. I have also sought up some wise and most outfanded behowers, and, after beweighing, they thweer in this onsight. In this edsight, therefore, the wightkin of the michelr wightkinds onlike isunders, more than do the wightkin of the smaller wightkinds. Or the happenlay may be put in another way, and it may be said, that in the michelr wightkinds, in which a rime of isunders or beginsome wightkin greater than the throughsnithe are now manudeedsakeuring, many of the wightkin already manudeedsakeured still to a somel scope onlike isunders, for they andsame from each other by a less than wonely muchth of undershed. Moreover, the wightkin of the michel wightkinds are akinned to each other, in the same way as the isunders of any one wightkin are akinned to each other. No ikindlorer pretends that all the wightkin of a wightkind are evenworthly toshed from each other; they may allmeanly be todealt into under-wightkinds, or offdeals, or lesser maiths. As fries has well edmarked, little maiths of wightkin are allmeanly clustered like tungleimbwharvers imbsomel other wightkin. And what are isunders but maiths of forms, unevenworthly akinned to each other, and clustered imb somel forms—that is, round their akennend-wightkin? Untwightedly there is one most weighty ord of undershed between isunders and wightkin; namely, that the muchth of undershed between isunders, when withmeted with each other or with their akennend-wightkin, is much less than that between the wightkin of the same wightkind. But when we come to imbspeak the thoughsetlay, as i call it, of towhirft of suchness, D 3 [bookleaf] 58 wightkin of michel wightkinds. Chap. Ii. We shall see how this may be acleared, and how the lesser undersheds between isunders will nige to eak into the greater undersheds between wightkin. There is one other ord which seems to me worth bemark. Isunders allmeanly have much intightened scopes: this quid is indeed hardly more than a opentruthquid, for if a isunder were found to have a wider scope than that of its understelled akennend-wightkin, their benamings ought to be edwhorven. But there is also thinkcraft to believe, that those wightkin which are very closely alinked to other wightkin, and in so far onlike isunders, often have much intightened scopes. For bisen, mr. H. C. Watson has marked for me in the well-sifted london listbook of plants (4th uplay) 63 plants which are therein ranked as wightkin, but which he considers as so closely alinked to other wightkin as to be of twightful worthhood: these 63 againthought wightkin scope on an throughsnithe over 6.9 of the selfwieldlandidoles into which mr. Watson has todealt great britain. Now, in this same listbook, 53 acknowledged isunders are edferthed, and these scope over 7.7 selfwieldlandidoles; whereas, the wightkin to which these isunders belong scope over 14.3 selfwieldlandidoles. So that the acknowledged isunders have very nearly the same intightened throughsnithe scope, as have those very closely alinked forms, marked for me by mr. Watson as twightful wightkin, but which are almost allhomely ranked by british wortlorers as good and true wightkin. Endly, then, isunders have the same allmeanly suchnesses as wightkin, for they cannot be toshed from wightkin,—nimth, firstly, by the anddeck of betweenly linking forms, and the betidings of such links cannot onwork the soothly suchnesses of the forms which they belink; and nimth, twothly, by a somel muchth of [bookleaf] 59 chap. Ii. Onlike isunders. Undershed, for two forms, if andsaming very little, are allmeanly ranked as isunders, notwithstanding that betweenly linking forms have not been anddecked; but the muchth of undershed hidged needbehovely to give to two forms the rank of wightkin is quite unbindfast. In wightkinds having more than the throughsnithe rime of wightkin in any landred, the wightkin of these wightkinds have more than the throughsnithe rime of isunders. In michel wightkinds the wightkin are apt to be closely, but unevenworthly, alinked together, forming little clusters imb somel wightkin. Wightkin very closely alinked to other wightkin opensightly have intightened scopes. In all these manysome edsights the wightkin of michel wightkinds andward a strong samerun with isunders. And we can clearly understand these analogies, if wightkin have once wesened as isunders, and have thus outstemmed: whereas, these analogies are utterly unaclearbere if each wightkin has been unoffhangingly beshaped. We have, also, seen that it is the most flourishing and overweighing wightkin of the michelr wightkinds which on an throughsnithe forsunder most; and isunders, as we shall hereafter see, nige to become forwended into new and toshed wightkin. The michelr wightkinds thus nige to become michelr; and throughout ikind the forms of life which are now overweighing nige to become still more overweighing by leaving many awended and overweighingnetherastiends. But by steps hereafter to be acleared, the michelr wightkinds also nige to break up into smaller wightkinds. And thus, the forms of life throughout the universe become todealt into maiths underrowfollowsome to maiths. [bookleaf] 60 struggle for wist. Chap. Iii. Bookdeal iii. Struggle for wist. Bears on ikindsome choosing — the term used in a wide spoor — metelorely wolds of eak — quick eak of ikindened wights and plants — ikind of the checks to eak — witherstrive allhomely — onworkings of loftlay — barrowing from the rime of untodealels — throughweaveful sibreds of all wights and plants throughout ikind — struggle for life most highernst between untodealels and isunders of the same wightkin; often highernst between wightkin of the same wightkind — the maithred of lifer to lifer the most weighty of all sibreds. Before entering on the underthrow of this bookdeal, i must make a few foreish edmarks, to show how the struggle for wist bears on ikindly choosing. It has been seen in the last bookdeal that amongst lifesome beings in a onlay of ikind there is some untodealel sundriness; indeed i am not aware that this has ever been flitten. It is unakinly for us whether a dright of twightful forms be called wightkin or under-wightkin or isunders; what rank, for bisen, the two or three hundred twightful forms of british plants are entitled to hold, if the wist of any well-marked isunders be throughgiven. But the mere wist of untodealel sundriness and of some few well-marked isunders, though needbehovely as the groundset for the work, helps us but little in understanding how wightkin arise in ikind. How have all those throughlovely throughfittings of one deal of the dight to another deal, and to the hodes of life, and of one toshed lifesome being to another being, been fullfremmed? We see these litty together-throughfittings most plainly in the woodpecker and missletoe; and only a little less plainly in the eathmoodst stealeater which clings [bookleaf] 61 chap. Iii. Struggle for wist. To the hairs of a fourfootwight or feathers of a bird; in the upbuild of the beetle which dives through the water; in the plumed seed which is wafted by the mildest breeze; in short, we see litty throughfittings everywhere and in every deal of the lifesome world. Again, it may be asked, how is it that isunders, which i have called beginsome wightkin, become endfastly forwended into good and toshed wightkin, which in most happenlays opensightlyly andsame from each other far more than do the isunders of the same wightkin? How do those maiths of wightkin, which make up what are called toshed wightkinds, and which andsame from each other more than do the wightkin of the same wightkind, arise? All these outfollows, as we shall more fully see in the next bookdeal, follow unforecomeberely from the struggle for life. Owing to this struggle for life, any sundriness, however slight and from whatever bewhy coming forth, if it be in any andstep notesome to an untodealel of any wightkin, in its boundlessly throughtangly sibreds to other lifesome beings and to outly ikind, will nige to the asparing of that untodealel, and will allmeanly be erved by its offspring. The offspring, also, will thus have a better whate of overliving, for, of the many untodealels of any wightkin which are timedealsomely born, but a small rime can overlive. I have called this thoughsetlay, by which each slight sundriness, if nitworth, is aspared, by the term of ikindly choosing, in order to mark its maithred to man's wold of choosing. We have seen that man by choosing can iwis tidder great outfollows, and can throughfit lifesome beings to his own uses, through the upheaping of slight but nitworth sundrinesss, given to him by the hand of ikind. But ikindly choosing, as we shall hereafter see, is a wold unstoppingly ready for deedship, and is as unameteberly oversome to man's trumless forththriths, as the works of ikind are to those of art. [bookleaf] 62 struggle for wist. Chap. Iii. We will now imbspeak in a little more atcut the struggle for wist. In my to-come work this underthrow shall be treated, as it well andtheens, at much greater length. The elder de candolle and lyell have michelly and philosophically shown that all lifesome beings are outset to highernst witherstrive. In sight to plants, no one has treated this underthrow with more spirit and ability than w. Herbert, dean of manchester, opensightly the outfollow of his great cropcraftsome knowledge. Nothing is easier than to throughgive in words the truth of the allhomely struggle for life, or more arvethfast—at least i have found it so—than standily to bear this ashut in mind. Yet unless it be thoroughly engrained in the mind, i am overtold that the whole setlay of ikind, with every deedsake on brittening, seldomness, fullsomeness, fornaughting, and sundriness, will be dimly seen or quite misunderstood. We behold the face of ikind bright with gladness, we often see overfullsomeness of food; we do not see, or we forget, that the birds which are idly singing round us mostly live on bugs or seeds, and are thus standily fordoing life; or we forget how michelly these songsters, or their eggs, or their nestlings, are fordone by birds and beasts of prey; we do not always bear in mind, that though food may be now overfullsome, it is not so at all yeartides of each edhappening year. I should premise that i use the term struggle for wist in a michel and hueingly spoor, imbhaving offhanginess of one being on another, and imbhaving (which is more weighty) not only the life of the untodealel, but success in leaving afterkin. Two dogly wights in a time of dearth, may be truly said to struggle with each other which shall get food and live. But a plant on the edge of a alderdrystow is said to struggle for life against the drought, though more davenly it should be said to be offhangy on the moisture. A [bookleaf] 63 chap. Iii. Struggle for wist. Plant which yearly tidders a thousand seeds, of which on an throughsnithe only one comes to full-grownness, may be more truly said to struggle with the plants of the same and other kinds which already clothe the ground. The missletoe is offhangy on the apple and a few other trees, but can only in a far-fetched spoor be said to struggle with these trees, for if too many of these stealeaters grow on the same tree, it will languish and die. But manysome seedling missletoes, growing close together on the same branch, may more truly be said to struggle with each other. As the missletoe is toseeded by birds, its wist offhangs on birds; and it may hueingly be said to struggle with other ovet-bearing plants, in order to tempt birds to forglender and thus toseed its seeds rather than those of other plants. In these manysome spoors, which pass into each other, i use for limpfulness sake the allmeanly term of struggle for wist. A struggle for wist unforecomeberely follows from the high rimespeed at which all lifesome beings nige to eak. Every being, which during its ikindsome lifetime tidders manysome eggs or seeds, must thraw fordoing during some timedeal of its life, and during some yeartide or otherwhile year, otherwise, on the thoughsetlay of metelorely eak, its rimes would quickly become so overmichel great that no landred could underbear the itidder. Hence, as more untodealels are tiddered than can acomingly overlive, there must in every happenlay be a struggle for wist, either one untodealel with another of the same wightkin, or with the untodealels of toshed wightkin, or with the bodily hodes of life. It is the alderbeliefword of malthus belaid with manifold thrake to the whole wight and vegetable kingdoms; for in this happenlay there can be no saremadely eak of food, and no foreheedy forhavedness from wedlock. Although some wightkin may [bookleaf] 64 high rimespeed of eak. Chap. Iii. Be now eaking, more or less quickly, in rimes, all cannot do so, for the world would not hold them. There is no outtake to the rule that every lifesome being quithenly eaks at so high a rimespeed, that if not fordone, the earth would soon be betielded by the afterkin of a onele pair. Even slow-breeding man has doubled in twenty-five years, and at this rimespeed, in a few thousand years, there would staffly not be standing room for his afterkin. Linnæus has bereckoned that if an yearly plant tiddered only two seeds—and there is no plant so unitidderive as this—and their seedlings next year tiddered two, and so on, then in twenty years there would be a tenfoldhundthousand plants. The trunkwight is reckoned to be the slowest breeder of all known wights, and i have taken some pains to forereckon its likely leasthood rimespeed of ikindsome eak: it will be under the mark to foretake that it breeds when thirty years old, and goes on breeding till ninety years old, bringing forth three pair of young in this timestretch; if this be so, at the end of the fifth yearhundred there would be alive fifteen tenfoldhundthousand trunkwights, netherastien from the first pair. But we have better outshow on this underthrow than mere thoughtlayly bereckonings, namely, the rimeful edferthed happenlays of the aweingly quick eak of sundry wights in a onlay of ikind, when imbstands have been rithbere to them during two or three following yeartides. Still more striking is the outshow from our housely wights of many kinds which have run wild in manysome deals of the world: if the quids of the rimespeed of eak of slow-breeding orf and horses in south-america, and latterly in australia, had not been well truened, they would have been quite unbelievebere. So it is with plants: happenlays could be given of inlead plants which have become imean throughout whole islands in a timedeal of less than ten years. Manysome [bookleaf] 65 chap. Iii. High rimespeed of eak. Of the plants now most rimeful over the wide plains of la plata, clothing evenfourhurnshape leagues of overside almost to the exclusion of all other plants, have been inlead from europe; and there are plants which now scope in india, as i hear from dr. Falconer, from cape comorin to the himalaya, which have been imported from america since its anddeck. In such happenlays, and endless bisens could be given, no one understells that the tudderfastness of these wights or plants has been suddenly and whilenly eaked in any spoorbere andstep. The opensightly aclearing is that the hodes of life have been very rithbere, and that there has infollowingly been less fordoing of the old and young, and that nearly all the young have been bemayened to breed. In such happenlays the metelorely todealmaithred of eak, the outfollow of which never fails to be overnimming, sinfold aclears the orwoneliness quick eak and wide tospreading of ikindened tidderings in their new homes. In a onlay of ikind almost every plant tidders seed, and amongst wights there are very few which do not yearly pair. Hence we may belieffastly forthstomp, that all plants and wights are tending to eak at a metelorely todealmaithred, that all would most quickly stock every standstead in which they could any how wesen, and that the metelorely niging to eak must be checked by fordoing at some timedeal of life. Our couthred with the michelr housely wights tends, i think, to mislead us: we see no great fordoing falling on them, and we forget that thousands are yearly slaughtered for food, and that in a onlay of ikind an evenworth rime would have somehow to be disposed of. The only undershed between lifers which yearly tidder eggs or seeds by the thousand, and those which tidder outestly few, is, that the slow-breeders would tharf a few more years to befolk, under rithbere [bookleaf] 66 high rimespeed of eak. Iii. Hodes, a whole andlay, let it be ever so michel. The condor lays a couple of eggs and the thrithbird a score, and yet in the same landred the condor may be the more rimeful of the two: the fulmar holmthesterbird lays but one egg, yet it is believed to be the most rimeful bird in the world. One fly offstells hundreds of eggs, and another, like the hippobosca, a onele one; but this undershed does not toend how many untodealels of the two wightkin can be underborne in a andlay. A michel rime of eggs is of some weightiness to those wightkin, which offhang on a quickly fluctuating muchth of food, for it allows them quickly to eak in rime. But the real weightiness of a michel rime of eggs or seeds is to make up for much fordoing at some timedeal of life; and this timedeal in the great mosthood of happenlays is an early one. If a wight can in any way barrow its own eggs or young, a small rime may be tiddered, and yet the throughsnithe stock be fully kept up; but if many eggs or young are fordoed, many must be tiddered, or the wightkin will become fornaughted. It would enoughen to keep up the full rime of a tree, which lived on an throughsnithe for a thousand years, if a onele seed were tiddered once in a thousand years, understelling that this seed were never fordone, and could be ensured to sprout in a fittingstead. So that in all happenlays, the throughsnithe rime of any wight or plant offhangs only inwissly on the rime of its eggs or seeds. In looking at ikind, it is most needbehovely to keep the foregoing hidgings always in mind—never to forget that every onele lifesome being imb us may be said to be striving to the utmost to eak in rimes; that each lives by a struggle at some timedeal of its life; that heavy fordoing unforecomeberely falls either on the young or old, during each strind or at edhappening timestretchs. Lighten any check, milden the [bookleaf] 67 chap. Iii. Checks to eak. Fordoing ever so little, and the rime of the wightkin will almost timeordly eak to any muchth. The face of ikind may be withmeted to a yielding overside, with ten thousand sharp wedges packed close together and driven inwards by unblinning blows, sometimes one wedge being struck, and then another with greater thrake. What checks the ikindsome niging of each wightkin to eak in rime is most mistfull. Look at the most lifethrithsome wightkin; by as much as it swarms in rimes, by so much will its niging to eak be still further eaked. We know not weetilly what the checks are in even one onele bisen. Nor will this overnim any one who reflects how unwittle we are on this head, even in sight to mankind, so withmeteberely better known than any other wight. This underthrow has been ably treated by manysome writmakers, and i shall, in my to-come work, imbspeak some of the checks at hidgebere length, more besunders in sight to the wild wights of south america. Here i will make only a few edmarks, just to recall to the reader's mind some of the chief ords. Eggs or very young wights seem allmeanly to thraw most, but this is not everywhen the happenlay. With plants there is a vast fordoing of seeds, but, from some behowings which i have made, i believe that it is the seedlings which thraw most from sprouting in ground already thickly stocked with other plants. Seedlings, also, are fordone in vast rimes by sundry foes; for bisen, on a piece of ground three feet long and two wide, dug and cleared, and where there could be no choking from other plants, i marked all the seedlings of our inhomeish weeds as they came up, and out of the 357 no less than 295 were fordone, chiefly by slugs and bugs. If turf which has long been mown, and the happenlay would be the same with turf closely browsed by fourfooters, be let to grow, [bookleaf] 68 checks to eak. Chap. Iii. The more lifethrithsome plants stepmeally kill the less lifethrithsome, though fully grown, plants: thus out of twenty wightkin growing on a little plot of turf (three feet by four) nine wightkin swalt from the other wightkin being allowed to grow up freely. The muchth of food for each wightkin iwis gives the outest undertie to which each can eak; but very loomly it is not the fanging food, but the serving as prey to other wights, which toends the throughsnithe rimes of a wightkin. Thus, there seems to be little twight that the stock of whirquails, grouse, and hares on any michel eonlay offhangs chiefly on the fordoing of loathwight. If not one head of game were shot during the next twenty years in england, and, at the same time, if no loathwight were fordone, there would, in all likelihood, be less game than at andward, although hundreds of thousands of game wights are now yearly killed. On the other hand, in some happenlays, as with the trunkwight and rhinoceros, none are fordone by beasts of prey: even the tiger in india most seldom dares to rees a young trunkwight barrowed by its dam. Loftlay plays a weighty deal in toending the throughsnithe rimes of a wightkin, and timedealsome yeartides of outest cold or drought, i believe to be the most effective of all checks. I forereckoned that the winter of 1854-55 fordid four-fifths of the birds in my own grounds; and this is a tremendous fordoing, when we mun that ten per cent. Is an orwoneliness highernst deathship from theedtomidses with man. The deedship of loftlay seems at first sight to be quite unoffhanging of the struggle for wist; but in so far as loftlay chiefly bedoes in lowering food, it brings on the most highernst struggle between the untodealels, whether of the same or of toshed wightkin, which onlive on the same kind of food. Even when loftlay, for bisen outest [bookleaf] 69 chap. Iii. Checks to eak. Cold, bedoes wissly, it will be the least lifethrithsome, or those which have got least food through the advancing winter, which will thraw most. When we outfare from south to north, or from a damp ard to a dry, we everywhen see some wightkin stepmeally getting seldlyer and seldlyer, and endly swinding; and the awend of loftlay being aseeful, we are costened to knode the whole onworking to its straightfast deedship. But this is a very false onsight: we forget that each wightkin, even where it most abounds, is standily thrawing aldermichel fordoing at some timedeal of its life, from foes or from witherstrives for the samestead and food; and if these foes or witherstrives be in the least andstep rithed by any slight awend of loftlay, they will eak in rimes, and, as each area is already fully stocked with inwoners, the other wightkin will decrease. When we outfare southward and see a wightkin andgrowing in rimes, we may feel sure that the bewhy lies quite as much in other wightkin being rithed, as in this one being hurt. So it is when we outfare northward, but in a somewhat lesser andstep, for the rime of wightkin of all kinds, and therefore of witherstrives, decreases northwards; hence in going northward, or in astieing a barrow, we far oftener meet with stunted forms, due to the wissly demsome deedship of loftlay, than we do in going forth southwards or in netherastieing a barrow. When we reach the highnorthards, or snow-capped knaps, or fullthrough alderdrystows, the struggle for life is almost outshutly with the firststuffs. That loftlay bedoes in main deal inwissly by rithing other wightkin, we may clearly see in the highmichel rime of plants in our gardens which can fullcomely well thole our loftlay, but which never become ikindened, for they cannot witherstrive with our inhomeish plants, nor withset fordoing by our inhomeish wights. [bookleaf] 70 checks to eak. Chap. Iii. When a wightkin, owing to highly rithbere imbstands, eaks overmichel in rimes in a small tract, theedtomidses—at least, this seems allmeanly to betide with our game wights—often befollow: and here we have a undertying check unoffhanging of the struggle for life. But even some of these so-called theedtomidses thench to be due to stealeaterly worms, which have from some bewhy, acomingly in deal through eathyness of tospreading amongst the crowded wights, been disondealably rithed: and here comes in a sort of struggle between the stealeater and its prey. On the other hand, in many happenlays, a michel stock of untodealels of the same wightkin, akinsomely to the rimes of its foes, is fullthroughly needbehovely for its asparing. Thus we can easily raise plenty of corn and rape-seed, &c., in our fields, forwhy the seeds are in great overmuch withmeted with the rime of birds which feed on them; nor can the birds, though having a overfullsomeness of food at this one yeartide, eak in rime ondealy to the bestock of seed, as their rimes are checked during winter: but any one who has tried, knows how troublesome it is to get seed from a few wheat or other such plants in a garden; i have in this happenlay lost every onele seed. This onsight of the tharfliness of a michel stock of the same wightkin for its asparing, aclears, i believe, some sunderfast deedsakes in ikind, such as that of very seldly plants being sometimes outestly fullsome in the few spots where they do betide; and that of some folkshiply plants being folkshiply, that is, abounding in untodealels, even on the outest benarrowens of their scope. For in such happenlays, we may believe, that a plant could wesen only where the hodes of its life were so rithbere that many could wesen together, and thus save each other from utter fordoing. I should ateak that the good onworkings of loom betwixtrooding, and the ill onworkings [bookleaf] 71 chap. Iii. Two-way checks to eak. Of close betwixtbreeding, likely come into play in some of these happenlays; but on this inwoven underthrow i will not here enmichel. Many happenlays are on edferth showing how throughtangly and unbewaited are the checks and sibreds between lifesome beings, which have to struggle together in the same landred. I will give only a onele bisen, which, though a onelay one, has interested me. In staffordshire, on the eonlay of a relation where i had michel means of underfanding, there was a michel and outestly barren heath, which had never been rinen by the hand of man; but manysome hundred acres of weetilly the same ikind had been inshut twenty-five years beforely and planted with scotch fir. The awend in the inhomeish greenth of the planted deal of the heath was most edmarkbere, more than is allmeanly seen in passing from one quite undershedsome soil to another: not only the ondealy rimes of the heath-plants were wholly awended, but twelve wightkin of plants (not counting grasses and carices) flourished in the wortsteads, which could not be found on the heath. The onworking on the bugs must have been still greater, for six bug-eating birds were very imean in the wortsteads, which were not to be seen on the heath; and the heath was loomed by two or three toshed bug-eating birds. Here we see how strengthfast has been the onworking of the inlead of a onele tree, nothing whatever else having been done, with the outtake that the land had been inshut, so that orf could not enter. But how weighty an firststuff inshutness is, i plainly saw near farnham, in surrey. Here there are outstretchly heaths, with a few clumps of old scotch firs on the farfast hill-tops: within the last ten years michel roomhoods have been inshut, and self-sown firs are now springing up in drights, so close together that all cannot live. [bookleaf] 72 two-way checks to eak. Chap. Iii. When i drew off that these young trees had not been sown or planted, i was so much overnome at their rimes that i went to manysome ords of onsight, whence i could underseek hundreds of acres of the uninshut heath, and staffly i could not see a onele scotch fir, nimth the old planted clumps. But on looking closely between the stems of the heath, i found a dright of seedlings and little trees, which had been perpetually browsed down by the orf. In one evenfourhurnshape yard, at a ord some hundred yards farfast from one of the old clumps, i arimed thirty-two little trees; and one of them, deeming from the rings of growth, had during twenty-six years tried to raise its head above the stems of the heath, and had failed. No wonder that, as soon as the land was inshut, it became thickly clothed with lifethrithsomely growing young firs. Yet the heath was so outestly barren and so outstretchly that no one would ever have hyeshown that orf would have so closely and onworkingsomely searched it for food. Here we see that orf fullthroughly toend the wist of the scotch fir; but in manysome deals of the world bugs toend the wist of orf. Forhaps paraguay offers the most frimdy bisen of this; for here neither orf nor horses nor dogs have ever run wild, though they swarm southward and northward in a wild onlay; and azara and rengger have shown that this is bewhyed by the greater rime in paraguay of a somel fly, which lays its eggs in the navels of these wights when first born. The eak of these flies, rimeful as they are, must be wonely checked by some means, likely by birds. Hence, ifsomel bug-eating birds (whose rimes are likely regulated by hawks or beasts of prey) were to eak in paraguay, the flies would decrease—then orf and horses would become wild, and this would iwis greatly awend (as [bookleaf] 73 chap. Iii. Two-way checks to eak. Indeed i have behowed in deals of south america) the greenth: this again would michelly onwork the bugs; and this, as we just have seen in staffordshire, the bug-eating birds, and so onwards in ever-eaking circles of throughtanglyity. We began this followth by bug-eating birds, and we have ended with them. Not that in ikind the sibreds can ever be as onelay as this. Hild within hild must ever be edhappening with forsundering success; and yet in the long-run the thrakes are so nicely evenweighted, that the face of ikind belives oneshaped for long timedeals of time, though assuredly the merest trifle would often give the victory to one lifesome being over another. Nevertheless so deep is our unwareship, and so high our foretaking, that we awonder when we hear of the fornaughting of a lifesome being; and as we do not see the bewhy, we call upon downtungles to lay waste the world, or upfind laws on the whilehood of the forms of life! I am costened to give one more bisen showing how plants and wights, most remote in the scale of ikind, are bound together by a web of throughtangly sibreds. I shall hereafter have mealwhile to show that the ely gleaminglobelia, in this deal of england, is never neased by bugs, and infollowingly, from its odd upbuild, never can set a seed. Many of our orchidaceous plants fullthroughly tharf the neases of moths to remove their bloomdust-masses and thus to tudderfast-en them. I have, also, thinkcraft to believe that eathmood-bees are aldertharfly to the tudderfast-ening of the heartsease (viola threehurn), for other bees do not nease this bloomwort. From fands which i have tried, i have found that the neases of bees, if not aldertharfly, are at least highly forthly to the tudderfast-ening of our clovers; but eathmood-bees alone nease the imean red clover (meadowclover), as other bees cannot reach the bloomsugar. Hence i have very little twight, that if the whole wightkind of eathmood-bees became E [bookleaf] 74 two-way checks to eak. Chap. Iii. Fornaughted or very seldly in england, the heartsease and red clover would become very seldly, or wholly swind. The rime of eathmood-bees in any andlay offhangs in a great andstep on the rime of field-mice, which fordo their combs and nests; and mr. H. Newman, who has long yeamed to the wones of eathmood-bees, believes that "more than two thirds of them are thus fordone all over england." now the rime of mice is michelly offhangy, as every one knows, on the rime of cats; and mr. Newman says, "near villeldths and small towns i have found the nests of eathmood-bees more rimeful than elsewhere, which i knode to the rime of cats that fordo the mice." hence it is quite credible that the andwardness of a feline wight in michel rimes in a andlay might toend, through the intervention first of mice and then of bees, the loomliness of somel bloomworts in that andlay! In the happenlay of every wightkin, many undershedsome checks, bedoing at undershedsome timedeals of life, and during undershedsome yeartides or years, likely come into play; some one check or some few being allmeanly the most strengthfast, but all thweerring in toending the throughsnithe rime or even the wist of the wightkin. In some happenlays it can be shown that widely-undershedsome checks bedo on the same wightkin in undershedsome andlays. When we look at the plants and bushes clothing an thurned bank, we are costened to knode their ondealy rimes and kinds to what we call whate. But how false a onsight is this! Every one has heard that when an american wodds is cut down, a very undershedsome greenth springs up; but it has been behowed that the trees now growing on the alderold indian mounds, in the southern beoned onlays, ewe the same litty manyotheredness and ondeal of kinds as in the imbholding virgin woddss. What a struggle between the manysome kinds of trees [bookleaf] 75 chap. Iii. Two-way checks to eak. Must here have gone on during long yearhundreds, each yearly scattering its seeds by the thousand; what war between bug and bug—between bugs, snails, and other wights with birds and beasts of prey—all striving to eak, and all feeding on each other or on the trees or their seeds and seedlings, or on the other plants which first clothed the ground and thus checked the growth of the trees! Throw up a handful of feathers, and all must fall to the ground according to bindfast laws; but how onelay is this arveth withmeted to the deedship and redeedship of the unarimebere plants and wights which have toended, in the foor of yearhundreds, the ondealy rimes and kinds of trees now growing on the old indian ruins! The offhangency of one lifesome being on another, as of a stealeater on its prey, lies allmeanly between beings far-off in the scale of ikind. This is often the happenlay with those which may strictly be said to struggle with each other for wist, as in the happenlay of locusts and grass-feeding fourfooters. But the struggle almost everywhen will be most highernst between the untodealels of the same wightkin, for they loom the same andlays, tharf the same food, and are outset to the same dangers. In the happenlay of isunders of the same wightkin, the struggle will allmeanly be almost evenworthly highernst, and we sometimes see the contest soon beshut: for bisen, if manysome isunders of wheat be sown together, and the mixed seed be resown, some of the isunders which best suit the soil or loftlay, or are quithenly the most tudderfast, will beat the others and so yield more seed, and will infollowingly in a few years quite undersole the other isunders. To keep up a mixed stock of even such outestly close isunders as the sundryly coloured sweet-peas, they must be each year harvested sundermeal, and the seed then mixed in due ondeal, E 2 [bookleaf] 76 struggle for wist. Chap. Iii.

otherwise the weaker kinds will steadily decrease in rimes and swind. So again with the isunders of sheep: it has been forthstomped that somel barrow-isunders will starve out other barrow-isunders, so that they cannot be kept together. The same outfollow has followed from keeping together undershedsome isunders of the medicinal leech. It may even be twighted whether the isunders of any one of our housely plants or wights have so weetilly the same strength, wones, and setness, that the fromly ondeals of a mixed stock could be kept up for half a dozen strinds, if they were allowed to struggle together, like beings in a onlay of ikind, and if the seed or young were not yearly sorted.

As wightkin of the same wightkind have wonely, though by no means everywhen, some alikeship in wones and setness, and always in upbuild, the struggle will allmeanly be more highernst between wightkin of the same wightkind, when they come into witherstrive with each other, than between wightkin of toshed wightkinds. We see this in the short-ago outstretching over deals of the beoned onlays of one wightkin of swallow having bewhyed the decrease of another wightkin. The short-ago eak of the missel-thrush in deals of scotland has bewhyed the decrease of the song-thrush. How loomly we hear of one wightkin of rat taking thestead of another wightkin under the most undershedsome loftlays! In russia the small asiatic cockroach has everywhere driven before it its great congener. One wightkin of charlock will undersole another, and so in other happenlays. We can dimly see why the witherstrive should be most highernst between alinked forms, which fill nearly the samestead in the setlay of ikind; but likely in no one happenlay could we targeockfastly say why one wightkin has been sigorfast over another in the great hild of life. [bookleaf] 77 chap. Iii. Struggle for wist. A hueleafmaithry of the highest weightiness may be offlead from the foregoing edmarks, namely, that the upbuild of every lifesome being is akinned, in the most isshiply yet often hidden way, to that of all other lifesome beings, with which it comes into witherstrive for food or wicking, or from which it has to withfare, or on which it preys. This is opensightly in the upbuild of the teeth and talons of the tiger; and in that of the legs and claws of the stealeater which clings to the hair on the tiger's body. But in the littily plumed seed of the dandelion, and in the flattened and fringed legs of the water-beetle, the maithred seems at first benarrowened to the firststuffs of air and water. Yet the foredeal of plumed seeds no twight stands in the closest maithred to the land being already thickly clothed by other plants; so that the seeds may be widely brittened and fall on unforbusied ground. In the water-beetle, the upbuild of its legs, so well throughfit for diving, allows it to witherstrive with other waterly bugs, to hunt for its own prey, and to withfare serving as prey to other wights. The store of feedle laid up within the seeds of many plants seems at first sight to have no sort of maithred to other plants. But from the strong growth of young plants tiddered from such seeds (as peas and beans), when sown in the midst of long grass, i underlook that the chief use of the feedle in the seed is to rith the growth of the young seedling, whilst struggling with other plants growing lifethrithsomely all imb. Look at a plant in the midst of its scope, why does it not double or fourle its rimes? We know that it can fullcomely well withstand a little more heat or cold, dampness or dryness, for elsewhere it scopes [bookleaf] 78 struggle for wist. Chap. Iii. Into slightly hotter or colder, damper or drier andlays. In this happenlay we can clearly see that if we wished in hyeshow to give the plant the wold of eaking in rime, we should have to give it some foredeal over its witherstrives, or over the wights which preyed on it. On the benarrowens of its earthlorely scope, a awend of setness with edsight to loftlay would clearly be an foredeal to our plant; but we have thinkcraft to believe that only a few plants or wights scope so far, that they are fordone by the trumness of the loftlay alone. Not until we reach the outest benarrowens of life, in the highnorthards or on the borders of an utter alderdrystow, will witherstrive blin. The land may be outestly cold or dry, yet there will be witherstrive between some few wightkin, or between the untodealels of the same wightkin, for the warmest or dampest spots. Hence, also, we can see that when a plant or wight is stelled in a new landred amongst new witherstrives, though the loftlay may be weetilly the same as in its former home, yet the hodes of its life will allmeanly be awended in an isshiply way. If we wished to eak its throughsnithe rimes in its new home, we should have to awend it in an undershedsome way to what we should have done in its inhomeish landred; for we should have to give it some foredeal over an undershedsome set of witherstrives or foes. It is good thus to try in our hyeshow to give any form some foredeal over another. Likely in no onele bisen should we know what to do, so as to spow. It will overtell us of our unwareship on the two-way sibreds of all lifesome beings; a belief as needbehovely, as it seems to be arvethfast to underfang. All that we can do, is to keep steadily in mind that each lifesome being is striving to eak at a metelorely [bookleaf] 79 chap. Iii. Struggle for wist. Todealmaithred; that each at some timedeal of its life, during some yeartide of the year, during each strind or at timestretchs, has to struggle for life, and to thraw great fordoing. When we imbthink on this struggle, we may console ourselves with the full belief, that the war of ikind is not unblinning, that no fear is felt, that death is allmeanly prompt, and that the lifethrithsome, the healthy, and the happy overlive and manyen. [bookleaf] 80 ikindly choosing. Chap. Iv. Bookdeal iv. Ikindly choosing. Ikindly choosing — its wold withmeted with man's choosing — its wold on suchnesses of trifling weightiness — its wold at all eldths and on both akenbodyworkthsplits — mingefast choosing — on the allmeanlyness of betwixtroodes between untodealels of the same wightkin — imbstands rithbere and unrithbere to ikindly choosing, namely, betwixtrooding, onlyed-offness, rime of untodealels — slow deedship — fornaughting bewhyed by ikindly choosing — towhirft of suchness, akinned to the manyotheredness of inwoners of any small area, and to ikindsomeing — deedship of ikindly choosing, through towhirft of suchness and fornaughting, on the netherastiendsfrom a imean akennend — aclears the maithing of all lifesome beings. How will the struggle for wist, imbspoken too briefly in the last bookdeal, bedo in sight to sundriness? Can the thoughsetlay of choosing, which we have seen is so strengthfast in the hands of man, belay in ikind? I think we shall see that it can bedo most onworkingsomely. Let it be borne in mind in what an endless rime of selcouth oddnesses our housely tidderings, and, in a lesser andstep, those under ikind, forsunder; and how strong the ervesome niging is. Under housening, it may be truly said that the whole dight becomes in some andstep plastic. Let it be borne in mind how boundlessly throughtangly and close-fitting are the two-way sibreds of all lifesome beings to each other and to their bodily hodes of life. Can it, then, be thought imlikely, seeing that sundrinesss nitworth to man have untwightedly betided, that other sundrinesss nitworth in some way to each being in the great and throughtangly hild of life, should sometimes betide in the foor of thousands of strinds? If such do betide, can we doubt (remem- [bookleaf] 81 chap. Iv. Ikindly choosing. Bering that many more untodealels are born than can acomingly overlive) that untodealels having any foredeal, however slight, over others, would have the best whate of overliving and of forthbeshaping their kind? On the other hand, we may feel sure that any sundriness in the least andstep demsome would be stiffly fordone. This asparing of rithbere sundrinesss and the withsetion of demsome sundrinesss, i call ikindly choosing. Isunders neither nitworth nor demsome would not be onworked by ikindsome choosing, and would be left a fluctuating firststuff, as forhaps we see in the wightkin called manyshaped. We shall best understand the likely foor of ikindsome choosing by taking the happenlay of a landred undergoing some bodily awend, for bisen, of loftlay. The ondealy rimes of its inwoners would almost forthwith undergo a awend, and some wightkin might become fornaughted. We may ashut, from what we have seen of the intimate and throughtangly way in which the inwoners of each landred are bound together, that any awend in the rimely ondeals of some of the inwoners, unoffhangingly of the awend of loftlay itself, would most seriously onwork many of the others. If the landred were open on its borders, new forms would iwis inyondshrithe, and this also would seriously dreeve the sibreds of some of the former inwoners. Let it be muned how woldful the inflowmayen of a onele inlead tree or sucklewight has been shown to be. But in the happenlay of an island, or of a landred deally imbheld by barriers, into which new and better throughfit forms could not freely enter, we should then havesteads in the setlay of ikind which would assuredly be better filled up, if some of the fromly inwoners were in some way awended; for, had the area been open to inyondshrithing, these same E 3 [bookleaf] 82 ikindly choosing. Chap. Iv. Steads would have been fanged on by intruders. In such happenlay, every slight awending, which in the foor of eldths whated to arise, and which in any way rithed the untodealels of any of the wightkin, by better throughfitting them to their awended hodes, would nige to be aspared; and ikindsome choosing would thus have free scope for the work of bettering. We have thinkcraft to believe, as quided in the first bookdeal, that a awend in the hodes of life, by asunderfastly bedoing on the edtidderly setlay, bewhys or eaks sundriness; and in the foregoing happenlay the hodes of life are understelled to have undergone a awend, and this would manifestly be rithbere to ikindsome choosing, by giving a better whate of notesome sundrinesss betiding; and unless notesome sundrinesss do betide, ikindsome choosing can do nothing. Not that, as i believe, any outest muchth of sundriness is needbehovely; as man can iwis tidder great outfollows by ateaking up in any given stighting mere untodealel undersheds, so could ikind, but far more easily, from having withmeteberely longer time at her disposal. Nor do i believe that any great bodily awend, as of loftlay, or any unwonely andstep of onlyed-offness to check inyondshrithing, is soothly needbehovely to tidder new and unforbusiedsteads for ikindsome choosing to fill up by awending and bettering some of the forsundering inwoners. For as all the inwoners of each landred are struggling together with nicely evenweighted thrakes, outestly slight awendings in the upbuild or wones of one inwoner would often give it an foredeal over others; and still further awendings of the same kind would often still further eak the foredeal. No landred can be named in which all the inhomeish inwoners are now so fullcomely throughfit to each other and to the bodily hodes under which they live, that none of [bookleaf] 83 chap. Iv. Ikindly choosing. Them could anyhow be bettered; for in all landreds, the inhomeishes have been so far overwon by ikindened tidderings, that they have allowed ellandishers to take firm besitting of the land. And as ellandishers have thus everywhere beaten some of the inhomeishes, we may safely ashut that the inhomeishes might have been awended with foredeal, so as to have better withseted such intruders. As man can tidder and iwis has tiddered a great outfollow by his do-wayly and underawared means of choosing, what may not ikind onwork? Man can bedo only on outly and seebere suchnesses: ikind cares nothing for upshowings, nimth in so far as they may be nitworth to any being. She can bedo on every inly bodyworkth, on every shade of setnessly undershed, on the whole machinery of life. Man chooses only for his own good; ikind only for that of the being which she tends. Every chosen suchness is fully adrilled by her; and the being is stelled under well-suited hodes of life. Man keeps the inhomeishes of many loftlays in the same landred; he seldom adrills each chosen suchness in some odd and fitting manner; he feeds a long and a short beaked plumpdove on the same food; he does not adrill a long-backed or long-legged fourfootwight in any odd way; he outstells sheep with long and short wool to the same loftlay. He does not allow the most lifethrithsome seedlifers to struggle for the birthlifers. He does not stiffly fordo all undersome wights, but barrows during each forsundering yeartide, as far as lies in his wold, all his tidderings. He often begins his choosing by some half-owleechsome form; or at least by some awending outstickfast enough to fang his eye, or to be plainly nitworth to him. Under ikind, the slightest undershed of upbuild or setness may well turn the nicely-evenweightd scale in the [bookleaf] 84 ikindly choosing. Chap. Iv. Struggle for life, and so be aspared. How fleeting are the wishes and forththriths of man! How short his time! And afollowsomely how arm will his itidders be, withmeted with those upheaped by ikind during whole earthlorely timedeals. Can we wonder, then, that ikind's tidderings should be far "truer" in suchness than man's tidderings; that they should be boundlessly better throughfit to the most throughtangly hodes of life, and should plainly bear the stamp of far higher workmanship? It may be said that ikindsome choosing is daily and hourly throughneesing, throughout the world, every sundriness, even the slightest; withsetting that which is bad, asparing and ateaking up all that is good; silently and unspoorberely working, whenever and wherever tideliness offers, at the bettering of each lifesome being in maithred to its lifesome and inlifefast hodes of life. We see nothing of these slow awends in forthstride, until the hand of time has marked the long whilestitch of eldths, and then so unfullcome is our onsight into long eretide earthlorely eldths, that we only see that the forms of life are now undershedsome from what they formerly were. Although ikindsome choosing can bedo only through and for the good of each being, yet suchnesses and upbuilds, which we are apt to hidge as of very trifling weightiness, may thus be acted on. When we see leaf-eating bugs green, and bark-feeders mottled-grey; the alpine ptarmigan white in winter, the red-grouse the colour of heather, and the black-grouse that of peaty earth, we must believe that these tints are of thanered to these birds and bugs in asparing them from freech. Grouse, if not fordone at some timedeal of their lives, would eak in countless rimes; they are known to thraw michelly from birds of prey; and hawks are guided by eyesight to their prey,—so much so, that on [bookleaf] 85 chap. Iv. Ikindly choosing. Deals of the earthdeal persons are warned not to keep white plumpdoves, as being the most atiely to fordoing. Hence i can see no thinkcraft to twight that ikindsome choosing might be most onworkingive in giving the davenly colour to each kind of grouse, and in keeping that colour, when once underfanged, true and standy. Nor ought we to think that the otherwhile fordoing of a wight of any dealocksome colour would tidder little onworking: we should mun how isshiply it is in a flock of white sheep to fordo every lamb with the faintest trace of black. In plants the down on the ovet and the colour of the flesh are hidged by wortlorers as suchnesses of the most trifling weightiness: yet we hear from an highmood cropcrafter, downing, that in the beoned states smooth-skinned ovets thraw far more from a beetle, a curculio, than those with down; that purple plums thraw far more from a somel cothe than yellow plums; whereas another cothe reess yellow-fleshed peaches far more than those with other coloured flesh. If, with all the aids of art, these slight undersheds make a great undershed in cultivating the manysome isunders, assuredly, in a onlay of ikind, where the trees would have to struggle with other trees and with a host of foes, such undersheds would onworkingsomely settle which isunder, whether a smooth or downy, a yellow or purple fleshed ovet, should spow. In looking at many small ords of undershed between wightkin, which, as far as our unwareship thaves us to deemend, seem to be quite unweighty, we must not forget that loftlay, food, &c., likely tidder some slight and straightfast onworking. It is, however, far more needbehovely to bear in mind that there are many unknown laws of togethersibred of growth, which, when one deal of the dight is awended through sundriness, and the awendings are upheaped by ikindsome choosing for [bookleaf] 86 ikindly choosing. Chap. Iv. The good of the being, will bewhy other awendings, often of the most unbewaited ikind. As we see that those sundrinesss which under housening show up at any dealocksome timedeal of life, nige to edupshow in the offspring at the same timedeal;—for bisen, in the seeds of the many isunders of our cookly and cropcraftsome plants; in the forebutterfly and forebutterflybed stepocks of the isunders of the silkworm; in the eggs of fowl, and in the colour of the down of their chickens; in the horns of our sheep and orf when nearly adult;—so in a onlay of ikind, ikindsome choosing will be bemayened to bedo on and awend lifesome beings at any eldth, by the upheaping of notesome sundrinesss at that eldth, and by their erve at a togetheranswering eldth. If it beforth a plant to have its seeds more and more widely toseeded by the wind, i can see no greater arveth in this being onworked through ikindsome choosing, than in the cotton-planter eaking and bettering by choosing the down in the pods on his cotton-trees. Ikindsome choosing may awend and throughfit the forebug of an bug to a score of offhanginesses, wholly undershedsome from those which bemeet the full-grown bug. These awendings will no twight onwork, through the laws of togethersibred, the upbuild of the adult; and likely in the happenlay of those bugs which live only for a few hours, and which never feed, a michel deal of their upbuild is merely the corakinned outfollow of afterfollowly awends in the upbuild of their forebugs. So, otherwayly, awendings in the adult will likely often onwork the upbuild of the forebug; but in all happenlays ikindsome choosing will ensure that awendings consequent on other awendings at an undershedsome timedeal of life, shall not be in the least andstep dollowful: for if they became so, they would bewhy the fornaughting of the wightkin. Ikindsome choosing will awend the upbuild of the [bookleaf] 87 chap. Iv.mingefast choosing. Young in maithred to the akennend, and of the akennend in maithred to the young. In folkshiply wights it will throughfit the upbuild of each untodealel for the beforthing of the imeanship; if each in afterfollow beforths by the chosen awend. What ikindsome choosing cannot do, is to awend the upbuild of one wightkin, without giving it any foredeal, for the good of another wightkin; and though quids to this onworking may be found in works of ikindsome yorelore, i cannot find one happenlay which will bear underfanding. A upbuild used only once in a wight's whole life, if of high weightiness to it, might be awended to any scope by ikindsome choosing; for bisen, the great jaws besat be somel bugs, and used outshutly for opening the forebutterflybed—or the hard tip to the beak of nestling birds, used for breaking the egg. It has been forthstomped, that of the best short-beaked tumbler-plumpdoves more swelt in the egg than are able to get out of it; so that fanciers filst in the bedo of hatching. Now, if ikind had to make the beak of a full-grown plumpdove very short for the bird's own foredeal, the forthhappen of awending would be very slow, and there would be sametimely the most rigorous choosing of the young birds within the egg, which had the most woldful and hardest beaks, for all with weak beaks would unforecomeberely swelt: or, more breakly and more easily broken shells might be chosen, the thickness of the shell being known to forsunder like every other upbuild. Mingefast choosing.—inasmuch as oddnesses often show up under housening in one akenbodyworkthsplit and become ervesomely onfastened to that akenbodyworkthsplit, the same deedsake likely betides under ikind, and if so, ikindsome choosing will be able to awend one akenbodyworkthsplit in its workhoodal sibreds to the other akenbodyworkthsplit, or in maithred to wholly undershedsome wones of life in the two akenbodyworkthsplits, as is sometimes the happenlay [bookleaf] 88 mingefast choosing. Chap. Iv. With bugs. And this leads me to say a few words on what i call mingefast choosing. This offhangs, not on a struggle for wist, but on a struggle between the seedlifers for besitting of the birthlifers; the outfollow is not death to the unsuccessful witherstrive, but few or no offspring. Mingefast choosing is, therefore, less rigorous than ikindsome choosing. Allmeanly, the most lifethrithsome seedlifers, those which are best fitted for their steads in ikind, will leave most afterkin. But in many happenlays, victory will offhang not on allmeanly lifethrith, but on having sunderful weapons, benarrowened to the seedlifer akenbodyworkthsplit. A hornless stag or spurless cock would have an arm chance of leaving offspring. Mingefast choosing by always allowing the victor to breed might surely give unoverweighbere ellen, length to the spur, and strength to the wing to strike in the spurred leg, as well as the brutal cock-fighter, who knows well that he can better his breed by careful choosing of the best cocks. How low in the scale of ikind this law of hild netherasties, i know not; seedlifer shortsnoutswampmichelcreepwights have been bewritten as fighting, bellowing, and whirling round, like indians in a war-dance, for the besitting of the birthlifers; seedlifer salmons have been seen fighting all day long; seedlifer stag-beetles often bear wounds from the huge jaws of other seedlifers. The war is, forhaps, highernstst between the seedlifers of polygamous wights, and these seem oftenest forelooked with sunderful weapons. The seedlifers of meat-eating wights are already well armed; though to them and to others, sunderful means of forstanding may be given through means of mingefast choosing, as the mane to the lion, the shoulder-pad to the boar, and the hooked jaw to the seedlifer salmon; for the shield may be as weighty for victory, as the sword or spear. Amongst birds, the contest is often of a more peaceful suchness. All those who have yeamed to the underthrow, [bookleaf] 89 chap. Iv. Mingefast choosing. Believe that there is the highernstst rivalry between the seedlifers of many wightkin to onpull by singing the birthlifers. The rock-thrush of guiana, birds of narxenwong, and some others, samen; and afterfollowly seedlifers ewe their litty feathers and frem selcouth antics before the birthlifers, which standing by as onlookers, at last choose the most onpullsome mate. Those who have closely yeamed to birds in benarrowenedness well know that they often take untodealel forechoices and andlikes: thus sir r. Heron has bewritten how one pied peacock was highoutlyly onpullsome to all his hen birds. It may thench childish to knode any onworking to such opensightly weak means: i cannot here write on the atcuts needbehovely to underbear this onsight; but if man can in a short time give smicker care and fairhood to his dwarfhomefowls, according to his standord of fairhood, i can see no good grounds to twight that birthlifer birds, by choosing, during thousands of strinds, the most swinceful or litty seedlifers, according to their standord of fairhood, might tidder a marked onworking. I strongly underlook that some well-known laws with edsight to the feathers of seedlifer and birthlifer birds, in withmeting with the feathers of the young, can be acleared on the onsight of feathers having been chiefly awended by mingefast choosing, bedoing when the birds have come to the breeding eldth or during the breeding yeartide; the awendings thus tiddered being erved at togetheranswering eldths or yeartides, either by the seedlifers alone, or by the seedlifers and birthlifers; but i have not roomhood here to enter on this underthrow. Thus it is, as i believe, that when the seedlifers and birthlifers of any wight have the same allmeanly wones of life, but andsame in upbuild, colour, or glinge, such undersheds have been mainly bewhyed by mingefast choosing; that is, untodealel seedlifers have had, in afterfollowly strinds, some slight foredeal over other [bookleaf] 90 ikindly choosing. Chap. Iv. Seedlifers, in their weapons, means of forstanding, or charms; and have yondstelled these foredeals to their seedlifer offspring. Yet, i would not wish to knode all such akenbodyworkthsplitual undersheds to this deedcraft: for we see oddnesses arising and becoming onfastened to the seedlifer akenbodyworkthsplit in our housely wights (as the wattle in seedlifer bearers, horn-like protuberances in the cocks of somel fowls, &c.), which we cannot believe to be either nitworth to the seedlifers in hild, or onpullsome to the birthlifers. We see samerunsome happenlays under ikind, for bisen, the tuft of hair on the breast of the turkey-cock, which can hardly be either nitworth or glingeal to this bird;—indeed, had the tuft shown up under housening, it would have been called a owleechsomeness. Alightings of the deedship of ikindly choosing.—in order to make it clear how, as i believe, ikindsome choosing bedoes, i must beg thave to give one or two hyeshowsome onlights. Let us take the happenlay of a wolf, which preys on sundry wights, securing some by craft, some by strength, and some by fleetness; and let us understell that the fleetest prey, a deer for bisen, had from any awend in the landred eaked in rimes, or that other prey had andgrown in rimes, during that yeartide of the year when the wolf is hardest thrisme for food. I can under such imbstands see no thinkcraft to twight that the swiftest and slimmest wolves would have the best whate of overliving, and so be aspared or chosen,—forelooked always that they bekept strength to master their prey at this or at some other timedeal of the year, when they might be thraffed to prey on other wights. I can see no more thinkcraft to twight this, than that man can better the fleetness of his greyhounds by careful and do-wayly choosing, or by that underawared choosing which outfollows from each man trying [bookleaf] 91 chap. Iv. Ikindly choosing. To keep the best dogs without any thought of awending the breed. Even without any change in the ondealy rimes of the wights on which our wolf preyed, a cub might be born with an inborn niging to pursuesomel kinds of prey. Nor can this be thought very imlikely; for we often behow great undersheds in the ikindsome tendencies of our housely wights; one cat, for bisen, taking to fang rats, another mice; one cat, according to mr. St. John, bringing home winged game, another hares or rabbits, and another hunting on marshy ground and almost nightly fanging woodcocks or snipes. The niging to fang rats rather than mice is known to be erved. Now, if any slight inborn awend of wone or of upbuild beforthinged an untodealel wolf, it would have the best whate of surviving and of leaving offspring. Some of its young would likely erve the same wones or upbuild, and by the edledging of this forthhappen, a new isunder might be ashaped which would either undersole or togetherwesen with the akennend-form of wolf. Or, again, the wolves inwoning a barrowsome andlay, and those looming the lowlands, would quithenly be thracked to hunt undershedsome prey; and from the throughstood asparing of the untodealels best fitted for the two sites, two isunders might slowly be ashaped. These isunders would rood and blend where they met; but to this underthrow of betwixtrooding we shall soon have to edwend. I may ateak, that, according to mr. Pierce, there are two isunders of the wolf inwoning the catskill barrows in the beoned onlays, one with a light greyhound-like form, which pursues deer, and the other more bulky, with shorter legs, which more loomly reess the shepherd's flocks. Let us now take a more throughtangly happenlay.somel plants forout a sweet sew, opensightly for the sake of eliminating something demsome from their sap: this is [bookleaf] 92 ikindly choosing. Chap. Iv. Onworked by glands at the bottomlay of the stipules in some beanwights, and at the back of the leaf of the imean laurel. This sew, though small in muchth, is greedily sought by bugs. Let us now understell a little sweet sew or bloomsugar to be foroutd by the inner bottomlays of the huebloomleaves of a bloomwort. In this happenlay bugs in seeking the bloomsugar would get dusted with bloomdust, and would iwis often yondbear the bloomdust from one bloomwort to the bloomdustthecher of another bloomwort. The bloomworts of two toshed untodealels of the same wightkin would thus get rooded; and the bedo of rooding, we have good thinkcraft to believe (as will hereafter be more fully atpulled to), would tidder very lifethrithsome seedlings, which infollowingly would have the best whate of flourishing and overliving. Some of these seedlings would likely erve the bloomsugar-excreting wold. Those untodealel bloomworts which had the michelst glands or bloomsugaries, and which forouted most bloomsugar, would be oftenest neased by bugs, and would be oftenest rooded; and so in the long-run would gain the upper hand. Those bloomworts, also, which had their stemocks and grasples stelled, in maithred to the size and wones of the dealocksome bugs which neased them, so as to rith in any andstep the yondbearing of their bloomdust from bloomwort to bloomwort, would likewise be rithed or chosen. We might have taken the happenlay of bugs neasing bloomworts for the sake of gathering bloomdust instead of bloomsugar; and as bloomdust is ashaped for the sole towardsthing of tudderfast-ening, its fordoing thenches a onelay loss to the plant; yet if a little bloomdust were borne, at first otherwhilely and then wonely, by the bloomdust-forglendering bugs from bloomwort to bloomwort, and a rood thus onworked, although nine-tenths of the bloomdust were fordone, it might still be a great gain to the plant; and those untodealels which tiddered more and more bloomdust, and had michelr and michelr bloomdustbags, would be chosen. [bookleaf] 93 chap. Iv. Ikindly choosing. When our plant, by this forthhappen of the throughstood asparing or ikindsome choosing of more and more onpullsome bloomworts, had been made highly onpullsome to bugs, they would, uninwhelvely on their deal, woneshapefastnessly bear bloomdust from bloomwort to bloomwort; and that they can most onworkingsomely do this, i could easily show by many striking bisens. I will give only one—not as a very striking happenlay, but as likewise onlighting one step in the totweeming of the akenbodyworkthsplits of plants, andwardly to be atpulled to. Some holly-trees bear only seedlifer bloomworts, which have four stemocks tiddering rather a small muchth of bloomdust, and a leftlingish grasple; other holly-trees bear only birthlifer bloomworts; these have a full-sized grasple, and four stemocks with shrivelled bloomdustbags, in which not a grain of bloomdust can be arepped. Having found a birthlifer tree weetilly sixty yards from a seedlifer tree, i put the bloomdustthechers of twenty bloomworts, taken from undershedsome branches, under the smallseer, and on all, without outtake, there were bloomdust-grains, and on some a profusion of bloomdust. As the wind had set for manysome days from the birthlifer to the seedlifer tree, the bloomdust could not thus have been borne. The weather had been cold and boisterous, and therefore not rithbere to bees, nevertheless every birthlifer bloomwort which i undersought had been onworkingsomely tudderfast-ened by the bees, misfallsomely dusted with bloomdust, having flown from tree to tree in search of bloomsugar. But to edwendf to our hyeshowsome happenlay: as soon as the plant had been made so highly onpullsome to bugs that bloomdust was woneshapefastnessly borne from bloomwort to bloomwort, another forthhappen might begin. No ikindlorer twights the foredeal of what has been called the "bodylorely idole of labour;" hence we may believe that it would be foredealful to a plant to tidder stemocks alone in one bloomwort or on one whole plant, and grasples alone in [bookleaf] 94 ikindly choosing. Chap. Iv. Another bloomwort or on another plant. In plants under culture andsteadd under new hodes of life, sometimes the seedlifer bodyworkths and sometimes the birthlifer bodyworkths become more or less strengthless; now if we understell this to betide in ever so slight a andstep under ikind, then as bloomdust is already borne woneshapefastnessly from bloomwort to bloomwort, and as a more fullwork totweeming of the akenbodyworkthsplits of our plant would be foredealful on the thoughsetlay of the idole of labour, untodealels with this niging more and more eaked, would be throughstandingly rithed or chosen, until at last a fullwork totweeming of the akenbodyworkthsplits would be onworked. Let us now turn to the bloomsugar-feeding bugs in our hyeshowsome happenlay: we may understell the plant of which we have been slowly eaking the bloomsugar by throughstood choosing, to be a imean plant; and that somel bugs offhung in main deal on its bloomsugar for food. I could give many deedsakes, showing how anxious bees are to save time; for bisen, their wone of cutting holes and sucking the bloomsugar at the bottomlays of somel bloomworts, which they can, with a very little more trouble, enter by the mouth. Bearing such deedsakes in mind, i can see no thinkcraft to twight that a misfallsome andwaying in the size and form of the body, or in the curvature and length of the wighttrunk, &c., far too slight to be beworthd by us, might beforth a bee or other bug, so that an untodealel so suchnessised would be able to fang its food more quickly, and so have a better whate of living and leavingnetherastiends. Itsnetherastiends would likely erve a niging to a alike slight andwaying of upbuild. The tubes of the hueleafmaiths of the imean red and flesh-hued clovers (meadowclover and incarnatum) do not on a hasty glance thench to andsame in length; yet the hive-bee can easily suck the bloomsugar out of the flesh-hued clover, but not out of the imean red [bookleaf] 95 chap. Iv. Ikindly choosing. Clover, which is neased by eathmood-bees alone; so that whole fields of the red clover offer in ordless an fullsome bestock of dearworth bloomsugar to the hive-bee. Thus it might be a great foredeal to the hive-bee to have a slightly longer or undershedsomely abuilt wighttrunk. On the other hand, i have found by fand that the tudderfastness of clover greatly offhangs on bees neasing and moving deals of the hueleafmaith, so as to push the bloomdust on to the bloomdustthechertic overside. Hence, again, if eathmood-bees were to become seldly in any landred, it might be a great foredeal to the red clover to have a shorter or more deeply todealt tube to its hueleafmaith, so that the hive-bee could nease its bloomworts. Thus i can understand how a bloomwort and a bee might slowly become, either sametimely or one after the other, awended and throughfit in the most fullcome way to each other, by the throughstood asparing of untodealels andwarding two-way and slightly rithbere andwayings of upbuild. I am well aware that this alderbeliefword of ikindsome choosing, bebisened in the above hyeshowsome bisens, is open to the same withthrowings which were at first thraffed against sir charles lyell's athel onsights on "the now-time awends of the earth, as alightsome of earthlore;" but we now very seldom hear the deedship, for bisen, of the coast-waves, called a trifling and intokenfast bewhy, when belaid to the unbetielding of entish deans or to the ashaping of the longest lines of inland cliffs. Ikindsome choosing can bedo only by the asparing and upheaping of boundlesssimally small erved awendings, each notesome to the aspared being; and as now-time earthlore has almost banished such onsights as the unbetielding of a great dean by a onele floodly wave, so will ikindsome choosing, if it be a true thoughsetlay, banish the belief of the throughstood ishaft of new lifesome [bookleaf] 96 on the foredeal chap. Iv. Beings, or of any great and sudden awending in their upbuild. On the betwixtrooding of untodealels.—i must here inlead a short tostepping. In the happenlay of wights and plants with totweemed akenbodyworkthsplits, it is iwis opensightly that two untodealels must always beone for each birth; but in the happenlay of weaponedwifesters this is far from opensightly. Nevertheless i am strongly bighfast to believe that with all weaponedwifesters two untodealels, either otherwhile or wonely, thweer for the edtiddering of their kind. This onsight, i may ateak, was first behinted by andrew knight. We shall andwardly see its weightiness; but i must here treat the underthrow with outest shorthood, though i have the materials prepared for an michel imbspeech. All backbonelingwight wights, all bugs, and some other michel maiths of wights, pair for each birth. Now-time research has much aquinen the rime of understelled weaponedwifesters, and of real weaponedwifesters a michel rime pair; that is, two untodealels woneshapefastnessly beone for edtiddering, which is all that bemeets us. But still there are many weaponedwifester wights which iwis do not wonely pair, and a vast mosthood of plants are weaponedwifesters. What thinkcraft, it may be asked, is there for understelling in these happenlays that two untodealels ever thweer in edtiddering? As it is unacomingly here to enter on atcuts, i must trust to some allmeanly hidgings alone. In the firststead, i have gathered so michel a body of deedsakes, showing, in accordance with the almost allhomely belief of breeders, that with wights and plants a rood between undershedsome isunders, or between untodealels of the same isunder but of another strain, gives lifethrith and tudderfastness to the offspring; and on the other hand, that close betwixtbreeding aquines lifethrith and tudderfastness; that [bookleaf] 97 chap. Iv. Of betwixtrooding. These deedsakes alone forbend me to believe that it is a allmeanly law of ikind (utterly unwittle though we be of the meaning of the law) that no lifesome being self-tudderfast-ens itself for an foreverness of strinds; but that a rood with another untodealel is otherwhile—forhaps at very long timestretchs—aldertharfly. On the belief that this is a law of ikind, we can, i think, understand manysome michel ilks of deedsakes, such as the following, which on any other onsight are unaclearbere. Every twibloodtudderizer knows how unrithbere outsetness to wet is to the tudderfast-ening of a bloomwort, yet what a dright of bloomworts have their bloomdustbags and bloomdustthechers fully outset to the weather! But if an otherwhile rood be aldertharfly, the fullest freedom for the entrance of bloomdust from another untodealel will aclear this onlay of outsetness, more besunders as the plant's own bloomdustbags and grasple allmeanly stand so close together that self-tudderfast-ening seems almost unmithebere. Many bloomworts, on the other hand, have their bodyworkths of ovetening closely inshut, as in the great butterflyshaped or pea-huered; but in manysome, forhaps in all, such bloomworts, there is a very frimdy throughfitting between the upbuild of the bloomwort and the way in which bees suck the bloomsugar; for, in doing this, they either push the bloomwort's own bloomdust on the bloomdustthecher, or bring bloomdust from another bloomwort. So needbehovely are the neases of bees to butterflyshaped bloomworts, that i have found, by fands forlaid elsewhere, that their tudderfastness is greatly aquinen if these neases be forecome. Now, it is hardly acomingly that bees should fly from bloomwort to bloomwort, and not bear bloomdust from one to the other, to the great good, as i believe, of the plant. Bees will bedo like a olfend-hair pencil, and it is quite enoughsome just to touch the bloomdustbags of one bloomwort and then the bloomdustthecher of another with the same brush to ensure tudderfast-ening; but it must not be F [bookleaf] 98 on the foredeal chap. Iv. Understelled that bees would thus tidder a dright of twibloodtudders between toshed wightkin; for if you bring on the same brush a plant's own bloomdust and bloomdust from another wightkin, the former will have such a woddsrengthfast onworking, that it will everywhen and fullthroughly fordo, as has been shown by gärtner, any inflowmayen from the ellandish bloomdust. When the stemocks of a bloomwort suddenly spring towards the grasple, or slowly move one after the other towards it, the acraft seems throughfit solely to ensure self-tudderfast-ening; and no twight it is nitworth for this end: but, the deedcraft of bugs is often tharfed to bewhy the stemocks to spring forward, as kölreuter has shown to be the happenlay with the barberry; and frimdily in this very wightkind, which seems to have a sunderful acraft for self-tudderfast-ening, it is well known that if very closely-alinked forms or isunders are planted near each other, it is hardly acomingly to raise siver seedlings, so michelly do they quithenly rood. In many other happenlays, far from there being any aids for self-tudderfast-ening, there are sunderful acrafts, as i could show from the writings of c. C. Sprengel and from my own behowings, which onworkingsomely forecome the bloomdustthecher onfanging bloomdust from its own bloomwort: for bisen, in gleaminglobelia, there is a really litty and highwrought acraft by which every one of the boundlessly rimeful bloomdust-seedocks are swept out of the confayed bloomdustbags of each bloomwort, before the bloomdustthecher of that individual bloomwort is ready to thidge them; and as this bloomwort is never neased, at least in my garden, by bugs, it never sets a seed, though by stelling bloomdust from one bloomwort on the bloomdustthecher of another, i raised plenty of seedlings; and whilst another wightkin of lobelia growing close by, which is neased by bees, seeds freely. In very many other happenlays, though there be no sunderful workcraftsome acraft to forecome the bloomdustthecher of a bloomwort onfanging its own pollen, yet, as [bookleaf] 99 chap. Iv. Of betwixtrooding. C. C. Sprengel has shown, and as i can atrum, either the bloomdustbags burst before the bloomdustthecher is ready for tudderfast-ening, or the bloomdustthecher is ready before the bloomdust of that bloomwort is ready, so that these plants have in deedsake totweemed akenbodyworkthsplits, and must wonely be rooded. How selcouth are these deedsakes! How selcouth that the bloomdust and bloomdustthechertic overside of the same bloomwort, though stelled so close together, as if for the very sake of self-tudderfast-ening, should in so many happenlays be mutually unnitworth to each other! How sinfold are these deedsakes acleared on the onsight of an otherwhile rood with a toshed untodealel being foredealful or aldertharfly! If manysome isunders of the cabbage, radish, onion, and of some other plants, be allowed to seed near each other, a michel mosthood, as i have found, of the seedlings thus raised will turn out mongrels: for bisen, i raised 233 seedling cabbeldths from some plants of undershedsome isunders growing near each other, and of these only 78 were true to their kind, and some even of these were not fullcomely true. Yet the grasple of each cabbage-bloomwort is imbheld not only by its own six stemocks, but by those of the many other bloomworts on the same plant. How, then, comes it that such a vast rime of the seedlings are mongrelized? I underlook that it must arise from the bloomdust of a toshed isunder having a woddsrengthfast onworking over a bloomwort's own bloomdust; and that this is deal of the allmeanly law of good being offstreamed from the betwixtrooding of toshed untodealels of the same wightkin. When toshed wightkin are rooded the happenlay is wissly the edwharve, for a plant's own bloomdust is always woddsrengthfast over ellandish bloomdust; but to this underthrow we shall edwend in a to-come bookdeal. In the happenlay of a entish tree betielded with unarimebere bloomworts, it may be withthrown that bloomdust could seldom be borne from tree to tree, and at most only from bloomwort F 2 [bookleaf] 100 on the foredeal chap. Iv. To bloomwort on the same tree, and that bloomworts on the same tree can be hidged as toshed untodealels only in a narrowened spoor. I believe this withthrowing to be rightsome, but that ikind has michelly forelooked against it by giving to trees a strong niging to bear bloomworts with totweemed akenbodyworkthsplits. When the akenbodyworkthsplits are totweemed, although the seedlifer and birthlifer bloomworts may be tiddered on the same tree, we can see that bloomdust must be woneshapefastnessly borne from bloomwort to bloomwort; and this will give a better whate of bloomdust being otherwhile borne from tree to tree. That trees belonging to all orders have their akenbodyworkthsplits more often totweemed than other plants, i find to be the happenlay in this landred; and at my request dr. Hooker meatboardened the trees of new zealand, and dr. Asa gray those of the beoned onlays, and the outfollow was as i forefollowed. On the other hand, dr. Hooker has short-agoly inkenned me that he finds that the rule does not hold in australia; and i have made these few edmarks on the akenbodyworkthsplits of trees sinfold to call mindlook to the underthrow. Turning for a very brief roomhood to wights: on the land there are some weaponedwifesters, as land-thinshellbearers and earth-worms; but these all pair. As yet i have not found a onele happenlay of a earthly wight which tudderfast-ens itself. We can understand this edmarkbere deedsake, which offers so strong an againstshow with earthly plants, on the onsight of an otherwhile rood being aldertharfly, by hidging the medium in which earthly wights live, and the ikind of the tudderfast-ening firststuff; for we know of no means, samerunsome to the deedship of bugs and of the wind in the happenlay of plants, by which an otherwhile rood could be onworked with earthly wights without the thweering of two untodealels. Of waterly wights, there are many self-tudderfast-ening weaponedwifesters; but here currents in the water offer an opensightly means for an otherwhile rood. And, as in the case of bloomworts, i have as yet [bookleaf] 101 chap. Iv. Of betwixtrooding. Failed, after seeking up with one of the highest alderdoms, namely, lorefather huxley, to anddeck a onele happenlay of an weaponedwifester wight with the bodyworths of edtiddering so fullcomely inshut within the body, that access from without and the otherwhile inflowmayen of a toshed untodealel can be shown to be bodily unacomingly. Moochshellwights long thenched to me to andward a happenlay of very great arveth under this ord of onsight; but i have been bemayened, by a fortunate whate, elsewhere to afand that two untodealels, though both are self-tudderfast-ening weaponedwifesters, do sometimes rood. It must have struck most ikindlorers as a selcouth oddship that, in the happenlay of both wights and plants, wightkin of the same huered and even of the same wightkind, though agreeing closely with each other in almost their whole dight, yet are not seldom, some of them weaponedwifesters, and some of them unimingefast. But if, in deedsake, all weaponedwifesters do otherwhile betwixtrood with other untodealels, the undershed between weaponedwifesters and unimingefast wightkin, as far as workhood is bemet, becomes very small. From these manysome hidgings and from the many sunderful deedsakes which i have gathered, but which i am not here able to give, i am strongly bighfast to underlook that, both in the vegetable and wight kingdoms, an otherwhile betwixtrood with a toshed untodealel is a law of ikind. I am well aware that there are, on this onsight, many happenlays of arveth, some of which i am trying to underfand. Endly then, we may ashut that in many lifesome beings, a rood between two untodealels is an opensightly tharfliness for each birth; in many others it betides forhaps only at long timestretchs; but in none, as i underlook, can self-tudderfast-ening go on for foreverness. Imbstands rithbere to ikindly choosing.—this [bookleaf] 102 imbstands rithbere chap. Iv. Is an outestly inwoven underthrow. A michel muchth of ervebere and sunderlyened sundriness is rithbere, but i believe mere untodealel undersheds enoughen for the work. A michel rime of untodealels, by giving a better whate for the upshowing within any given timedeal of notesome sundrinesss, will foreven for a lesser muchth of sundriness in each untodealel, and is, i believe, an outestly weighty firststuff of success. Though ikind grants vast timedeals of time for the work of ikindsome choosing, she does not grant an unbindfast timedeal; for as all lifesome beings are striving, it may be said, to fang on eachstead in the setlay of ikind, if any one wightkin does not become awended and bettered in a togetheranswering andstep with its witherstrives, it will soon be benothinged. In man's do-wayly choosing, a breeder chooses for some bindfast towardsthing, and free betwixtrooding will wholly stop his work. But when many men, without inwhelving to awend the breed, have a nearly imean standord of fullcomeliness, and all try to get and breed from the best wights, much bettering and awending surely but slowly follow from this underawared forthhappen of choosing, notwithstanding a michel muchth of rooding with undersome wights. Thus it will be in ikind; for within a benarrowened area, with somestead in its chesterwieldcraftmoot not so fullcomely forbusied as might be, ikindsome choosing will always nige to aspare all the untodealels forsundering in the right stighting, though in undershedsome andsteps, so as better to fill up the unforbusiedstead. But if the area be michel, its manysome andlays will almost iwis andward undershedsome hodes of life; and then if ikindsome choosing be awending and bettering a wightkin in the manysome andlays, there will be betwixtrooding with the other untodealels of the same wightkin on the benarrowens of each. And in this happenlay the onworkings of betwixtrooding can hardly be [bookleaf] 103 chap. Iv. To ikindly choosing. witherevenweighted by ikindsome choosing always niging to awend all the untodealels in each andlay in weetilly the same way to the hodes of each; for in a throughstanding area, the hodes will allmeanly bestep away unspoorberely from one andlay to another. The betwixtrooding will most onwork those wights which beone for each birth, which wander much, and which do not breed at a very quick rimespeed. Hence in wights of this ikind, for bisen in birds, isunders will allmeanly be benarrowened to totweemed landreds; and this i believe to be the happenlay. In weaponedwifester lifers which rood only otherwhile, and likewise in wights which beone for each birth, but which wander little and which can eak at a very quick rimespeed, a new and bettered isunder might be quickly ashaped on any one spot, and might there upkeep itself in a body, so that whatever betwixtrooding tookstead would be chiefly between the untodealels of the same new isunder. A stowly isunder when once thus ashaped might underfollowingly slowly spread to other andlays. On the above thoughsetlay, nurserymen always forechoose getting seed from a michel body of plants of the same isunder, as the whate of betwixtrooding with other isunders is thus lessened. Even in the happenlay of slow-breeding wights, which beone for each birth, we must not overrimespeed the onworkings of betwixtroods in retarding ikindsome choosing; for i can bring a hidgebere listbook of deedsakes, showing that within the same area, isunders of the same wight can long belive toshed, from haunting undershedsome standsteads, from breeding at slightly undershedsome yeartides, or from isunders of the same kind bepulling to pair together. Betwixtrooding plays a very weighty deal in ikind in keeping the untodealels of the same wightkin, or of the same isunder, true and oneshaped in suchness. It will opensightlyly thus bedo far more onworkfully with those wights [bookleaf] 104 imbstands rithbere chap. Iv. Which beone for each birth; but i have already costened to show that we have thinkcraft to believe that otherwhile betwixtroodes takestead with all wights and with all plants. Even if these takestead only at long timestretchs, i am overtold that the young thus tiddered will gain so much in lifethrith and tudderfastness over the offspring from long-throughstood self-tudderfast-ening, that they will have a better whate of overliving and forspreading their kind; and thus, in the long run, the inflowmayen of betwixtroodes, even at seldly timestretchs, will be great. If there wesen lifesome beings which never betwixtrood, oneshapedness of suchness can be bekept amongst them, as long as their hodes of life belive the same, only through the thoughsetlay of erve, and through ikindsome choosing fordoing any which wite from the davenly type; but if their hodes of life awend and they undergo awending, oneshapedness of suchness can be given to their awended offspring, solely by ikindsome choosing asparing the same rithbere sundrinesss. Onlyed-offness, also, is a weighty firststuff in the forthhappen of ikindsome choosing. In a benarrowened or offonlyed area, if not very michel, the lifesome and inlifefast hodes of life will allmeanly be in a great andstep oneshaped; so that ikindsome choosing will nige to awend all the untodealels of a forsundering wightkin throughout the area in the same way in maithred to the same hodes. Betwixtroodes, also, with the untodealels of the same wightkin, which otherwise would have inwoned the imbholding and undershedsomely imbstandd andlays, will be forecome. But onlyed-offness likely bedoes more onworkfully in checking the inyondshrithing of better throughfit lifers, after any bodily awend, such as of loftlay or alifting of the land, &c.; and thus newsteads in the ikindsome setlay of the landred are left open for the old inwoners to struggle for, and become throughfit to, through awendings [bookleaf] 105 chap. Iv. To ikindly choosing. In their upbuild and setness. Lastly, onlyed-offness, by checking inyondshrithing and infollowingly witherstrive, will give time for any new isunder to be slowly bettered; and this may sometimes be of weightiness in the tiddering of new wightkin. If, however, an offonlyed area be very small, either from being imbheld by barriers, or from having very odd bodily hodes, the total rime of the untodealels underborne on it will needbehovely be very small; and fewness of untodealels will greatly forlate the tiddering of new wightkin through ikindsome choosing, by andgrowing the whate of the upshowing of rithbere sundrinesss. If we turn to ikind to test the truth of these edmarks, and look at any small offonlyed area, such as an oceanic island, although the total rime of the wightkin inwoning it, will be found to be small, as we shall see in our bookdeal on earthlorely brittening; yet of these wightkin a very michel ondeal are endemic,—that is, have been tiddered there, and nowhere else. Hence an oceanic island at first sight seems to have been highly rithbere for the tiddering of new wightkin. But we may thus greatly swike ourselves, for to foriwis whether a small offonlyed area, or a michel open area like a earthdeal, has been most rithbere for the tiddering of new lifesome forms, we ought to make the withmeting within evenworth times; and this we are uncanfast of doing. Although i do not twight that onlyed-offness is of hidgebere weightiness in the tiddering of new wightkin, on the whole i am bighfast to believe that michelness of area is of more weightiness, more besunders in the tiddering of wightkin, which will afand canfast of tholing for a long timedeal, and of spreading widely. Throughout a great and open area, not only will there be a better whate of rithbere sundrinesss arising from the michel rime of untodealels of the same wightkin F 3 [bookleaf] 106 imbstands rithbere chap. Iv. There underborne, but the hodes of life are boundlessly throughtangly from the michel rime of already wesening wightkin; and if some of these many wightkin become awended and bettered, others will have to be bettered in a togetheranswering andstep or they will be benothinged. Each new form, also, as soon as it has been much bettered, will be able to spread over the open and throughstanding area, and will thus come into witherstrive with many others. Hence more newsteads will be ashaped, and the witherstrive to fill them will be more highernst, on a michel than on a small and offonlyed area. Moreover, great areas, though now throughstanding, owing to besways of level, will often have short-agoly wesened in a broken hode, so that the good onworkings of onlyed-offness will allmeanly, to a somel scope, have thweered. Endly, i ashut that, although small offonlyed areas likely have been in some edsights highly rithbere for the tiddering of new wightkin, yet that the foor of awending will allmeanly have been more quick on michel areas; and what is more weighty, that the new forms tiddered on michel areas, which already have been sigorfast over many witherstrives, will be those that will spread most widely, will give rise to most new isunders and wightkin, and will thus play a weighty deal in the awending yorelore of the lifesome world. We can, forhaps, on these onsights, understand some deedsakes which will be again atpulled to in our bookdeal on earthlorely brittening; for bisen, that the tidderings of the smaller earthdeal of australia have formerly yielded, and opensightly are now yielding, before those of the michelr europæo-asiatic area. Thus, also, it is that earthdealsome tidderings have everywhere become so michelly ikindened on islands. On a small island, the race for life will have been less highernst, and there will have been less awending and less neacking. [bookleaf] 107 chap. Iv. To ikindly choosing.

Hence, forhaps, it comes that the wortmaith of madeira, according to oswald heer, onlikes the fornaughted thirdsome wortmaith of europe. All fresh-water basins, taken together, make a small area withmeted with that of the sea or of the land; and, infollowingly, the witherstrive between fresh-water tidderings will have been less highernst than elsewhere; new forms will have been more slowly ashaped, and old forms more slowly benothinged. And it is in fresh water that we find seven wightkinds of ganoid fishes, leftocks of a once preponderant order: and in fresh water we find some of the most oddshipsome forms now known in the world, as the onewholedduckbillwight and swamplungfish, which, like stonewights, belink to a somel scope orders now widely totweemed in the ikindsome scale. These oddshipsome forms may almost be called living stonewights; they have tholed to the andward day, from having inwoned a benarrowened area, and from having thus been outset to less highernst witherstrive.

To sum up the imbstands rithbere and unrithbere to ikindsome choosing, as far as the outest inwovenness of the underthrow thaves. I ashut, looking to the to-come, that for earthly tidderings a michel earthdealsome area, which will likely undergo many besways of level, and which infollowingly will wesen for long timedeals in a broken hode, will be the most rithbere for the tiddering of many new forms of life, likely to thole long and to spread widely. For the area will first have wesened as a earthdeal, and the inwoners, at this timedeal rimeful in untodealels and kinds, will have been underthrown to very highernst witherstrive. When forwended by nethersettling into michel totweemed islands, there will still wesen many untodealels of the same wightkin on each island: betwixtrooding on the benarrowens of the scope of each wightkin will thus be checked: after bodily awends of any kind, inyondshrithing will be forecome [bookleaf] 108 ikindly choosing. Chap. Iv. , so that newsteads in the chesterwieldcraftmoot of each island will have to be filled up by awendings of the old inwoners; and time will be allowed for the isunders in each to become well awended and fullfremmed. When, by renewed alifting, the islands shall be re-forwended into a earthdealsome area, there will again be highernst witherstrive: the most rithed or bettered isunders will be bemayened to spread: there will be much fornaughting of the less bettered forms, and the akinsome ondealy rimes of the sundry inwoners of the renewed earthdeal will again be awended; and again there will be a fair field for ikindsome choosing to better still further the inwoners, and thus tidder new wightkin. That ikindsome choosing will always bedo with outest slowness, i fully throughgive. Its deedship offhangs on there beingsteads in the chesterwieldcraftmoot of ikind, which can be better forbusied by some of the inwoners of the landred undergoing awending of some kind. The wist of suchsteads will often offhang on bodily awends, which are allmeanly very slow, and on the inyondshrithing of better throughfit forms having been checked. But the deedship of ikindsome choosing will likely still oftener offhang on some of the inwoners becoming slowly awended; the two-way sibreds of many of the other inwoners being thus dreeved. Nothing can be onworked, unless rithbere sundrinesss betide, and sundriness itself is opensightly always a very slow forthhappen. The forthhappen will often be greatly forlated by free betwixtrooding. Many will exclaim that these manysome bewhys are amply enoughsome wholly to stop the deedship of ikindsome choosing. I do not believe so. On the other hand, i do believe that ikindsome choosing will always bedo very slowly, often only at long timestretchs of time, and allmeanly on only a very few of the inwoners of the same ard at the same time. I further believe, that this very slow, intermit- [bookleaf] 109 chap. Iv. Fornaughting. Tent deedship of ikindsome choosing accords fullcomely well with what earthlore tells us of the rimespeed and way at which the inwoners of this world have awended. Slow though the forthhappen of choosing may be, if trumless man can do much by his wolds of saremadely choosing, i can see no undertie to the muchth of awend, to the fairhood and boundless throughtanglyity of the together-throughfittings between all lifesome beings, one with another and with their bodily hodes of life, which may be onworked in the long foor of time by ikind's wold of choosing. Fornaughting.—this underthrow will be more fully imbspoken in our bookdeal on earthlore; but it must be here atpulled to from being intimately belinked with ikindsome choosing. Ikindsome choosing bedoes solely through the asparing of sundrinesss in some way foredealful, which infollowingly thole. But as from the high metelorely wolds of eak of all lifesome beings, each area is already fully stocked with inwoners, it follows that as each chosen and rithed form eaks in rime, so will the less rithed forms decrease and become seldly. Seldliness, as earthlore tells us, is the forerunner to fornaughting. We can, also, see that any form aspelled by few untodealels will, during bewavings in the yeartides or in the rime of its foes, run a good whate of utter fornaughting. But we may go further than this; for as new forms are throughstandingly and slowly being tiddered, unless we believe that the rime of insunderly forms goes on perpetually and almost unbindfastly eaking, rimes unforecomeberely must become fornaughted. That the rime of insunderly forms has not unbindfastly eaked, earthlore shows us plainly; and indeed we can see thinkcraft why they should not have thus eaked, for the rime ofsteads in the chesterwieldcraftmoot of ikind is not unbindfastly great,—not that we [bookleaf] 110 ikindly choosing. Chap. Iv. Have any means of knowing that any one ard has as yet got its aldermost of wightkin. Likely no ard is as yet fully stocked, for at the cape of good hope, where more wightkin of plants are crowded together than in any other fourth of the world, some ellandish plants have become ikindened, without bewhying, as far as we know, the fornaughting of any inhomeishes. Furthermore, the wightkin which are most numerous in untodealels will have the best whate of tiddering within any given timedeal rithbere sundrinesss. We have outshow of this, in the deedsakes given in the twoth bookdeal, showing that it is the imean wightkin which afford the greatest rime of edferthed isunders, or beginsome wightkin. Hence, seldly wightkin will be less quickly awended or bettered within any given timedeal, and they will infollowingly be beaten in the race for life by the awended netherastiends of the imeaner wightkin. From these manysome hidgings i think it unforecomeberely follows, that as new wightkin in the foor of time are ashaped through ikindsome choosing, others will become seldlyr and seldlyer, and endly fornaughted. The forms which stand in closest competition with those undergoing awending and bettering, will quithenly thraw most. And we have seen in the bookdeal on the struggle for wist that it is the most closely-alinked forms,—isunders of the same wightkin, and wightkin of the same wightkind or of akinned wightkinds,—which, from having nearly the same upbuild, setness, and wones, allmeanly come into the highernstst witherstrive with each other. Infollowingly, each new isunder or wightkin, during the forthstride of its ashaping, will allmeanly press hardest on its nearest kindred, and nige to benothing them. We see the same forthhappen of benothinging amongst our housened tidderings, through the choosing of bettered forms by man. Many frimdy [bookleaf] 111 chap. Iv. Towhirft of suchness. Bisens could be given showing how quickly new breeds of orf, sheep, and other wights, and isunders of bloomworts, take thestead of older and undersome kinds. In yorkshire, it is yorelorelyly known that the alderold black orf were disstelled by the long-horns, and that these "were swept away by the short-horns" (i quote the words of an cropcraftsome writer) "as if by some murderous pestilence." Towhirft of suchness.—the thoughsetlay, which i have designated by this term, is of high weightiness on my thoughtlay, and aclears, as i believe, manysome weighty deedsakes. In the firststead, isunders, even strongly-marked ones, though having somewhat of the suchness of wightkin—as is shown by the hopeless twights in many happenlays how to rank them—yet iwis andsame from each other far less than do good and toshed wightkin. Nevertheless, according to my onsight, isunders are wightkin in the forthhappen of ashaping, or are, as i have called them, beginsome wightkin. How, then, does the lesser undershed between isunders become morened into the greater undershed between wightkin? That this does wonely happen, we must offlead from most of the unarimebere wightkin throughout ikind andwarding well-marked undersheds; whereas isunders, the understelled fromkinds and akennends of to-come well-marked wightkin, andward slight and ill-bebound undersheds. Mere whate, as we may call it, might bewhy one isunder to andsame in some suchness from its akennends, and the offspring of this isunder again to andsame from its akennend in the very same suchness and in a greater andstep; but this alone would never rake for so wonely and michel an muchth of undershed as that between isunders of the same wightkin and wightkin of the same wightkind. As has always been my doship, let us seek light on [bookleaf] 112 ikindly choosing. Chap. Iv. This head from our housely tidderings. We shall here find something samerunsome. A fancier is struck by a plumpdove having a slightly shorter beak; another fancier is struck by a plumpdove having a rather longer beak; and on the acknowledged thoughsetlay that "fanciers do not and will not bewonder a medium standord, but like outests," they both go on (as has soothly betided with tumbler-plumpdoves) choosing and breeding from birds with longer and longer beaks, or with shorter and shorter beaks. Again, we may understell that at an early timedeal one man forchose swifter horses; another stronger and more bulky horses. The early undersheds would be very slight; in the foor of time, from the throughstood choosing of swifter horses by some breeders, and of stronger ones by others, the undersheds would become greater, and would be ontokened as forming two under-breeds; endly, after the whilestitch of yearhundreds, the under-breeds would become forwended into two well-statheled and toshed breeds. As the undersheds slowly become greater, the undersome wights with intermediate suchnesses, being neither very swift nor very strong, will have been forheemed, and will have nigen to swind. Here, then, we see in man's tidderings the deedship of what may be called the thoughsetlay of towhirft, bewhying undersheds, at first barely unhefty, steadily to eak, and the breeds to towharve in character both from each other and from their imean akennend. But how, it may be asked, can any samerunsome thoughsetlay belay in ikind? I believe it can and does belay most onworkfully, from the onelay imbstand that the more sunderlyened the netherastiendsfrom any one wightkin become in upbuild, setness, and wones, by so much will they be better bemayened to fang on many and widely sunderlyenedsteads in the chesterwieldcraftmoot of ikind, and so be bemayened to eak in rimes. [bookleaf] 113 chap. Iv. Towhirft of suchness. We can clearly see this in the happenlay of wights with onelay wones. Take the happenlay of a meat-eating fourfootwight, of which the rime that can be underwreathed in any landred has long ago tocome at its full throughsnithe. If its ikindsome wolds of eak be allowed to bedo, it can spow in eaking (the landred not undergoing any awend in its hodes) only by its besundering netherastiends fanging onsteads at andward forbusied by other wights: some of them, for bisen, being bemayened to feed on new kinds of prey, either dead or alive; some inwoning new standsteads, climbing trees, looming water, and some forhaps becoming less meat-eating. The more sunderlyened in habits and upbuild the netherastiendsof our meat-eating wight became, the moresteads they would be bemayened to forbusy. What belays to one wight will belay throughout all time to all wights—that is, if they forsunder—for otherwise ikindsome choosing can do nothing. So it will be with plants. It has been fandsomely afanded, that if a plot of ground be sown with one wightkin of grass, and a alike plot be sown with manysome toshed wightkinds of grasses, a greater rime of plants and a greater weight of dry grassle can thus be raised. The same has been found to hold good when first one isunder and then manysome mixed isunders of wheat have been sown on evenworth roomhoods of ground. Hence, if any one wightkin of grass were to go on forsundering, and those isunders were throughstandingly chosen which andsamed from each other in at all the same way as toshed wightkin and wightkinds of grasses andsame from each other, a greater rime of untodealel plants of this wightkin of grass, imbhaving its awended netherastiends, would spow in living on the same piece of ground. And we well know that each wightkin and each isunder of grass is yearly sowing almost countless seeds; and thus, as it may be said, is striving its utmost to eak its rimes. Afollowingly, [bookleaf] 114 ikindly choosing. Chap. Iv. I cannot twight that in the foor of many thousands of strinds, the most toshed isunders of any one wightkin of grass would always have the best whate of aftercoming and of eaking in rimes, and thus of undersoling the less toshed isunders; and isunders, when made very toshed from each other, take the rank of wightkin. The truth of the thoughsetlay, that the greatest muchth of life can be underborne by great sundryening of upbuild, is seen under many ikindsome imbstands. In an outestly small area, besunders if freely open to inyondshrithing, and where the contest between untodealel and untodealel must be highernst, we always find great manyotheredness in its inwoners. For bisen, i found that a piece of turf, three feet by four in size, which had been outset for many years to weetilly the same hodes, underbore twenty wightkin of plants, and these belonged to eighteen wightkinds and to eight orders, which shows how much these plants andsamed from each other. So it is with the plants and bugs on small and oneshaped islets; and so in small ponds of fresh water. Thorpers find that they can raise most food by a rotation of plants belonging to the most undershedsome orders: ikind follows what may be called a sametimely rotation. Most of the wights and plants which live close round any small piece of ground, could live on it (understelling it not to be in any way odd in its ikind), and may be said to be striving to the utmost to live there; but, it is seen, that where they come into the closest witherstrive with each other, the foredeals of sundryening of upbuild, with the afereing undersheds of wone and setness, toend that the inwoners, which thus jostle each other most closely, shall, as a allmeanly rule, belong to what we call undershedsome wightkinds and orders. The same thoughsetlay is seen in the ikindsomeing of [bookleaf] 115 chap. Iv. Towhirft of suchness. Plants through man's deedcraft in ellandish lands. It might have been bewaited that the plants which have spowed in becoming ikindened in any land would allmeanly have been closely alinked to the inlandishwights; for these are imeanly looked at as asunderfastly beshaped and throughfit for their own landred. It might, also, forhaps have been bewaited that ikindened plants would have belonged to a few maiths more besunders throughfit tosomel standsteads in their new homes. But the happenlay is very undershedsome; and alph. De candolle has well edmarked in his great and bewonderbere work, that wortmaiths gain by ikindsomeing, ondealy with the rime of the inhomeish wightkinds and wightkin, far more in new wightkinds than in new wightkin. To give a onele bisen: in the last uplay of dr. Asa gray's 'manual of the wortmaith of the northern beoned onlays,' 260 ikindened plants are arimed, and these belong to 162 wightkinds. We thus see that these ikindened plants are of a highly sunderlyened ikind. They andsame, moreover, to a michel scope from the inlandishwights, for out of the 162 wightkinds, no less than 100 wightkinds are not there inlandish, and thus a michel ondealy ateak is made to the wightkinds of these onlays. By hidging the ikind of the plants or wights which have struggled successfully with the inlandishwights of any landred, and have there become ikindened, we can gain some crude thinkling in what way some of the inhomeishes would have had to be awended, in order to have gained an foredeal over the other inhomeishes; and we may, i think, at least safely offlead that sundryening of upbuild, muchthing to new allmeanly undersheds, would have been notesome to them. The foredeal of sundryening in the inwoners of the same ard is, in deedsake, the same as that of the bodylorely idole of labour in the bodyworkths of the same untodealel body—a underthrow so well belighted by [bookleaf] 116 ikindly choosing. Chap. Iv. Milne edwards. No bodylorer twights that a maw by being throughfit to digest vegetable matter alone, or flesh alone, draws most feedle from these stuffthings. So in the allmeanly setlay of any land, the more widely and fullcomely the wights and plants are sunderlyened for undershedsome wones of life, so will a greater rime of untodealels be canfast of there underbearing themselves. A set of wights, with their dight but little sunderlyened, could hardly witherstrive with a set more fullcomely sunderlyened in upbuild. It may be doubted, for bisen, whether the australian bellybagwights, which are todealt into maiths andsaming but little from each other, and feebly edandwarding, as mr. Waterhouse and others have edmarked, our meat-eating, cudchewingwight, and rodent sucklewights, could successfully witherstrive with these well-pronounced orders. In the australian sucklewights, we see the forthhappen of sundryening in an early and infullwork stepock of andwinding. After the foregoing imbspeech, which ought to have been much amplified, we may, i think, foretake that the awended netherastiends of any one wightkin will spow by so much the better as they become more sunderlyened in upbuild, and are thus bemayened to encroach onsteads forbusied by other beings. Now let us see how this thoughsetlay of great beforthing being offstream from towhirft of suchness, togetherstelled with the thoughsetlays of ikindsome choosing and of fornaughting, will nige to bedo. The afereing ifay will ferk us in understanding this rather bemazing underthrow. Let a to l aspell the wightkin of a wightkind michel in its own landred; these wightkin are understelled to onlike each other in unevenworthly andsteps, as is so allmeanly the happenlay in ikind, and as is aspelled in the ifay by the letters standing at unevenworthly farths. I have said a michel wightkind, forwhy we have seen in the twoth bookdeal, [bookleaf break] [ifay]  [bookleaf break] [bookleaf] 117 chap. Iv. Towhirft of suchness. That on an throughsnithe more of the wightkin of michel wightkinds forsunder than of small wightkinds; and the forsundering wightkin of the michel wightkinds andward a greater rime of isunders. We have, also, seen that the wightkin, which are the imeanest and the most widely-tospread, forsunder more than seldly wightkin with intightened scopes. Let (a) be a imean, widely-tospread, and forsundering wightkin, belonging to a wightkind michel in its own landred. The little fan of towharving dotted lines of uneven- worth lengths going from (a), may aspell its forsundering offspring. The sundrinesss are understelled to be outestly slight, but of the most sunderlyened ikind; they are not understelled all to show up sametimely, but often after long timestretchs of time; nor are they all understelled to thole for evenworth timedeals. Only those sundrinesss which are in some way notesome will be aspared or quithenly chosen. And here the weightiness of the thoughsetlay of beforthing being offstreamed from towhirft of suchness comes in; for this will allmeanly lead to the most undershedsome or towharving sundrinesss (aspelled by the outer dotted lines) being aspared and upheaped by ikindsome choosing. When a dotted line reaches one of the skylinewise lines, and is there marked by a small rimed letter, a enoughsome muchth of sundriness is understelled to have been upheaped to have ashaped a fairly well-marked isunder, such as would be thought worthy of edferth in a setlayly work. The timestretchs between the skylinewise lines in the ifay, may aspell each a thousand strinds; but it would have been better if each had aspelled ten thousand strinds. After a thousand strinds, wightkin (a) is understelled to have tiddered two fairly well-marked isunders, namely a1 and m1. These two isunders will allmeanly continue to be outset to the same hodes which made their akennends sunderly, [bookleaf] 118 ikindly choosing. Chap. Iv. And the niging to sundriness is in itself ervesome, infollowingly they will nige to forsunder, and allmeanly to forsunder in nearly the same way as their akennends besundered. Moreover, these two isunders, being only slightly awended forms, will nige to erve those foredeals which made their imean akennend (a) more rimeful than most of the other inwoners of the same landred; they will likewise take deal of those more allmeanly foredeals which made the wightkind to which the akennend-wightkin belonged, a michel wightkind in its own landred. And these imbstands we know to be rithbere to the tiddering of new isunders. If, then, these two isunders be sunderly, the most towharving of their sundrinesss will allmeanly be aspared during the next thousand strinds. And after this timestretch, isunder a1 is understelled in the ifay to have tiddered isunder a2, which will, owing to the thoughsetlay of towhirft, andsame more from (a) than did isunder a1. Hisunder m1 is understelled to have tiddered two isunders, namely m2 and s2, andsaming from each other, and more hidgeberely from their imean akennend (a). We may continue the forthhappen by alike steps for any length of time; some of the isunders, after each thousand strinds, tiddering only a onele isunder, but in a more and more awended hode, some tiddering two or three isunders, and some failing to tidder any. Thus the isunders or awended netherastiends, coming from the imean akennend (a), will allmeanly go on eaking in rime and towharving in suchness. In the ifay the forthhappen is aspelled up to the ten-thousandth strind, and under a condensed and simplified form up to the fourteen-thousandth strind. But i must here edmark that i do not understell that the forthhappen ever goes on so woneshapefastnessly as is aspelled in the ifay, though in itself made somewhat unwoneshapefastness. [bookleaf] 119 chap. Iv. Towhirft of suchness. I am far from thinking that the most towharving isunders will everywhen swither and manyen: a medium form may often long thole, and may or may not tidder more than one awendednetherastiend; for ikindsome choosing will always bedo according to the ikind of thesteads which are either unforbusied or not fullcomely forbusied by other beings; and this will offhang on boundlessly throughtangly sibreds. But as a allmeanly rule, the more sunderlyened in upbuild the netherastiendsfrom any one wightkin can be made, the moresteads they will be bemayened to fang on, and the more their awended afterkin will be eaked. In our ifay the line of afterfollowingness is broken at woneshapefastness timestretchs by small rimed letters marking the afterfollowly forms which have become enoughsomely toshed to be edferthed as isunders. But these breaks are hyeshowsome, and might have been inserted anywhere, after timestretchs long enough to have allowed the upheaping of a hidgebere muchth of towharving sundriness. As all the awended netherastiends from a imean and widely-tospread wightkin, belonging to a michel wightkind, will nige to take deal of the same foredeals which made their akennend successful in life, they will allmeanly go on manyening in rime as well as towharving in suchness: this is aspelled in the ifay by the manysome towharving branches coming from (a). The awended offspring from the later and more highly bettered branches in the lines of netherastieing, will, it is likely, often take thestead of, and so fordo, the earlier and less bettered branches: this is aspelled in the ifay by some of the lower branches not reaching to the upper skylinewise lines. In some happenlays i do not twight that the forthhappen of awending will be benarrowened to a onele line of netherastieing, and the rime of the netherastiends will not be eaked; although the muchth [bookleaf] 120 ikindly choosing. Chap. Iv. Of towharving awending may have been eaked in the afterfollowly strinds. This happenlay would be aspelled in the ifay, if all the lines coming from (a) were removed, nimth that from a1 to a10. In the same way, for bisen, the english race-horse and english order have opensightly both gone on slowly towharving in suchness from their fromly stocks, without either having given off any fresh branches or races. After ten thousand strinds, wightkin (a) is understelled to have tiddered three forms, a10, f10, and m10, which, from having towhorven in suchness during the afterfollowly strinds, will have come to andsame michelly, but forhaps unevenworthly, from each other and from their imean akennend. If we understell the muchth of awend between each skylinewise line in our ifay to be overmuchly small, these three forms may still be only well-marked isunders; or they may have tocome at the twightful category of under-wightkin; but we have only to understell the steps in the forthhappen of awending to be more rimeful or greater in muchth, to forwend these three forms into well-bebound wightkin: thus the ifay onlights the steps by which the small undersheds tosheding isunders are eaked into the michelr undersheds tosheding wightkin. By throughstanding the same forthhappen for a greater rime of strinds (as shown in the ifay in a condensed and simplified way), we get eight wightkin, marked by the letters between a14 and m14, all netherastien from (a). Thus, as i believe, wightkin are manyened and wightkinds are ashaped. In a michel wightkind it is likely that more than one wightkin would forsunder. In the ifay i have foretaken that a twoth wightkin (i) has tiddered, by samerunsome steps, after ten thousand strinds, either two well-marked isunders (w10 and z10) or two wightkin, according to the muchth of awend understelled to be aspelled be- [bookleaf] 121 chap. Iv. Towhirft of suchness. Tween the skylinewise lines. After fourteen thousand strinds, six new wightkin, marked by the letters n14 to z14, are understelled to have been tiddered. In each wightkind, the wightkin, which are already outestly undershedsome in suchness, will allmeanly nige to tidder the greatest rime of awended netherastiends; for these will have the best whate of filling new and widely undershedsomesteads in the chesterwieldcraftmoot of ikind: hence in the ifay i have chosen the outest wightkin (a), and the nearly outest wightkin (i), as those which have michelly besundered, and have given rise to new isunders and wightkin. The other nine wightkin (marked by headly letters) of our fromly wightkind, may for a long timedeal continue yondstellting unawendednetherastiends; and this is shown in the ifay by the dotted lines not forlonged far upwards from want of roomhood. But during the forthhappen of awending, aspelled in the ifay, another of our thoughsetlays, namely that of fornaughting, will have played a weighty deal. As in each fully stocked landred ikindsome choosing needbehovely bedos by the chosen form having some foredeal in the struggle for life over other forms, there will be a standy niging in the bettered netherastiends of any one wightkin to undersole and benothing in each stepock of netherastieing their beforcomers and their fromly akennend. For it should be muned that the witherstrive will allmeanly be most highernst between those forms which are most nearly akinned to each other in wones, setness, and upbuild. Hence all the betweenly forms between the earlier and later onlays, that is between the less and more bettered onlay of a wightkin, as well as the fromly akennend-wightkin itself, will allmeanly nige to become fornaughted. So it likely will be with many whole sidely lines of netherastieing, which will be overwon by later and bettered lines of netherastieing. If, however, the G [bookleaf] 122 ikindly choosing. Chap. Iv. Awended offspring of a wightkin get into some toshed landred, or become quickly throughfit to some quite new standstead, in which child and akennend do not come into witherstrive, both may continue to wesen. If then our ifay be foretaken to aspell a hidgebere muchth of awending, wightkin (a) and all the earlier isunders will have become fornaughted, having been restelled by eight new wightkin (a14 to m14); and (i) will have been restelled by six (n14 to z14) new wightkin. But we may go further than this. The fromly wightkin of our wightkind were understelled to onlike each other in unevenworthly andsteps, as is so allmeanly the happenlay in ikind; wightkin (a) being more nearly akinned to b, c, and d, than to the other wightkin; and wightkin (i) more to g, h, k, l, than to the others. These two wightkin (a) and (i), were also understelled to be very imean and widely tospread wightkin, so that they must fromly have had some foredeal over most of the other wightkin of the wightkind. Their awended netherastiends, fourteen in rime at the fourteen-thousandth strind, will likely have erved some of the same foredeals: they have also been awended and bettered in a sunderlyened way at each stepock of netherastieing, so as to have become throughfit to many akinnedsteads in the ikindsome setlay of their landred. It seems, therefore, to me outestly likely that they will have taken thesteads of, and thus benothinged, not only their akennends (a) and (i), but likewise some of the fromly wightkin which were most nearly akinned to their akennends. Hence very few of the fromly wightkin will have yondstelled offspring to the fourteen-thousandth strind. We may understell that only one (f), of the two wightkin which were least closely akinned to the other nine fromly wightkin, has yondstellednetherastiends to this late stepock of netherastieing. [bookleaf] 123 chap. Iv. Towhirft of suchness. The new wightkin in our ifay netherastoe from the fromly eleven wightkin, will now be fifteen in rime. Owing to the towharving niging of ikindsome choosing, the outest muchth of undershed in suchness between wightkin a14 and z14 will be much greater than that between the most undershedsome of the fromly eleven wightkin. The new wightkin, moreover, will be alinked to each other in a widely undershedsome way. Of the eightnetherastiends from (a) the three marked a14, q14, p14, will be nearly akinned from having short-agoly branched off from a10; b14 and f14, from having towhorven at an earlier timedeal from a5, will be in some andstep toshed from the three first-named wightkin; and lastly, o14, e14, and m14, will be nearly akinned one to the other, but from having towhorven at the first beginning of the forthhappen of awending, will be widely undershedsome from the other five wightkin, and may inmake an under-wightkind or even a toshed wightkind. The sixnetherastiends from (i) will form two under-wightkinds or even wightkinds. But as the fromly wightkin (i) andsamed michelly from (a), standing nearly at the outest ords of the fromly wightkind, the sixnetherastiends from (i) will, owing to erve, andsame hidgeberely from the eightnetherastiends from (a); the two maiths, moreover, are understelled to have gone on towharving in undershedsome stightings. The betweenly wightkin, also (and this is a very weighty hidging), which belinked the fromly wightkin (a) and (i), have all become, nimth (f), fornaughted, and have left nonetherastiends. Hence the six new wightkin netherastoe from (i), and the eight netherastoe from (a), will have to be ranked as very toshed wightkinds, or even as toshed under-huereds. Thus it is, as i believe, that two or more wightkinds are tiddered by netherastieing, with awending, from two or more wightkin of the same wightkind. And the two or G 2 [bookleaf] 124 ikindly choosing. Chap. Iv. More akennend-wightkin are understelled to have netherastien from some one wightkin of an earlier wightkind. In our ifay, this is inquided by the broken lines, beneath the headly letters, togetherbighingng in under-branches downwards towards a onele ord; this ord edandwarding a onele wightkin, the understelled onele akennend of our manysome new under-wightkinds and wightkinds. It is worth while to imbthink for a timeling on the suchness of the new wightkin f14, which is understelled not to have towhorven much in suchness, but to have bekept the form of (f), either unawended or awended only in a slight andstep. In this happenlay, its sibreds to the other fourteen new wightkin will be of a frimdy and imbabout ikind. Having netherastien from a form which stood between the two akennend-wightkin (a) and (i), now understelled to be fornaughted and unknown, it will be in some andstep betweenly in suchness between the two maiths netherastien from these wightkin. But as these two maiths have gone on towharving in suchness from the type of their akennends, the new wightkin (f14) will not be wissly betweenly between them, but rather between types of the two maiths; and every ikindlorer will be able to bring some such happenlay before his mind. In the ifay, each skylinewise line has hitherto been understelled to aspell a thousand strinds, but each may aspell a tenfoldhundthousand or hundred tenfoldhundthousand strinds, and likewise a offdeal of the afterfollowly flatwiselayers of the earth's crust imbhaving fornaughted lefths. We shall, when we come to our bookdeal on earthlore, have to bepull again to this underthrow, and i think we shall then see that the ifay throws light on the sibreds of fornaughted beings, which, though allmeanly belonging to the same orders, or huereds, or wightkinds, with those now living, yet are often, in some andstep, betweenly in suchness between wesening maiths; and we can understand this deedsake, for [bookleaf] 125 chap. Iv. Towhirft of suchness. The fornaughted wightkin lived at very alderold yoretimelaystarts when the branching lines of netherastieing had towhorven less. I see no thinkcraft to undertie the forthhappen of awending, as now acleared, to the shaping of wightkinds alone. If, in our ifay, we understell the muchth of awend aspelled by each afterfollowly maith of towharving dotted lines to be very great, the forms marked a14 to p14, those marked b14 and f14, and those marked o14 to m14, will form three very toshed wightkinds. We shall also have two very toshed wightkinds netherastien from (i); and as these latter two wightkinds, both from throughstood towhirft of suchness and from erve from an undershedsome akennend, will andsame widely from the three wightkinds netherastien from (a), the two little maiths of wightkinds will form two toshed huereds, or even orders, according to the muchth of towharving awending understelled to be aspelled in the ifay. And the two new huereds, or orders, will have netherastien from two wightkin of the fromly wightkind; and these two wightkin are understelled to have netherastien from one wightkin of a still more alderold and unknown wightkind. We have seen that in each landred it is the wightkin of the michelr wightkinds which oftenest andward isunders or beginsome wightkin. This, indeed, might have been bewaited; for as ikindsome choosing bedoes through one form having some foredeal over other forms in the struggle for wist, it will chiefly bedo on those which already have some foredeal; and the michelness of any maith shows that its wightkin have erved from a imean beforecomer some foredeal in imean. Hence, the struggle for the tiddering of new and awended netherastiends, will mainly lie between the michelr maiths, which are all trying to eak in rime. One michel maith will slowly overwin another michel maith, lower its rimes, and thus lessen its whate of further sundriness and bettering. Within the same michel [bookleaf] 126 ikindly choosing. Chap. Iv. Maith, the later and more highly fullfremmed under-maiths, from branching out and fanging on many newsteads in the chesterwieldcraftmoot of ikind, will standily nige to undersole and fordo the earlier and less bettered under-maiths. Small and broken maiths and under-maiths will endly nige to swind. Looking to the to-come, we can forespeak that the maiths of lifesome beings which are now michel and winfast, and which are least broken up, that is, which as yet have thrawed least fornaughting, will for a long timedeal continue to eak. But which maiths will endfastly swither, no man can forespeak; for we well know that many maiths, formerly most outstretchlyly andwound, have now become fornaughted. Looking still more far-offly to the to-come, we may forespeak that, owing to the throughstood and steady eak of the michelr maiths, a dright of smaller maiths will become utterly fornaughted, and leave no awended netherastiends; and infollowingly that of the wightkin living at any one timedeal, outestly few will yondstellnetherastiends to a far-off to-comeness. I shall have to edwend to this underthrow in the bookdeal on isunderening, but i may ateak that on this onsight of outestly few of the more alderold wightkin having yondstellednetherastiends, and on the onsight of all the netherastiendsof the same wightkin making a ilk, we can understand how it is that there wesen but very few ilks in each main idole of the wight and vegetable kingdoms. Although outestly few of the most alderold wightkin may now have living and awended netherastiends, yet at the most far-off earthlorely timedeal, the earth may have been as well befolked with many wightkin of many wightkinds, huereds, orders, and ilks, as at the andward day. Summary of bookdeal.—if during the long foor of eldths and under forsundering hodes of life, lifesome beings [bookleaf] 127 chap. Iv. Summary. Forsunder at all in the manysome deals of their dight, and i think this cannot be flitten; if there be, owing to the high metelorely wolds of eak of each wightkin, at some eldth, yeartide, or year, a highernst struggle for life, and this iwis cannot be flitten; then, hidging the boundless throughtanglyity of the sibreds of all lifesome beings to each other and to their hodes of wist, bewhying an boundless manyotheredness in upbuild, setness, and wones, to be foredealful to them, i think it would be a most orwoneliness deedsake if no sundriness ever had betided nitworth to each being's own welfare, in the same way as so many sundrinesss have betided nitworth to man. But if sundrinesss nitworth to any lifesome being do betide, assuredly untodealels thus suchnessised will have the best whate of being aspared in the struggle for life; and from the strong thoughsetlay of erve they will nige to tidder offspring alikely suchnessised. This thoughsetlay of asparing, i have called, for the sake of shorthood, ikindly choosing. Ikindsome choosing, on the thoughsetlay of suchnesses being erved at togetheranswering eldths, can awend the egg, seed, or young, as easily as the adult. Amongst many wights, mingefast choosing will give its ferk to wonely choosing, by assuring to the most lifethrithsome and best throughfit seedlifers the greatest rime of offspring. Mingefast choosing will also give suchnesses nitworth to the seedlifers alone, in their struggles with other seedlifers. Whether ikindsome choosing has really thus acted in ikind, in awending and throughfitting the sundry forms of life to their manysome hodes and standsteads, must be deemed of by the allmeanly f and evenweight of outshow given in the following bookdeals. But we already see how it imblinks fornaughting; and how michelly fornaughting has acted in the world's yorelore, earthlore plainly declares. Ikindsome choosing, also, leads to towhirft of [bookleaf] 128 ikindly choosing. Chap. Iv. Suchness; for more living beings can be underborne on the same area the more they towharve in upbuild, wones, and setness, of which we see afand by looking at the inwoners of any small spot or at ikindened tidderings. Therefore during the awending7ttt77 of the netherastiendsof any one wightkin, and during the unblinning struggle of all wightkin to eak in rimes, the more sunderlyened thesenetherastiends become, the better will be their whate of aftercoming in the hild of life. Thus the small undersheds tosheding isunders of the same wightkin, will steadily nige to eak till they come to evenworth the greater undersheds between wightkin of the same wightkind, or even of toshed wightkinds. We have seen that it is the imean, the widely-tospread, and widely-ranging wightkin, belonging to the michelr wightkinds, which forsunder most; and these will nige to yondstell to their awended offspring that oversomeness which now makes them overweighing in their own landreds. Ikindsome choosing, as has just been edmarked, leads to towhirft of suchness and to much fornaughting of the less bettered and betweenly forms of life. On these thoughsetlays, i believe, the ikind of the sibreds of all lifesome beings may be acleared. It is a truly wonderful deedsake—the wonder of which we are apt to overlook from couthred—that all wights and all plants throughout all time and roomhood should be akinned to each other in maith underrowfollowsome to maith, in the way which we everywhere behold—namely, isunders of the same wightkin most closely akinned together, wightkin of the same wightkind less closely and unevenworthly akinned together, forming offdeals and under-wightkinds, wightkin of toshed wightkinds much less closely akinned, and wightkinds akinned in undershedsome andsteps, forming under-huereds, huereds, orders, under-ilks, and ilks. The manysome underrowfollowsome maiths in any ilk cannot be [bookleaf] 129 chap. Iv. Summary. Ranked in a onele file, but seem rather to be clustered round ords, and these round other ords, and so on in almost endless cycles. On the onsight that each wightkin has been unoffhangingly beshaped, i can see no aclearing of this great deedsake in the isunderening of all lifesome beings; but, to the best of my deeming, it is acleared through erve and the throughtangly deedship of ikindsome choosing, imblinking fornaughting and towhirft of suchness, as we have seen onlit in the ifay. The sibreds of all the beings of the same ilk have sometimes been aspelled by a great tree. I believe this simile michelly speaks the truth. The green and budding twigs may aspell wesening wightkin; and those tiddered during each former year may aspell the long afterfollowingness of fornaughted wightkin. At each timedeal of growth all the growing twigs have tried to branch out on all sides, and to overtop and kill the imbholding twigs and branches, in the same way as wightkin and maiths of wightkin have tried to overmaster other wightkin in the great hild for life. The limbs todealt into great branches, and these into lesser and lesser branches, were themselves once, when the tree was small, budding twigs; and this belinking of the former and andward buds by ramifying branches may well aspell the isunderening of all fornaughted and living wightkin in maiths underrowfollowsome to maiths. Of the many twigs which flourished when the tree was a mere bush, only two or three, now grown into great branches, yet overlive and bear all the other branches; so with the wightkin which lived during long-eretide earthlorely timedeals, very few now have living and awended netherastiends. From the first growth of the tree, many a limb and branch has decayed and dropped off; and these lost branches of sundry sizes may aspell those whole orders, huereds, and wightkinds which have now no living aspellings, and G 3 [bookleaf] 130 ikindly choosing. Chap. Iv. Which are known to us only from having been found in a stonewight onlay. As we here and there see a thin straggling branch springing from a fork low down in a tree, and which by some whate has been rithed and is still alive on its knap, so we otherwhile see a wight like the onewholedduckbillwight or swamplungfish, which in some small andstep belinks by its sibreds two michel branches of life, and which has opensightly been saved from deathfast witherstrive by having inwoned a barrowed standstead. As buds give rise by growth to fresh buds, and these, if lifethrithsome, branch out and overtop on all sides many a trumlessr branch, so by akenning i believe it has been with the great tree of life, which fills with its dead and broken branches the crust of the earth, and betields the overside with its ever branching and litty ramifications. [bookleaf] 131 chap. V. Laws of sundriness. Bookdeal v. Laws of sundriness. Effects of outly hodes — use and andnote, togetherstelled with ikindsome choosing; bodyworkths of flight and of sight — loftlayening — togethersibred of growth — forevening and setlay of growth — false togethersibreds — manyfast, leftlingish, and lowly dighted upbuilds sunderly — deals andwound in an unwonely way are highly sunderly: insunderly suchnesses more sunderly than allmeanly: twothsome mingefast suchnesses sunderly — wightkin of the same wightkind forsunder in an samerunsome way — edwharves to long lost suchnesses — summary. I have hitherto sometimes spoken as if the sundrinesss—so imean and multiform in lifesome beings under housening, and in a lesser andstep in those in a onlay of ikind—had been due to whate. This, iwis, is a wholly inrightsome outthring, but it serves to acknowledge plainly our unwareship of the bewhy of each dealocksome sundriness. Some writmakers believe it to be as much the workhood of the edtidderly setlay to tidder untodealel undersheds, or very slight andwayings of upbuild, as to make the child like its akennends. But the much greater sundriness, as well as the greater loomliness of owleechsomenesses, under housening or bebuilding, than under ikind, leads me to believe that andwayings of upbuild are in some way due to the ikind of the hodes of life, to which the akennends and their more far-off beforecomers have been outset during manysome strinds. I have edmarked in the first bookdeal—but a long listbook of deedsakes which cannot be here given would be needbehovely to show the truth of the edmark—that the edtidderly setlay is highoutlyly opentakely to awends in the hodes of life; and to [bookleaf] 132 laws of sundriness. Chap. V. This setlay being workhoodally dreeved in the akennends, i chiefly knode the forsundering or plastic hode of the offspring. The seedlifer and birthlifer mingefast firststuffs seem to be onworked before that onehood takesstead which is to form a new being. In the happenlay of "sporting" plants, the bud, which in its earliest hode does not opensightly andsame isshiply from a foreseed, is alone onworked. But why, forwhy the edtidderly setlay is dreeved, this or that deal should forsunder more or less, we are deeply unwittle. Nevertheless, we can here and there dimly fang a faint ray of light, and we may feel sure that there must be some bewhy for each andwaying of upbuild, however slight. How much straightfast onworking undershed of loftlay, food, &c., tidders on any being is outestly twightful. My inthringion is, that the onworking is outestly small in the happenlay of wights, but forhaps rather more in that of plants. We may, at least, safely ashut that such inflowmayens cannot have tiddered the many striking and throughtangly together-throughfittings of upbuild between one lifesome being and another, which we see everywhere throughout ikind. Some little inflowmayen may be knoded to loftlay, food, &c.: thus, e. Forbes speaks belieffastly that shells at their southern undertie, and when living in shallow water, are more brightly coloured than those of the same wightkin further north or from greater depths. Gould believes that birds of the same wightkin are more brightly coloured under a clear atmotrindle, than when living on islands or near the coast. So with bugs, wollaston is overtold that wicking near the sea onworks their colours. Moquin-tandon gives a list of plants which when growing near the sea-shore have their leaves in some andstep fleshy, though not elsewhere fleshy. Manysome other such happenlays could be given. The deedsake of isunders of one wightkin, when they scope [bookleaf] 133 chap. V. Laws of sundriness. Into the zone of woning of other wightkin, often acquiring in a very slight andstep some of the suchnesses of such wightkin, accords with our onsight that wightkin of all kinds are only well-marked and foreversome isunders. Thus the wightkin of shells which are benarrowened to tropical and shallow seas are allmeanly brighter-coloured than those benarrowened to cold and deeper seas. The birds which are benarrowened to earthdeals are, according to mr. Gould, brighter-coloured than those of islands. The bug-wightkin benarrowened to sea-coasts, as every gatherer knows, are often brassy or sallow. Plants which live outshutly on the sea-side are very apt to have fleshy leaves. He who believes in the ishaft of each wightkin, will have to say that this shell, for bisen, was beshaped with bright colours for a warm sea; but that this other shell became bright-coloured by sundriness when it scoped into warmer or shallower waters. When a sundriness is of the slightest use to a being, we cannot tell how much of it to knode to the upheapsome deedship of ikindsome choosing, and how much to the hodes of life. Thus, it is well known to furriers that wights of the same wightkin have thicker and better fur the more highernst the loftlay is under which they have lived; but who can tell how much of this undershed may be due to the warmest-clad untodealels having been rithed and aspared during many strinds, and how much to the straightfast deedship of the highernst loftlay? For it would seem that loftlay has some straightfast deedship on the hair of our housely fourfooters. Bisens could be given of the same isunder being tiddered under hodes of life as undershedsome as can well be kend; and, on the other hand, of undershedsome isunders being tiddered from the same wightkin under the same hodes. Such deedsakes show how inwissly [bookleaf] 134 laws of sundriness. Chap. V. The hodes of life must bedo. Again, unarimebere bisens are known to every ikindlorer of wightkin keeping true, or not forsundering at all, although living under the most witherrights loftlays. Such hidgings as these forbend me to lay very little weight on the straightfast deedship of the hodes of life. Inwissly, as already edmarked, they seem to play a weighty deal in onworking the edtidderly setlay, and in thus beleading sundriness; and ikindsome choosing will then upheap all notesome sundrinesss, however slight, until they become plainly andwound and unhefty by us. Effects of use and andnote.—from the deedsakes atpulled to in the first bookdeal, i think there can be little twight that use in our housely wights strengthens and enmichels somel deals, and andnote aquines them; and that such awendings are erved. Under free ikind, we can have no standord of withmeting, by which to deemend of the onworkings of long-throughstood use or andnote, for we know not the akennend-forms; but many wights have upbuilds which can be acleared by the onworkings of andnote. As lorefather owen has edmarked, there is no greater oddship in ikind than a bird that cannot fly; yet there are manysome in this onlay. The logger-headed duck of south america can only flap along the overside of the water, and has its wings in nearly the same hode as the housely aylesbury duck. As the michelr ground-feeding birds seldom take flight nimth to withfare freech, i believe that the nearly wingless hode of manysome birds, which now inwone or have lately inwoned manysome oceanic islands, tenanted by no beast of prey, has been bewhyed by andnote. The thrithbird indeed inwones earthdeals and is outset to freech from which it cannot withfare by flight, but by kicking it can forstand itself from foes, as well as any of the smaller [bookleaf] 135 chap. V. Use and andnote. Fourfooters. We may hyeshow that the early akennend of the thrithbird had wones like those of a bustard, and that as ikindsome choosing eaked in afterfollowly strinds the size and weight of its body, its legs were used more, and its wings less, until they became uncanfast of flight. Kirby has edmarked (and i have behowed the same deedsake) that the fore ankles, or feet, of many seedlifer dung-feeding beetles are very often broken off; he undersought seventeen neeslings in his own gathership, and not one had even a leaveock left. In the onites apelles the anklebonemaith are so wonely lost, that the bug has been bewritten as not having them. In some other wightkinds they are andward, but in a leftlingish hode. In the ateuchus or hallowed beetle of the egyptians, they are totally underandwound. There is not enoughsome outshow to belead us to believe that mutilations are ever erved; and i should forechoose aclearing the whole unandwardness of the fore ankles in ateuchus, and their leftlingish hode in some other wightkinds, by the long-throughstood onworkings of andnote in their akennends; for as the ankles are almost always lost in many dung-feeding beetles, they must be lost early in life, and therefore cannot be much used by these bugs. In some happenlays we might easily put down to andnote awendings of upbuild which are wholly, or mainly, due to ikindsome choosing. Mr. Wollaston has anddecked the edmarkbere deedsake that 200 beetles, out of the 550 wightkin inwoning madeira, are so far underandwound in wings that they cannot fly; and that of the twenty-nine landfromfast wightkinds, no less than twenty-three wightkinds have all their wightkin in this hode! Manysome deedsakes, namely, that beetles in many deals of the world are very loomly blown to sea and swelt; that the beetles in madeira, as behowed by mr. Wollaston, lie much con- [bookleaf] 136 laws of sundriness. Chap. V. Cealed, until the wind lulls and the sun shines; that the ondeal of wingless beetles is michelr on the outset dezertas than in madeira itself; and besunders the orwoneliness deedsake, so strongly bestood on by mr. Wollaston, of the almost whole unandwardness of somel michel maiths of beetles, elsewhere overmuchly rimeful, and which maiths have wones of life almost tharflyening loom flight;—these manysome hidgings have made me believe that the wingless hode of so many madeira beetles is mainly due to the deedship of ikindsome choosing, but togetherstelled likely with andnote. For during thousands of afterfollowly strinds each untodealel beetle which flew least, either from its wings having been ever so little less fullcomely andwound or from lazy wone, will have had the best whate of overliving from not being blown out to sea; and, on the other hand, those beetles which most readily took to flight will oftenest have been blown to sea and thus have been fordone. The bugs in madeira which are not ground-feeders, and which, as the bloomwort-feeding coleoptera and lepidoptera, must wonely use their wings to gain their onlive, have, as mr. Wollaston underlooks, their wings not at all lowered, but even enmicheld. This is quite compatible with the deedship of ikindsome choosing. For when a new bug first tocame on the island, the tendency of ikindsome choosing to enmichel or to lower the wings, would offhang on whether a greater rime of untodealels were saved by successfully battling with the winds, or by giving up the costen and seldom or never flying. As with sealyrs shipwrecked near a coast, it would have been better for the good swimmers if they had been able to swim still further, whereas it would have been better for the bad swimmers if they had not been able to swim at all and had stuck to the wreck. [bookleaf] 137 chap. V. Use and andnote. The eyes of moles and of some burrowing rodents are leftlingish in size, and in some happenlays are quite betielded up by skin and fur. This onlay of the eyes is likely due to stepmeal reduction from andnote, but ferked forhaps by ikindsome choosing. In south america, a burrowing rodent, the tuco-tuco, or ctenomys, is even more underearthly in its wones than the mole; and i was assured by a spaniard, who had often fanged them, that they were loomly blind; one which i kept alive was iwis in this hode, the bewhy, as showed up on tosplitting, having been inflammation of the nictitating skinling. As loom inflammation of the eyes must be demsome to any wight, and as eyes are iwis not aldertharfly to wights with underearthly wones, a reduction in their size with the adhesion of the eyelids and growth of fur over them, might in such happenlay be an foredeal; and if so, ikindsome choosing would standily ferk the onworkings of andnote. It is well known that manysome wights, belonging to the most undershedsome ilks, which inwone the caves of styria and of kentucky, are blind. In some of the crabs the foot-stalk for the eye belives, though the eye is gone; the stand for the telescope is there, though the telescope with its glasses has been lost. As it is arvethfast to hyeshow that eyes, though unnitworth, could be in any way demsome to wights living in darkness, i knode their loss wholly to andnote. In one of the blind wights, namely, the shraff-rat, the eyes are of widemichel size; and lorefather silliman thought that it edgot, after living some days in the light, some slight thrith of sight. In the same way as in madeira the wings of some of the bugs have been enmicheld, and the wings of others have been lowered by ikindsome choosing ferked by use and andnote, so in the happenlay of the shraff-rat ikindsome choosing seems to have struggled with the loss of light and [bookleaf] 138 laws of sundriness. Chap. V. To have eaked the size of the eyes; whereas with all the other inwoners of the shraffs, andnote by itself seems to have done its work. It is arvethfast to hyeshow hodes of life more alike than deep limestone shraffs under a nearly alike loftlay; so that on the imean onsight of the blind wights having been sundermeal beshaped for the american and european shraffs, close alikeship in their dight and sibreds might have been bewaited; but, as schiödte and others have edmarked, this is not the happenlay, and the shraff-bugs of the two earthdeals are not more closely alinked than might have been forefollowed from the allmeanly look-alikeness of the other inwoners of north america and europe. On my onsight we must understell that america wights, having wonely wolds of sight, slowly yondshrothe by afterfollowly strinds from the outer world into the deeper and deeper recesses of the kentucky shraffs, as did europea wights into the shraffs of europe. We have some outshow of this stepling of wone; for, as schiödte edmarks, "wights not far far-off from wonely forms, prepare the overgang from light to darkness. Next follow those that are abuilt for twilight; and, last of all, those destined for total darkness." by the time that a wight had reached, after rimeless strinds, the deepest recesses, andnote will on this onsight have more or less fullcomely netherthrutched its eyes, and ikindsome choosing will often have onworked other awends, such as an eak in the length of the headfeelers or feelers, as a forevening for blindness. Notwithstanding such awendings, we might bewait still to see in the shraff-wights of america, sibreds to the other inwoners of that earthdeal, and in those of europe, to the inwoners of the european earthdeal. And this is the happenlay with some of the american shraff-wights, as i hear from [bookleaf] 139 chap. V. Loftlayening. Loremother dana; and some of the european shraff-bugs are very closely alinked to those of the imbholding landred. It would be most arvethfast to give any mindfast aclearing of the sibreds of the blind shraff-wights to the other inwoners of the two earthdeals on the wonely onsight of their unoffhanging ishaft. That manysome of the inwoners of the shraffs of the old and new worlds should be closely akinned, we might bewait from the well-known maithred of most of their other tidderings. Far from feeling any overnim that some of the shraff-wights should be very oddshipsome, as agassiz has edmarked in sight to the blind fish, the amblyopsis, and as is the happenlay with the blind proteus with bepulling to the creepwights of europe, i am only overnome that more wrecks of alderold life have not been aspared, owing to the less highernst witherstrive to which the inwoners of these dark abodes will likely have been outset. Loftlayening.—wone is ervesome with plants, as in the timedeal of bloomworting, in the muchth of rain needed for seeds to sprout, in the time of sleep, &c., and this leads me to say a few words on loftlayening. As it is outestly imean for wightkin of the same wightkind to inwone very hot and very cold landreds, and as i believe that all the wightkin of the same wightkind have netherastien from a onele akennend, if this onsight be rightsome, loftlayening must be readily onworked during long-throughstood netherastieing. It is couthfast that each wightkin is throughfit to the loftlay of its own home: wightkin from an highnorthor even from a medweatherfast ard cannot thole a tropical loftlay, or otherwayly. So again, many succulent plants cannot thole a damp loftlay. But the andstep of throughfitting of wightkin to the loftlays under which they live is often overrated. [bookleaf] 140 laws of sundriness. Chap. V. We may offlead this from our loom uncanhood to forespeak whether or not an imported plant will thole our loftlay, and from the rime of plants and wights brought from warmer landreds which here enjoy good health. We have thinkcraft to believe that wightkin in a onlay of ikind are undertied in their scopes by the witherstrive of other lifesome beings quite as much as, or more than, by throughfitting to dealocksome loftlays. But whether or not the throughfitting be allmeanly very close, we have outshow, in the happenlay of some few plants, of their becoming, to a somel scope, quithenly woneuated to undershedsome warmthworths, or becoming acclimatised: thus the pines and bellshapedbloomevergreens, raised from seed gathered by dr. Hooker from trees growing at undershedsome heights on the himalaya, were found in this landred to besit undershedsome setnessly thriths of withsetting cold. Mr. Thwaites inkens me that he has behowed alike deedsakes in ceylon, and samerunsome behowings have been made by mr. H. C. Watson on europea wightkin of plants brought from the azores to england. In sight to wights, manysome authentic happenlays could be given of wightkin within yorelorely times having michelly stretched their scope out from warmer to cooler imbworldisides, and otherwayly; but we do not positively know that these wights were strictly throughfit to their inhomeish loftlay, but in all wonely happenlays we foretake such to be the happenlay; nor do we know that they have underfollowingly become acclimatised to their new homes. As i believe that our housely wights were fromly chosen by uncouthened man forwhy they were nitworth and bred readily under benarrowenedness, and not forwhy they were underfollowingly found canfast of far-outstretched yondbearing, i think the imean and orwoneliness canmayen in our housely wights of not only withstanding the most undershedsome loftlays but of being fullcomely [bookleaf] 141 chap. V. Loftlayening. Tudderfast (a far highearnster test) under them, may be used as an groundhood that a michel ondeal of other wights, now in a onlay of ikind, could easily be brought to bear widely undershedsome loftlays. We must not, however, push the foregoing groundhood too far, on rake of the likely fromth of some of our housely wights from manysome wild stocks: the blood, for bisen, of a tropical and highnorthwolf or wild dog may forhaps be mingled in our housely breeds. The rat and mouse cannot be hidged as housely wights, but they have been yondborne by man to many deals of the world, and now have a far wider scope than any other rodent, living free under the cold loftlay of faroe in the north and of the falklands in the south, and on many islands in the torrid zones. Hence i am bighfast to look at throughfitting to any sunderful loftlay as a suchness readily grafted on an inborn wide flexibility of setness, which is imean to most wights. On this onsight, the canmayen of tholing the most undershedsome loftlays by man himself and by his housely wights, and such deedsakes as that former wightkin of the trunkwight and rhinoceros were canfast of tholing a icelayly loftlay, whereas the living wightkin are now all tropical or under-tropical in their wones, ought not to be looked at as anomalies, but merely as bisens of a very imean flexibility of setness, brought, under odd imbstands, into play. How much of the loftlayening of wightkin to any odd loftlay is due to mere wone, and how much to the ikindsome choosing of variations having undershedsome inborn setnesss, and how much to both means togetherstelled, is a very mistfull fraign. That wone or custom has some inflowmayen i must believe, both from samerun, and from the unblinning rede given in cropcraftsome works, even in the alderold alderlorebooks of china, to be very cau- [bookleaf] 142 laws of sundriness. Chap. V. Tious in yondstelling wights from one andlay to another; for it is not likely that man should have spowed in choosing so many breeds and under-breeds with setnesss asunderfastly fitted for their own andlays: the outfollow must, i think, be due to wone. On the other hand, i can see no thinkcraft to twight that ikindsome choosing will throughstandingly nige to aspare those untodealels which are born with setnesss best throughfit to their inhomeish landreds. In writlays on many kinds of bebuilt plants,somel isunders are said to withstandsomel loftlays better than others: this is very strikingly shown in works on ovet trees forlaid in the beoned onlays, in whichsomel isunders are wonely recommended for the northern, and others for the southern onlays; and as most of these isunders are of short-ago fromth, they cannot owe their setnessly undersheds to wone. The happenlay of the jerusalem artichoke, which is never forspread by seed, and of which infollowingly new isunders have not been tiddered, has even been advanced—for it is now as tender as ever it was—as afanding that loftlayening cannot be onworked! The happenlay, also, of the kidney-bean has been often cited for a alike sake, and with much greater weight; but until some one will sow, during a score of strinds, his kidney-beans so early that a very michel ondeal are fordone by frost, and then gather seed from the few overlivers, with care to forecome misfallsome roods, and then again get seed from these seedlings, with the same foreyeams, the fand cannot be said to have been even tried. Nor let it be understelled that no undersheds in the setness of seedling kidney-beans ever show up, for a rake has been forlaid how much more hardy some seedlings thenched to be than others. On the whole, i think we may ashut that wone, [bookleaf] 143 chap. V. Togethersibred of growth. Use, and andnote, have, in some happenlays, played a hidgebere deal in the awending of the setness, and of the upbuild of sundry bodyworkths; but that the onworkings of use and andnote have often been michelly togetherstelled with, and sometimes overmastered by, the ikindsome choosing of inborn undersheds. Togethersibred of growth.—i mean by this outthring that the whole dight is so tied together during its growth and andwinding, that when slight sundrinesss in any one deal betide, and are upheaped through ikindsome choosing, other deals become awended. This is a very weighty underthrow, most unfullcomely understood. The most opensightly case is, that awendings upheaped solely for the good of the young or forebug, will, it may safely be ashut, onwork the upbuild of the adult; in the same way as any misashapening onworking the early forebirthling, seriously onworks the whole dight of the adult. The manysome deals of the body which are sameworthsome, and which, at an early forebirthlingsome timedeal, are alike, seem atiely to forsunder in an alinked way: we see this in the right and left sides of the body forsundering in the same way; in the front and hind legs, and even in the jaws and limbs, forsundering together, for the lower jaw is believed to be sameworthsome with the limbs. These tendencies, i do not twight, may be mastered more or less fullthroughly by ikindsome choosing: thus a huered of stags once wesened with an antler only on one side; and if this had been of any great use to the breed it might likely have been made foreversome by ikindsome choosing. Sameworthsome deals, as has been edmarked by some writmakers, nige to stick together; this is often seen in owleechsome plants; and nothing is more imean than the onehood of sameworthsome deals in everywhenhapfast upbuilds, as the onehood of [bookleaf] 144 laws of sundriness. Chap. V. The huebloomleaves of the hueleafmaith into a tube. Hard deals seem to onwork the form of afaying soft deals; it is believed by some writmakers that the manyotheredness in the shape of the hipringbone in birds bewhys the edmarkbere manyotheredness in the shape of their kidneys. Others believe that the shape of the hipringbone in the soulbearend mother inflowmayens by pressure the shape of the head of the child. In snakes, according to schlegel, the shape of the body and the way of swallowing toend the howstand of manysome of the most weighty bodyworkths. The ikind of the bond of togethersibred is very loomly quite mistfull. M. Is. Geoffroy st. Hilaire has strengthfully edmarked, that somel malconshapennesses very loomly, and that others seldom togetherwesen, without our being able to atoken any thinkcraft. What can be more sunderfast than the maithred between blue eyes and deafness in cats, and the tortoise-shell colour with the birthlifer akenbodyworkthsplit; the feathered feet and skin between the outer toes in plumpdoves, and the presence of more or less down on the young birds when first hatched, with the to-come colour of their feathers; or, again, the maithred between the hair and teeth in the naked turkish dog, though here likely evenfromer comes into play? With edsight to this latter happenlay of togethersibred, i think it can hardly be misfallsome, that if we pick out the two orders of sucklewightia which are most uneverywhenhapfast in their skinsome betielding, that is, sucklefish (whales) and teethlesswights (bodyshieldwights, scaly ant-eaters, &c.), that these are likewise the most uneverywhenhapfast in their teeth. I know of no happenlay better throughfit to show the weightiness of the laws of togethersibred in awending weighty upbuilds, unoffhangingly of nitworthness and, therefore, of ikindsome choosing, than that of the undershed between the outer and inner bloomworts in some compositous and umbelliferous plants. Every one knows the [bookleaf] 145 chap. V. Togethersibred of growth. Undershed in the ray and imbmid bloomwortlings of, for bisen, the daisy, and this undershed is often afered with the nethersnithing of deals of the bloomwort. But, in some compositous plants, the seeds also andsame in shape and sculpture; and even the eggbearling itself, with its accessory deals, andsames, as has been bewritten by cassini. These undersheds have been knoded by some writmakers to pressure, and the shape of the seeds in the ray-bloomwortlings in some compositæ neblits this thinkling; but, in the happenlay of the hueleafmaith of the umbelliferæ, it is by no means, as dr. Hooker inkens me, in wightkin with the densest heads that the inner and outer bloomworts most loomly andsame. It might have been thought that the andwinding of the ray-huebloomleaves by drawing bylive fromsomel other deals of the bloomwort had bewhyed their nethersnithing; but in some compositæ there is an undershed in the seeds of the outer and inner bloomwortlings without any undershed in the hueleafmaith. Acomingly, these manysome undersheds may be belinked with some undershed in the flow of feedle towards the imbmid and outly bloomworts: we know, at least, that in unwoneshapefastness bloomworts, those nearest to the axis are oftenest underthrow to peloria, and become woneshapefastness. I may ateak, as a bisen of this, and of a striking happenlay of togethersibred, that i have short-agoly behowed in some garden storkbillseedvatworts, that the imbmid bloomwort of the truss often loses the patches of darker colour in the two upper huebloomleaves; and that when this betides, the sticksome bloomsugary is quite nethersnithen; when the colour is unandward from only one of the two upper huebloomleaves, the bloomsugary is only much shortened. With edsight to the undershed in the hueleafmaith of the imbmid and outside bloomworts of a head or umbel, i do not feel at all sure that c. C. Sprengel's thinkling that the ray-bloomwortlings serve to onpull bugs, whose deedcraft is highly foredealful in the tudderfast-ening of plants of H [bookleaf] 146 laws of sundriness. Chap. V. These two orders, is so far-fetched, as it may at first thench: and if it be foredealful, ikindsome choosing may have come into play. But in sight to the undersheds both in the inly and outly upbuild of the seeds, which are not always togetherakinned with any undersheds in the bloomworts, it seems unacomingly that they can be in any way foredealful to the plant: yet in the umbelliferæ these undersheds are of such opensightly weightiness—the seeds being in some happenlays, according to tausch, orthospermous in the outside bloomworts and cœlospermous in the imbmid bloomworts,—that the elder de candolle founded his main idoles of the order on samerunsome undersheds. Hence we see that awendings of upbuild, onsighted by setlaylorers as of high worthhood, may be wholly due to unknown laws of togetherakinned growth, and without being, as far as we can see, of the slightest thanered to the wightkin. We may often falsely knode to togethersibred of growth, upbuilds which are imean to whole maiths of wightkin, and which in truth are sinfold due to erve; for an alderold akennend may have underfanged through ikindsome choosing some one awending in upbuild, and, after thousands of strinds, some other and unoffhanging awending; and these two awendings, having been yondstelled to a whole maith ofnetherastiends with sundry wones, would quithenly be thought to be togetherakinned in some needbehovely way. So, again, i do not twight that some opensightly togethersibreds, betiding throughout whole orders, are wholely due to the way alone in which ikindsome choosing can bedo. For bisen, alph. De candolle has edmarked that winged seeds are never found in ovets which do not open: i should aclear the rule by the deedsake that seeds could not stepmeally become winged through ikindsome choosing, nimth in ovets which opened; so that the untodealel plants tiddering [bookleaf] 147 chap. V. Togethersibred of growth. Seeds which were a little better fitted to be wafted further, might get an foredeal over those tiddering seed less fitted for scattering; and this forthhappen could not acomingly go on in ovet which did not open. The elder geoffroy and goethe forthstelled, at about the same timedeal, their law of forevening or evenweigh of growth; or, as goethe outthringed it, "in order to spend on one side, ikind is thracked to wealthdomen on the other side." i think this holds true to a somel scope with our housely tidderings: if bylive flows to one deal or bodyworkth in overmuch, it seldom flows, at least in overmuch, to another deal; thus it is arvethfast to get a cow to give much misunder and to fatten readily. The same isunders of the cabbage do not yield fullsome and feedleful leaves and a fullfast bestock of oil-bearing seeds. When the seeds in our ovets become drozen, the ovet itself gains michelly in size and suchness. In our fowl, a michel tuft of feathers on the head is allmeanly afered by an aquinen comb, and a michel beard by aquinen wattles. With wightkin in a state of ikind it can hardly be upkept that the law is of allhomely belaying; but many good behowers, more besunders wortlorers, believe in its truth. I will not, however, here give any bisens, for i see hardly any way of tosheding between the onworkings, on the one hand, of a deal being michelly andwound through ikindsome choosing and another and afaying deal being lowered by this same forthhappen or by andnote, and, on the other hand, the soothly withdrawal of feedle from one deal owing to the overmuch of growth in another and afaying deal. I underlook, also, that some of the happenlays of forevening which have been advanced, and likewise some other deedsakes, may be merged under a more allmeanly thoughsetlay, namely, that ikindsome choosing is throughstandingly trying to wealthdomen in every deal of the dight. If under H 2 [bookleaf] 148 laws of sundriness. Chap. V. Forothered hodes of life a upbuild before nitworth becomes less nitworth, any diminution, however slight, in its andwinding, will be fanged on by ikindsome choosing, for it will beforth the untodealel not to have its feedle wasted in building up an unnitworth upbuild. I can thus only understand a deedsake with which i was much struck when underseeking moochshellwights, and of which many other bisens could be given: namely, that when a moochshellwight is parasitic within another and is thus barrowed, it loses more or less fullthroughly its own shell or carapace. This is the happenlay with the seedlifer ibla, and in a truly orwoneliness way with the proteolepas: for the carapace in all other moochshellwights consists of the three highly-weighty fore dealocks of the head aldermichelly andwound, and furnished with great feelingsinews and muscles; but in the parasitic and barrowed proteolepas, the whole fore deal of the head is lowered to the merest leftling onfastened to the bottomlays of the graspfast headfeelers. Now the saving of a michel and throughtangly upbuild, when made overmichel by the stealeaterly wones of the proteolepas, though onworked by slow steps, would be a beshut foredeal to each afterfollowly untodealel of the wightkin; for in the struggle for life to which every wight is outset, each untodealel proteolepas would have a better whate of underbearing itself, by less feedle being wasted in andwinding a upbuild now become unnitworth. Thus, as i believe, ikindsome choosing will always spow in the long run in lowering and saving every deal of the dight, as soon as it is made overmichel, without by any means bewhying some other deal to be michelly andwound in a togetheranswering andstep. And, otherwayly, that ikindsome choosing may fullcomely well spow in michelly andwinding any bodyworkth, without tharfing as a needbehovely forevening the reduction of some afaying deal. [bookleaf] 149 chap. V. Togethersibred of growth. It seems to be a rule, as edmarked by is. Geoffroy st. Hilaire, both in isunders and in wightkin, that when any deal or bodyworkth is edledged many times in the upbuild of the same untodealel (as the backbonelings in snakes, and the stemocks in polyandrous bloomworts) the rime is sunderly; whereas the rime of the same deal or bodyworkth, when it betides in lesser rimes, is standy. The same writmaker and some wortlorers have further edmarked that manyful deals are also very atiely to sundriness in upbuild. Inasmuch as this "vegetative edledging," to use prof. Owen's outthring, seems to be a sign of low dight; the foregoing edmark seems belinked with the very allmeanly onthink of ikindlorers, that beings low in the scale of ikind are more sunderly than those which are higher. I foretake that lowness in this happenlay means that the manysome deals of the dight have been but little besundered for dealocksome workhoods; and as long as the same deal has to frem sunderlyened work, we can forhaps see why it should belive sunderly, that is, why ikindsome choosing should have aspared or withset each little andwaying of form less carefully than when the deal has to serve for one sunderful sake alone. In the same way that a knife which has to cut all sorts of things may be of almost any shape; whilst a tool for some dealocksome towardsthing had better be of some dealocksome shape. Ikindsome choosing, it should never be forgotten, can bedo on each deal of each being, solely through and for its foredeal. Leftlingish deals, it has been quided by some writmakers, and i believe with truth, are apt to be highly sunderly. We shall have to edhappen to the allmeanly underthrow of leftlingish and nethersnithen bodyworkths; and i will here only ateak that their sundriness seems to be owing to their unnitworthness, and therefore to ikindsome choosing having no wold to check andwayings in their upbuild. Thus [bookleaf] 150 laws of sundriness. Chap. V. Leftlingish deals are left to the free play of the sundry laws of growth, to the onworkings of long-throughstood disuse, and to the niging to edwharve. A deal andwound in any wightkin in an orwoneliness andstep or way, in withmeting with the same deal in alinked wightkin, tends to be highly sunderly.—manysome years ago i was much struck with a edmark, nearly to the above onworking, forlaid by mr. Waterhouse. I offlead also from an behowing made by lorefather owen, with edsight to the length of the arms of the ourang-outang, that he has come to a nearly alike ashut. It is hopeless to costen to overtell any one of the truth of this forthput without giving the long array of deedsakes which i have gathered, and which cannot acomingly be here inlead. I can only onlay my belief that it is a rule of high allmeanlyness. I am aware of manysome bring-abouts of dwild, but i hope that i have enoughsomely taken them into hidge. It should be understood that the rule by no means belays to any deal, however unwonely andwound, unless it be unwonely andwound in withmeting with the same deal in closely alinked wightkin. Thus, the bat's wing is a most uneverywhenhapfast upbuild in the ilk sucklewightia; but the rule would not here belay, forwhy there is a whole maith of bats having wings; it would belay only if some one wightkin of bat had its wings andwound in some edmarkbere way in withmeting with the other wightkin of the same wightkind. The rule belays very strongly in the happenlay of twothsome mingefast suchnesses, when ewed in any unwonely way. The term, twothsome mingefast suchnesses, used by hunter, belays to suchnesses which are onfastened to one akenbodyworkthsplit, but are not wissly belinked with the bedo of edtiddering. The rule belays to seedlifers and birthlifers; but as birthlifers more seldom offer edmarkbere twothsome mingefast suchnesses, it belays [bookleaf] 151 chap. V. Laws of sundriness. More seldom to them. The rule being so plainly belaybere in the happenlay of twothsome mingefast suchnesses, may be due to the great sundriness of these suchnesses, whether or not ewed in any unwonely way—of which deedsake i think there can be little twight. But that our rule is not benarrowened to twothsome mingefast suchnesses is clearly shown in the happenlay of weaponedwifester moochshellwights; and i may here ateak, that i dealocksomely yeamed to mr. Waterhouse's edmark, whilst investigating this order, and i am fully overtold that the rule almost everywhen holds good with moochshellwights. I shall, in my to-come work, give a list of the more edmarkbere happenlays; i will here only briefly give one, as it onlights the rule in its michelst belaying. The opercular onewayflaps of stemfayed moochshellwights (rock afayshellfishs) are, in every spoor of the word, very weighty upbuilds, and they andsame outestly little even in undershedsome wightkinds; but in the manysome wightkin of one wightkind, pyrgoma, these onewayflaps andward a wonderful muchth of sundryening: the sameworthsome onewayflaps in the undershedsome wightkin being sometimes wholly unlike in shape; and the muchth of sundriness in the untodealels of manysome of the wightkin is so great, that it is no overdriving to onlay that the isunders andsame more from each other in the suchnesses of these weighty onewayflaps than do other wightkin of toshed wightkinds. As birds within the same landred forsunder in a edmarkberely small andstep, i have dealocksomely yeamed to them, and the rule seems to me iwis to hold good in this ilk. I cannot make out that it belays to plants, and this would seriously have shaken my belief in its truth, had not the great sundriness in plants made it dealocksomely arvethfast to withmete their akinsome andsteps of sundriness. When we see any deal or bodyworkth andwound in a edmarkbere andstep or way in any wightkin, the fair [bookleaf] 152 laws of sundriness. Chap. V. Foretaking is that it is of high weightiness to that wightkin; nevertheless the deal in this happenlay is highoutlyly atiely to sundriness. Why should this be so? On the onsight that each wightkin has been unoffhangingly beshaped, with all its deals as we now see them, i can see no aclearing. But on the onsight that maiths of wightkin have netherastien from other wightkin, and have been awended through ikindsome choosing, i think we can fang some light. In our housely wights, if any deal, or the whole wight, be forheemed and no choosing be belaid, that deal (for bisen, the comb in the dorking fowl) or the whole breed will blin to have a nearly oneshaped suchness. The breed will then be said to have dewightkindsted. In leftlingish bodyworkths, and in those which have been but little besundered for any dealocksome sake, and forhaps in manyshaped maiths, we see a nearly evenlong ikindsome happenlay; for in such happenlays ikindsome choosing either has not or cannot come into full play, and thus the dight is left in a fluctuating hode. But what here more besunders bemeets us is, that in our housely wights those ords, which at the andward time are undergoing fast forothering by throughstood choosing, are also highoutlyly atiely to sundriness. Look at the breeds of the plumpdove; see what a highmichel muchth of undershed there is in the beak of the undershedsome tumblers, in the beak and wattle of the undershedsome bearers, in the care and tail of our fantails, &c., these being the ords now mainly yeamed to by english fanciers. Even in the under-breeds, as in the short-faced tumbler, it is couthfastly arvethfast to breed them nearly to fullcomeliness, and loomly untodealels are born which wite widely from the standord. There may be truly said to be a standy struggle going on between, on the one hand, the niging to edwharve to a less awended onlay, as well as an inborn niging to further [bookleaf] 153 chap. V. Laws of sundriness. Sundriness of all kinds, and, on the other hand, the wold of steady choosing to keep the breed true. In the long run choosing gains the day, and we do not bewait to fail so far as to breed a bird as coarse as a imean tumbler from a good short-faced strain. But as long as choosing is quickly going on, there may always be bewaited to be much sundriness in the upbuild undergoing awending. It further andtheens bemark that these sunderly suchnesses, tiddered by man's choosing, sometimes become onfastened, from bewhys quite unknown to us, more to one akenbodyworkthsplit than to the other, allmeanly to the seedlifer akenbodyworkthsplit, as with the wattle of bearers and the enmicheld crop of pouters. Now let us turn to ikind. When a deal has been andwound in an orwoneliness way in any one wightkin, withmeted with the other wightkin of the same wightkind, we may ashut that this deal has undergone an orwoneliness muchth of awending, since the timedeal when the wightkin branched off from the imean akennend of the wightkind. This timedeal will seldom be far-off in any outest andstep, as wightkin very seldom thole for more than one earthlorely timedeal. An orwoneliness muchth of awending infolds an unwonely michel and long-throughstood muchth of sundriness, which has throughstandingly been upheaped by ikindsome choosing for the beforthing of the wightkin. But as the sundriness of the orwoneliness-andwound deal or bodyworkth has been so great and long-throughstood within a timedeal not overmuchly far-off, we might, as a allmeanly rule, bewait still to find more sundriness in such deals than in other deals of the dight, which have belived for a much longer timedeal nearly standy. And this, i am overtold, is the happenlay. That the struggle between ikindsome choosing on the one hand, and the niging to edwharve and sundriness on the other hand, will in the H 3 [bookleaf] 154 laws of sundriness. Chap. V. Foor of time blin; and that the most uneverywhenhapfastly andwound bodyworkths may be made standy, i can see no thinkcraft to twight. Hence when an bodyworkth, however uneverywhenhapfast it may be, has been yondstelled in benearsomely the same hode to many awended netherastiends, as in the happenlay of the wing of the bat, it must have wesened, according to my thoughtlay, for an widemichel timedeal in nearly the same onlay; and thus it comes to be no more sunderly than any other upbuild. It is only in those happenlays in which the awending has been withmetesomely short-ago and extra great that we ought to find the wightkindstive sundriness, as it may be called, still andward in a high andstep. For in this happenlay the sundriness will seldom as yet have been fixed by the throughstood choosing of the untodealels forsundering in the tharfed way and andstep, and by the throughstood withsetion of those tending to edwend to a former and less awended hode. The thoughsetlay imbhad in these edmarks may be stretched out. It is couthfast that insunderly suchnesses are more sunderly than allmeanly. To aclear by a onelay bisen what is meant. If some wightkin in a michel wightkind of plants had blue bloomworts and some had red, the colour would be only a insunderly suchness, and no one would be overnome at one of the blue wightkin forsundering into red, or otherwayly; but if all the wightkin had blue bloomworts, the colour would become a allmeanly suchness, and its sundriness would be a more unwonely imbstand. I have chosen this bisen forwhy an aclearing is not in this happenlay belaybere, which most ikindlorers would put forward, namely, that insunderly suchnesses are more sunderly than allmeanly, forwhy they are taken from deals of less bodylorely weightiness than those imeanly used for ilking wightkinds. I believe this aclearing is deally, yet only inwissly, true; i shall, however, have to edwend [bookleaf] 155 chap. V. Laws of sundriness.

to this underthrow in our bookdeal on isunderening. It would be almost overmichel to throughord outshow in underbear of the above quid, that insunderly suchnesses are more sunderly than allmeanly; but i have edledgedly bemarked in works on ikindsome yorelore, that when an writmaker has edmarked with overnim that some weighty bodyworkth or deal, which is allmeanly very standy throughout michel maiths of wightkin, has andsamed hidgeberely in closely-alinked wightkin, that it has, also, been sunderly in the untodealels of some of the wightkin. And this deedsake shows that a suchness, which is allmeanly of allmeanly worthhood, when it sinks in worthhood and becomes only of insunderly worthhood, often becomes sunderly, though its bodylorely weightiness may belive the same. Something of the same kind belays to owleechsomenesses: at least is. Geoffroy st. Hilaire seems to betweenhold no twight, that the more an bodyworkth everywhenhapfastly andsames in the undershedsome wightkin of the same maith, the more underthrow it is to untodealel anomalies.

On the wonely onsight of each wightkin having been unoffhangingly beshaped, why should that deal of the upbuild, which andsames from the same deal in other unoffhangingly-beshaped wightkin of the same wightkind, be more sunderly than those deals which are closely alike in the manysome wightkin? I do not see that any aclearing can be given. But on the onsight of wightkin being only strongly marked and fixed isunders, we might surely bewait to find them still often throughstanding to forsunder in those deals of their upbuild which have besundered within a meathly short-ago timedeal, and which have thus come to andsame. Or to onlay the happenlay in another way:—the ords in which all the wightkin of a wightkind onlike each other, and in which they andsame from the wightkin of some other wightkind, are called allmeanly suchnesses; and these suchnesses in imean i knode to erve from a imean [bookleaf] 156 laws of sundriness. Chap. V. Akennend, for it can seldom have happened that ikindsome choosing will have awended manysome wightkin, fitted to more or less widely-undershedsome wones, in weetilly the same way: and as these so-called allmeanly suchnesses have been erveed from a far-off timedeal, since that timedeal when the wightkin first branched off from their imean akennend, and underfollowingly have not besundered or come to andsame in any andstep, or only in a slight andstep, it is not likely that they should forsunder at the andward day. On the other hand, the ords in which wightkin andsame from other wightkin of the same wightkind, are called insunderly suchnesses; and as these insunderly suchnesses have besundered and come to andsame within the timedeal of the branching off of the wightkin from a imean akennend, it is likely that they should still often be in some andstep sunderly,—at least more sunderly than those deals of the dight which have for a very long timedeal belived standy. In belinking with the andward underthrow, i will make only two other edmarks. I think it will be throughgiven, without my entering on atcuts, that twothsome mingefast suchnesses are very sunderly; i think it also will be throughgiven that wightkin of the same maith andsame from each other more widely in their twothsome mingefast suchnesses, than in other deals of their dight; withmete, for bisen, the muchth of undershed between the seedlifers of gallinaceous birds, in which twothsome mingefast suchnesses are strongly ewed, with the muchth of undershed between their birthlifers; and the truth of this forthput will be granted. The bewhy of the fromly sundriness of twothsome mingefast suchnesses is not manifest; but we can see why these suchnesses should not have been made as standy and oneshaped as other deals of the dight; for twothsome mingefast suchnesses have been upheaped by mingefast choosing, which [bookleaf] 157 chap. V. Laws of sundriness. Is less stiff in its deedship than wonely choosing, as it does not imblink death, but only gives fewer offspring to the less rithed seedlifers. Whatever the bewhy may be of the sundriness of twothsome mingefast suchnesses, as they are highly sunderly, mingefast choosing will have had a wide scope for deedship, and may thus readily have spowed in giving to the wightkin of the same maith a greater muchth of undershed in their mingefast suchnesses, than in other deals of their upbuild. It is a edmarkbere deedsake, that the twothsome akenbodyworkthsplitual undersheds between the two akenbodyworkthsplits of the same wightkin are allmeanly ewed in the very same deals of the dight in which the undershedsome wightkin of the same wightkind andsame from each other. Of this deedsake i will give in onlight two bisens, the first which happen to stand on my list; and as the undersheds in these happenlays are of a very unwonely ikind, the maithred can hardly be misfallsome. The same rime of fayts in the ankles is a suchness allmeanly imean to very michel maiths of beetles, but in the engidæ, as westwood has edmarked, the rime forsunders greatly; and the rime likewise andsames in the two akenbodyworkthsplit of the same wightkin: again in diggly fourskinlingwingedbugs, the way of neutodealmaithredn of the wings is a suchness of the highest weightiness, forwhy imean to michel maiths; but in somel wightkinds the neutodealmaithredn andsames in the andsameent wightkin, and likewise in the two akenbodyworkthsplits of the same wightkin. This maithred has a clear meaning on my onsight of the underthrow: i look at all the wightkin of the same wightkind as having as iwisnetherastien from the same akennend, as have the two akenbodyworkthsplits of any one of the wightkin. Infollowingly, whatever deal of the upbuild of the imean akennend, or of its earlynetherastiends, became sunderly; sundrinesss of this deal would, it is highly likely, be taken foredeal of by ikindsome and mingefast choosing, in [bookleaf] 158 laws of sundriness. Chap. V. Order to fit the manysome wightkin to their manysomesteads in the setlay of ikind, and likewise to fit the two akenbodyworkthsplits of the same wightkin to each other, or to fit the seedlifers and birthlifers to undershedsome wones of life, or the seedlifers to struggle with other seedlifers for the besitting of the birthlifers. Endly, then, i ashut that the greater sundriness of insunderly suchnesses, or those which toshed wightkin from wightkin, than of allmeanly suchnesses, or those which the wightkin besit in imean;—that the loom outest sundriness of any deal which is andwound in a wightkin in an orwoneliness way in withmeting with the same deal in its congeners; and the not great andstep of sundriness in a deal, however orwoneliness it may be andwound, if it be imean to a whole maith of wightkin;—that the great sundriness of twothsome mingefast suchnesses, and the great muchth of undershed in these same suchnesses between closely alinked wightkin;—that twothsome mingefast and wonely insunderly undersheds are allmeanly ewed in the same deals of the dight,—are all thoughsetlays closely belinked together. All being mainly due to the wightkin of the same maith having netherastien from a imean akennend, from whom they have erved much in imean,—to deals which have short-agoly and michelly besundered being more likely still to go on forsundering than deals which have long been erved and have not besundered,—to ikindsome choosing having more or less fullthroughly, according to the whilestitch of time, overmastered the niging to edwharve and to further sundriness,—to mingefast choosing being less stiff than wonely choosing,—and to sundrinesss in the same deals having been upheaped by ikindsome and mingefast choosing, and thus throughfit for twothsome mingefast, and for wonely insunderly sakes. [bookleaf] 159 chap. V. Laws of sundriness. Toshed wightkin andward samerunsome sundrinesss; and a ilk of one wightkin often foretakes some of the suchnesses of an alinked wightkin, or edwends to some of the suchnesses of an early akennend.—these forthputs will be most readily understood by looking to our housely races. The most toshed breeds of plumpdoves, in landreds most widely awaysome, andward under-isunders with edwhorven feathers on the head and feathers on the feet,—suchnesses not besat by the fromthfast rock-plumpdove; these then are samerunsome sundrinesss in two or more toshed races. The loom andwardness of fourteen or even sixteen tail-feathers in the pouter, may be hidged as a sundriness edandwarding the everywhenhapfast upbuild of another race, the fantail. I foretake that no one will twight that all such samerunsome sundrinesss are due to the manysome races of the plumpdove having erved from a imean akennend the same setness and niging to sundriness, when acted on by alike unknown inflowmayens. In the vegetable kingdom we have a happenlay of samerunsome sundriness, in the enmicheld stems, or roots as imeanly called, of the swedish turnip and ruta baga, plants which manysome wortlorers rank as isunders tiddered by bebuilding from a imean akennend: if this be not so, the happenlay will then be one of samerunsome sundriness in two so-called toshed wightkin; and to these a third may be ateaked, namely, the imean turnip. According to the wonely onsight of each wightkin having been unoffhangingly beshaped, we should have to knode this alikeship in the enmicheld stems of these three plants, not to the real whyth of imeanship of netherastieing, and a consequent niging to forsunder in a like way, but to three totweemed yet closely akinned bedos of ishaft. With plumpdoves, however, we have another happenlay, namely, the otherwhile upshowing in all the breeds, of slaty-blue birds with two black bars on the wings, a white [bookleaf] 160 laws of sundriness. Chap. V. Rump, a bar at the end of the tail, with the outer feathers outly edged near their bottomlays with white. As all these marks are suchnessly of the akennend rock-plumpdove, i foretake that no one will twight that this is a happenlay of edwhirft, and not of a new yet samerunsome sundriness showing up in the manysome breeds. We may i think belieffastly come to this ashut, forwhy, as we have seen, these coloured marks are highoutlyly atiely to show up in the rooded offspring of two toshed and undershedsomely coloured breeds; and in this happenlay there is nothing in the outly hodes of life to bewhy the edupshowing of the slaty-blue, with the manysome marks, beyond the inflowmayen of the mere bedo of rooding on the laws of erve. No twight it is a very overnimming deedsake that suchnesses should edupshow after having been lost for many, forhaps for hundreds of strinds. But when a breed has been rooded only once by some other breed, the offspring otherwhile show a niging to edwend in suchness to the ellandish breed for many strinds—some say, for a dozen or even a score of strinds. After twelve strinds, the ondeal of blood, to use a imean outthring, of any one beforecomer, is only 1 in 2048; and yet, as we see, it is allmeanly believed that a niging to edwharve is bekept by this very small ondeal of ellandish blood. In a breed which has not been rooded, but in which both akennends have lost some suchness which their akennend besat, the niging, whether strong or weak, to edtidder the lost suchness might be, as was formerly edmarked, for all that we can see to the againstwise, yondstelled for almost any rime of strinds. When a suchness which has been lost in a breed, edupshows after a great rime of strinds, the most likely fore-thoughtlay is, not that the offspring suddenly takes after an beforecomer some hundred strinds [bookleaf] 161 chap. V. Laws of sundriness. Farfast, but that in each afterfollowly strind there has been a niging to edtidder the suchness in fraign, which at last, under unknown rithbere hodes, gains an astieing. For bisen, it is likely that in each strind of the barb-plumpdove, which tidders most seldom a blue and black-barred bird, there has been a niging in each strind in the feathers to foretake this colour. This onsight is fore-thoughtlaylly, but could be underborne by some deedsakes; and i can see no more oryolster unacomingliness in a niging to tidder any suchness being erved for an endless rime of strinds, than in quite unnitworth or leftlingish bodyworkths being, as we all know them to be, thus erved. Indeed, we may sometimes behow a mere tendency to tidder a leftling erved: for bisen, in the imean snapdragon (antirrhinum) a leftling of a fifth stemock so often shows up, that this plant must have an erved niging to tidder it. As all the wightkin of the same wightkind are understelled, on my thoughtlay, to have netherastien from a imean akennend, it might be bewaited that they would otherwhile forsunder in an samerunsome way; so that a isunder of one wightkin would onlike in some of its suchnesses another wightkin; this other wightkin being on my onsight only a well-marked and foreversome isunder. But suchnesses thus gained would likely be of an unweighty ikind, for the andwardness of all weighty suchnesses will be awielded by ikindsome choosing, in accordance with the sundry wones of the wightkin, and will not be left to the two-way deedship of the hodes of life and of a alike erved setness. It might further be bewaited that the wightkin of the same wightkind would otherwhile outstell edwhirfts to lost forebearersome suchnesses. As, however, we never know the weetil suchness of the imean beforecomer of a maith, we could not toshed these two [bookleaf] 162 laws of sundriness. Chap. V. Happenlays: if, for bisen, we did not know that the rock-plumpdove was not feather-footed or turn-crowned, we could not have told, whether these suchnesss in our housely breeds were edwhirfts or only samerunsome sundrinesss; but we might have offlead that the blueness was a happenlay of edwhirft, from the rime of the markings, which are togetherakinned with the blue tint, and which it does not thench likely would all show up together from onelay sundriness. More besunders we might have offlead this, from the blue colour and marks so often showing up when toshed breeds of sundry colours are rooded. Hence, though under ikind it must allmeanly be left twightful, what happenlays are edwhirfts to an alderoldly wesening suchness, and what are new but samerunsome sundrinesss, yet we ought, on my thoughtlay, sometimes to find the forsundering offspring of a wightkin foretaking suchnesses (either from edwhirft or from samerunsome sundriness) which already betide in some other members of the same maith. And this untwightedly is the happenlay in ikind. A hidgebere deal of the arveth in edknowing a sunderly wightkin in our setlayly works, is due to its isunders mocking, as it were, some of the other wightkin of the same wightkind. A hidgebere listbook, also, could be given of forms betweenly between two other forms, which themselves must be twightfully ranked as either isunders or wightkin; and this shows, unless all these forms be hidged as unoffhangingly beshaped wightkin, that the one in forsundering has foretaken some of the suchnesses of the other, so as to tidder the betweenly form. But the best outshow is afforded by deals or bodyworkths of a weighty and oneshaped ikind otherwhile forsundering so as to underfang, in some andstep, the suchness of the same deal or bodyworkth in an alinked wightkin. I have gathered a long list of such happenlays; but [bookleaf] 163 chap. V. Laws of sundriness. Here, as before, i lie under a great afterdeal in not being able to give them. I can only edledge that such happenlays iwis do betide, and seem to me very edmarkbere. I will, however, give one frimdy and throughtangly happenlay, not indeed as onworking any weighty suchness, but from betiding in manysome wightkin of the same wightkind, deally under housening and deally under ikind. It is a happenlay opensightly of edwhirft. The ass not seldom has very toshed roodwise bars on its legs, like those on the legs of a striped horse: it has been forthstomped that these are plainest in the foal, and from inquiries which i have made, i believe this to be true. It has also been forthstomped that the stripe on each shoulder is sometimes double. The shoulder-stripe is iwis very sunderly in length and outline. A white ass, but not an albino, has been bewritten without either backbonely or shoulder-stripe; and these stripes are sometimes very mistfull, or soothly quite lost, in dark-coloured asses. The koulan of pallas is said to have been seen with a double shoulder-stripe. The tibetan wildass has no shoulder-stripe; but traces of it, as quided by mr. Blyth and others, otherwhile show up: and i have been inkenned by colonel poole that the foals of this wightkin are allmeanly striped on the legs, and faintly on the shoulder. The striped ass, though so plainly barred like a striped horse over the body, is without bars on the legs; but dr. Gray has figured one neesling with very toshed striped horse-like bars on the hocks. With edsight to the horse, i have gathered happenlays in england of the backbonely stripe in horses of the most toshed breeds, and of all colours; roodwise bars on the legs are not seldly in duns, mouse-duns, and in one bisen in a chestnut: a faint shoulder-stripe may sometimes be seen in duns, and i have seen a trace in a [bookleaf] 164 laws of sundriness. Chap. V. Bay horse. My son made a careful underseeking and sketch for me of a dun belgian cart-horse with a double stripe on each shoulder and with leg-stripes; and a man, whom i can infoldishly trust, has undersought for me a small dun welch pony with three short evenlong stripes on each shoulder. In the north-west deal of india the kattywar breed of horses is so allmeanly striped, that, as i hear from colonel poole, who undersought the breed for the indian awieldment, a horse without stripes is not hidged as siverly-bred. The backbone is always striped; the legs are allmeanly barred; and the shoulder-stripe, which is sometimes double and sometimes treble, is imean; the side of the face, moreover, is sometimes striped. The stripes are plainest in the foal; and sometimes quite swind in old horses. Colonel poole has seen both gray and bay kattywar horses striped when first foaled. I have, also, thinkcraft to underlook, from kenstuff given me by mr. W. W. Edwards, that with the english race-horse the backbonely stripe is much imeaner in the foal than in the full-grown wight. Without here entering on further atcuts, i may onlay that i have gathered happenlays of leg and shoulder stripes in horses of very undershedsome breeds, in sundry landreds from britain to eastern china; and from norway in the north to the malay islandmaith in the south. In all deals of the world these stripes betide far oftenest in duns and mouse-duns; by the term dun a michel scope of colour is imbhad, from one between brown and black to a close nighledge to cream-colour. I am aware that colonel hamilton smith, who has written on this underthrow, believes that the manysome breeds of the horse have netherastien from manysome abfromthal wightkin—one of which, the dun, was striped; and that the above-bewritten upshowings are all due to alderold [bookleaf] 165 chap. V. Laws of sundriness. Roods with the dun stock. But i am not at all befrithed with this thoughtlay, and should be loth to belay it to breeds so toshed as the heavy belgian cart-horse, welch ponies, cobs, the lanky kattywar race, &c., inwoning the most farfast deals of the world. Now let us turn to the onworkings of rooding the manysome wightkin of the horse-wightkind. Rollin forthstomps, that the imean mule from the ass and horse is dealocksomely apt to have bars on its legs. I once saw a mule with its legs so much striped that any one at first would have thought that it must have been the itidder of a striped horse; and mr. W. C. Martin, in his highmood writlay on the horse, has given a figure of a alike mule. In four coloured drawings, which i have seen, of twibloodtudders between the ass and striped horse, the legs were much more plainly barred than the rest of the body; and in one of them there was a double shoulder-stripe. In lord moreton's famous twibloodtudder from a chestnut mare and seedlifer striped ass, the twibloodtudder, and even the siver offspring underfollowingly tiddered from the mare by a black arabian sire, were much more plainly barred arood the legs than is even the siver striped ass. Lastly, and this is another most edmarkbere happenlay, a twibloodtudder has been figured by dr. Gray (and he inkens me that he knows of a twoth happenlay) from the ass and the tibetan wildass; and this twibloodtudder, though the ass seldom has stripes on its legs and the tibetan wildass has none and has not even a shoulder-stripe, nevertheless had all four legs barred, and had three short shoulder-stripes, like those on the dun welch pony, and even had some striped horse-like stripes on the sides of its face. With edsight to this last deedsake, i was so overtold that not even a stripe of colour shows up from what would imeanly be called a misfall, that i was led solely from the betidings of the face-stripes on this twibloodtudder from the ass and tibetan wildass, [bookleaf] 166 laws of sundriness. Chap. V. To ask colonel poole whether such face-stripes ever betide in the highoutlyly striped kattywar breed of horses, and was, as we have seen, answered in the besoothsome. What now are we to say to these manysome deedsakes? We see manysome very toshed wightkin of the horse-wightkind becoming, by onelay sundriness, striped on the legs like a striped horse, or striped on the shoulders like an ass. In the horse we see this niging strong whenever a dun tint shows up—a tint which approaches to that of the allmeanly colouring of the other wightkin of the wightkind. The upshowing of the stripes is not afered by any forothering of form or by any other new suchness. We see this niging to become striped most strongly ewed in twibloodtudders from between manysome of the most toshed wightkin. Now behow the happenlay of the manysome breeds of plumpdoves: they are netherastien from a plumpdove (imbhaving two or three under-wightkin or earthlorely races) of a bluish colour, withsomel bars and other marks; and when any breed foretakes by onelay sundriness a bluish tint, these bars and other marks everywhen edupshow; but without any other awend of form or suchness. When the oldest and truest breeds of sundry colours are rooded, we see a strong niging for the blue tint and bars and marks to edupshow in the mongrels. I have quided that the most likely fore-thoughtlay to rake for the edupshowing of very alderold suchnesses, is—that there is a niging in the young of each afterfollowly strind to tidder the long-lost suchness, and that this niging, from unknown bewhys, sometimes swithers. And we have just seen that in manysome wightkin of the horse-wightkind the stripes are either plainer or thench more imeanly in the young than in the old. Call the breeds of plumpdoves, some of which have bred true for yearhundreds, wightkin; and how weetilly evenlong is the happenlay with that of the wightkin of the horse-wightkind! [bookleaf] 167 chap. V. Summary. For myself, i whethapfare belieffastly to look back thousands on thousands of strinds, and i see a wight striped like a striped horse, but forhaps otherwise very undershedsomely abuilt, the imean akennend of our housely horse, whether or not it benetherastien from one or more wild stocks, of the ass, the tibetan wildass, striped ass, and striped horse. He who believes that each equine wightkin was unoffhangingly beshaped, will, i foretake, forthstomp that each wightkin has been beshaped with a niging to forsunder, both under ikind and under housening, in this dealocksome way, so as often to become striped like other wightkin of the wightkind; and that each has been beshaped with a strong niging, when rooded with wightkin inwoning farfast fourths of the world, to tidder twibloodtudders onliking in their stripes, not their own akennends, but other wightkin of the wightkind. To throughgive this onsight is, as it seems to me, to withset a real for an unreal, or at least for an unknown, bewhy. It makes the works of god a mere mockery and deception; i would almost as soon believe with the old and unwittle cosmogonists, that stonewight shells had never lived, but had been beshaped in stone so as to mock the shells now living on the sea-shore. Summary.—our unwareship of the laws of sundriness is deep. Not in one happenlay out of a hundred can we belike to atoken any thinkcraft why this or that deal andsames, more or less, from the same deal in the akennends. But whenever we have the means of instituting a withmeting, the same laws thench to have acted in tiddering the lesser undersheds between isunders of the same wightkin, and the greater undersheds between wightkin of the same wightkind. The outly hodes of life, as loftlay and food, &c., seem to have tobrought some slight awendings. Wone in tiddering setnessly undersheds [bookleaf] 168 laws of sundriness. Chap. V.

And use in strengthening, and andnote in weakening and diminishing bodyworkths, seem to have been more strengthfast in their onworkings. Sameworthsome deals nige to forsunder in the same way, and sameworthsome deals nige to cohere. Awendings in hard deals and in outly deals sometimes onwork softer and inly deals. When one deal is michelly andwound, forhaps it tends to draw bylive from the afaying deals; and every deal of the upbuild which can be saved without harmhood to the untodealel, will be saved. Forotherings of upbuild at an early eldth will allmeanly onwork deals underfollowingly andwound; and there are very many other togethersibreds of growth, the ikind of which we are utterly unable to understand. Manyfast deals are sunderly in rime and in upbuild, forhaps arising from such deals not having been closely besundered to any dealocksome workhood, so that their awendings have not been closely checked by ikindsome choosing. It is likely from this same bewhy that lifesome beings low in the scale of ikind are more sunderly than those which have their whole dight more besundered, and are higher in the scale. Leftlingish bodyworkths, from being unnitworth, will be andlooked by ikindsome choosing, and hence likely are sunderly. Insunderly suchnesses—that is, the suchnesses which have come to andsame since the manysome wightkin of the same wightkind branched off from a imean akennend—are more sunderly than allmeanly suchnesses, or those which have long been erved, and have not andsamed within this same timedeal. In these edmarks we have bepulled to sunderful deals or bodyworkths being still sunderly, forwhy they have short-agoly besundered and thus come to andsame; but we have also seen in the twoth bookdeal that the same thoughsetlay belays to the whole untodealel; for in a andlay where many wightkin of any wightkind are found—that is, where there has been much former

[bookleaf] 169 chap. V. Summary. Sundriness and undershedsomeiation, or where the manudeedsakeory of new insunderly forms has been dofastly at work—there, on an throughsnithe, we now find most isunders or beginsome wightkin. Twothary mingefast suchnesses are highly sunderly, and such suchnesses andsame much in the wightkin of the same maith. Sundriness in the same deals of the dight has allmeanly been taken foredeal of in giving twothsome mingefast undersheds to the akenbodyworkthsplits of the same wightkin, and insunderly undersheds to the manysome wightkin of the same wightkind. Any deal or bodyworkth andwound to an orwoneliness size or in an orwoneliness way, in withmeting with the same deal or bodyworkth in the alinked wightkin, must have gone through an orwoneliness muchth of awending since the wightkind arose; and thus we can understand why it should often still be sunderly in a much higher andstep than other deals; for sundriness is a long-throughstood and slow forthhappen, and ikindsome choosing will in such happenlays not as yet have had time to overcome the niging to further sundriness and to edwharve to a less awended onlay. But when a wightkin with any orwoneliness-andwound bodyworkth has become the akennend of many awended netherastiends—which on my onsight must be a very slow forthhappen, tharfing a long whilestitch of time—in this happenlay, ikindsome choosing may readily have spowed in giving a fixed suchness to the bodyworkth, in however orwoneliness a way it may be andwound. Wightkin erving nearly the same setness from a imean akennend and outset to alike inflowmayens will quithenly nige to andward samerunsome sundrinesss, and these same wightkin may otherwhile edwend to some of the suchnesses of their alderold akennends. Although new and weighty awendings may not arise from edwhirft and samerunsome sundriness, such awendings will ateak to the litty and harmonious manyotheredness of ikind. I [bookleaf] 170 laws of sundriness. Chap. V. Whatever the bewhy may be of each slight undershed in the offspring from their akennends—and a bewhy for each must wesen—it is the steady upheaping, through ikindsome choosing, of such undersheds, when forthly to the untodealel, that gives rise to all the more weighty awendings of upbuild, by which the unarimebere beings on the face of this earth are bemayened to struggle with each other, and the best throughfit to overlive. [bookleaf] 171 chap. Vi. Arveths on thoughtlay. Bookdeal vi. Arveths on thoughlay Arveths on the thoughtlay of netherastieing with awending — transitions — unatbeenness or seldomness of overgangly isunders — transitions in wones of life — sunderlyened wones in the same wightkin — wightkin with wones widely undershedsome from those of their allies — bodyworkths of outest fullcomeliness — means of overgang — happenlays of arveth — ikind does not make jumps — bodyworkths of small weightiness — bodyworkths not in all happenlays fullthroughly fullcome — the law of onehood of type and of the hodes of wist imbfathomed by the thoughtlay of ikindly choosing. Long before having tocome at this deal of my work, a crowd of arveths will have betided to the reader. Some of them are so grave that to this day i can never imbthink on them without being staggered; but, to the best of my deeming, the greater rime are only opensightly, and those that are real are not, i think, deathfast to my thoughtlay. These arveths and withthrowings may be isunderened under the following heads:— firstly, why, if wightkin have netherastien from other wightkin by unspoorberely fine steplings, do we not everywhere see unarimebere overgangly forms? Why is not all ikind in confusion instead of the wightkin being, as we see them, well bebound? Twothly, is it acomingly that a wight having, for bisen, the upbuild and wones of a bat, could have been ashaped by the awending of some wight with wholly undershedsome wones? Can we believe that ikindsome choosing could tidder, on the one hand, bodyworkths of trifling weightiness, such as the tail of a longneckwight, which serves as a fly-flapper, and, on the other hand, bodyworkths of I 2 [bookleaf] 172 arveths on thoughtlay. Chap. Vi. Such wonderful upbuild, as the eye, of which we hardly as yet fully understand the unevenledgebere fullcomeliness? Thirdly, can inborndrives be underfanged and awended through ikindsome choosing? What shall we say to so wonderful an inborndrive as that which leads the bee to make bodyworkhouselings, which have dowisely forefollowed the anddecks of deep mathematicians? Fourthly, how can we rake for wightkin, when rooded, being unwassombearing and tiddering unwassombearing offspring, whereas, when isunders are rooded, their tudderfastness is unbewanned? The two first heads shall be here imbspoken—inborndrive and twibloodtudderism in totweemed bookdeals. On the unandwardness or seldomness of overgangly isunders.—as ikindsome choosing bedoes solely by the asparing of notesome awendings, each new form will nige in a fully-stocked landred to take thestead of, and endly to benothing, its own less bettered akennend or other less-rithed forms with which it comes into witherstrive. Thus fornaughting and ikindsome choosing will, as we have seen, go hand in hand. Hence, if we look at each wightkin asnetherastien from some other unknown form, both the akennend and all the overgangly isunders will allmeanly have been benothinged by the very forthhappen of ashaping and fullcoming of the new form. But, as by this thoughtlay unarimebere overgangly forms must have wesened, why do we not find them inbedded in countless rimes in the crust of the earth? It will be much more convenient to imbspeak this fraign in the bookdeal on the unfullcomeliness of the earthlorely edferth; and i will here only onlay that i believe the answer mainly lies in the edferth being withmeteberely less fullcome than is allmeanly understelled; the unfullcomeliness of the edferth being chiefly due to lifesome beings not inwoning [bookleaf] 173 chap. Vi. Overgangly isunders. Deep depths of the sea, and to their lefthsbeing inbedded and aspared to a to-come eldth only in masses of siltstuff enoughsomely thick and outstretchly to withstand an aldermichel muchth of to-come netherrotting; and such stonewight-making masses can be upheaped only where much siltstuff is offstelled on the shallow bed of the sea, whilst it slowly nethersettles. These offhanginesses will thweer only seldom, and after aldermichelly long timestretchs. Whilst the bed of the sea is unaquetchsome or is rising, or when very little siltstuff is being offstelled, there will be blanks in our earthlorely yorelore. The crust of the earth is a vast sarehouse; but the ikindsome gatherships have been made only at timestretchs of time widemichelly far-off. But it may be thraffed that when manysome closely-alinked wightkin inwone the same landdom we surely ought to find at the andward time many overgangly forms. Let us take a onelay happenlay: in outfareling from north to south over a earthdeal, we allmeanly meet at afterfollowly timestretchs with closely alinked or aspelling wightkin, opensightly filling nearly the samestead in the ikindsome setlay of the land. These aspelling wightkin often meet and interlock; and as the one becomes seldlyer and seldlyer, the other becomes more and more loom, till the one edsteads the other. But if we withmete these wightkin where they intermingle, they are allmeanly as fullthroughly toshed from each other in every atcut of upbuild as are neeslings taken from the motherborough inwoned by each. By my thoughtlay these alinked wightkin have netherastien from a imean akennend; and during the forthhappen of awending, each has become throughfit to the hodes of life of its own ard, and has undersoled and benothinged its fromly akennend and all the overgangly isunders between its eretide and andward onlays. Hence we ought not to bewait at the [bookleaf] 174 arveths on thoughtlay. Chap. Vi. Andward time to meet with rimeful overgangly isunders in each ard, though they must have wesened there, and may be inbedded there in a stonewight hode. But in the betweenly ard, having betweenly hodes of life, why do we not now find closely-linking betweenly isunders? This arveth for a long time quite fordwilmed me. But i think it can be in michel deal acleared. In the firststead we should be outestly imbheedy in offleading, forwhy an area is now throughstanding, that it has been throughstanding during a long timedeal. Earthlore would lead us to believe that almost every earthdeal has been broken up into islands even during the later thirdsome timedeals; and in such islands toshed wightkin might have been sundermeal ashaped without the acomingliness of betweenly isunders wesening in the betweenly zones. By awends in the form of the land and of loftlay, sealy areas now throughstanding must often have wesened within short-ago times in a far less throughstanding and oneshaped hode than at andward. But i will pass over this way of withfaring from the arveth; for i believe that many fullcomely bebound wightkin have been ashaped on strictly throughstanding areas; though i do not twight that the formerly broken hode of areas now throughstanding has played a weighty deal in the beshaping of new wightkin, more besunders with freely-rooding and wandering wights. In looking at wightkin as they are now brittened over a wide area, we allmeanly find them brookberely rimeful over a michel landdom, then becoming somewhat inbreakly seldlyer and seldlyer on the benarrowens, and endly swinding. Hence the neutral landdom between two aspelling wightkin is allmeanly narrow in withmeting with the landdom davenly to each. We see the same deedsake in astieing barrows, and sometimes [bookleaf] 175 chap. Vi. Overgangly isunders. It is quite edmarkbere how inbreakly, as alph. De candolle has behowed, a imean alpine wightkin swinds. The same deedsake has been bemarked by forbes in sounding the depths of the sea with the dredge. To those who look at loftlay and the bodily hodes of life as the all-weighty firststuffs of brittening, these deedsakes ought to bewhy overnim, as loftlay and height or depth bestep away unspoorberely. But when we bear in mind that almost every wightkin, even in its motherborough, would eak widemichelly in rimes, were it not for other witherstriving wightkin; that nearly all either prey on or serve as prey for others; in short, that each lifesome being is either wissly or inwissly akinned in the most weighty way to other lifesome beings, we must see that the scope of the inwoners of any landred by no means outshutly offhangs on unspoorberely changing bodily hodes, but in michel deal on the andwardness of other wightkin, on which it offhangs, or by which it is fordone, or with which it comes into witherstrive; and as these wightkin are already bebound towardsthings (however they may have become so), not blending one into another by unspoorbere steplings, the scope of any one wightkin, offhanging as it does on the scope of others, will nige to be sharply bebound. Moreover, each wightkin on the benarrowens of its scope, where it wesens in lessened rimes, will, during bewavings in the rime of its foes or of its prey, or in the yeartides, be outestly atiely to utter benothinging; and thus its earthlorely scope will come to be still more sharply bebound. If i am right in believing that alinked or aspelling wightkin, when inwoning a throughstanding area, are allmeanly so brittened that each has a wide scope, with a withmetesomely narrow neutral landdom between them, in which they become rather suddenly rarer and seldlyer; then, as isunders do not isshiply andsame from wightkin, [bookleaf] 176 arveths on thoughtlay. Chap. Vi. The same rule will likely belay to both; and if we in hyeshow throughfit a forsundering wightkin to a very michel area, we shall have to throughfit two isunders to two michel areas, and a third isunder to a narrow betweenly zone. The betweenly isunder, infollowingly, will wesen in lesser rimes from inwoning a narrow and lesser area; and dowisely, as far as i can make out, this rule holds good with isunders in a onlay of ikind. I have met with striking bisens of the rule in the happenlay of isunders betweenly between well-marked isunders in the wightkind balanus. And it would seem from kenstuff given me by mr. Watson, dr. Asa gray, and mr. Wollaston, that allmeanly when isunders betweenly between two other forms betide, they are much seldlyer rimely than the forms which they belink. Now, if we may trust these deedsakes and offleadings, and therefore ashut that isunders linking two other isunders together have allmeanly wesened in lesser rimes than the forms which they belink, then, i think, we can understand why betweenly isunders should not thole for very long timedeals;—why as a allmeanly rule they should be benothinged and swind, sooner than the forms which they fromly linked together. For any form wesening in lesser rimes would, as already edmarked, run a greater whate of being benothinged than one wesening in michel rimes; and in this dealocksome happenlay the betweenly form would be highoutlyly atiely to the inroads of closely alinked forms wesening on both sides of it. But a far more weighty hidging, as i believe, is that, during the forthhappen of further awending, by which two isunders are understelled on my thoughtlay to be forwended and fullfremmed into two toshed wightkin, the two which wesen in michelr rimes from inwoning michelr areas, will have a great foredeal over the intermediate isunder, which wesens [bookleaf] 177 chap. Vi. Overgangly isunders. In smaller rimes in a narrow and betweenly zone. For forms wesening in michelr rimes will always have a better whate, within any given timedeal, of andwarding further rithbere isunders for ikindsome choosing to fang on, than will the seldlyer forms which wesen in lesser rimes. Hence, the more imean forms, in the race for life, will nige to beat and undersole the less imean forms, for these will be more slowly awended and bettered. It is the same thoughsetlay which, as i believe, berimes for the imean wightkin in each landred, as shown in the twoth bookdeal, andwarding on an throughsnithe a greater rime of well-marked isunders than do the seldlyer wightkin. I may onlight what i mean by understelling three isunders of sheep to be kept, one throughfit to an outstretchly barrowsome ard; a twoth to a withmetesomely narrow, hilly tract; and a third to wide plains at the bottomlay; and that the inwoners are all trying with evenworth steadiness and skill to better their stocks by choosing; the whates in this happenlay will be strongly in rith of the great holders on the barrows or on the plains bettering their breeds more quickly than the small holders on the betweenly narrow, hilly tract; and infollowingly the bettered barrow or plain breed will soon take thestead of the less bettered hill breed; and thus the two breeds, which fromly wesened in greater rimes, will come into close contact with each other, without the interhowstand of the undersoled, betweenly hill-isunder. To sum up, i believe that wightkin come to be brookberely well-bebound towardsthings, and do not at any one timedeal bring forth an unouttanglebere dwolm of forsundering and betweenly links: firstly, forwhy new isunders are very slowly ashaped, for sundriness is a very slow forthhappen, and ikindsome choosing can do nothing until rithbere sundrinesss whate to betide, and until astead in the ikindsome I 3 [bookleaf] 178 arveths on thoughtlay. Chap. Vi. Chesterwieldcraftmoot of the landred can be better filled by some awending of some one or more of its inwoners. And such newsteads will offhang on slow awends of loftlay, or on the otherwhile inyondshrithing of new inwoners, and, likely, in a still more weighty andstep, on some of the old inwoners becoming slowly awended, with the new forms thus tiddered and the old ones bedoing and edbedoing on each other. So that, in any one ard and at any one time, we ought only to see a few wightkin andwarding slight awendings of upbuild in some andstep foreversome; and this assuredly we do see. Twothly, areas now throughstanding must often have wesened within the short-ago timedeal in offonlyed muchthdeals, in which many forms, more besunders amongst the ilks which beone for each birth and wander much, may have sundermeal been made enoughsomely toshed to rank as aspelling wightkin. In this happenlay, betweenly isunders between the manysome aspelling wightkin and their imean akennend, must formerly have wesened in each broken muchthdeal of the land, but these links will have been undersoled and benothinged during the forthhappen of ikindsome choosing, so that they will no longer wesen in a living onlay. Thirdly, when two or more isunders have been ashaped in undershedsome muchthdeals of a strictly throughstanding area, betweenly isunders will, it is likely, at first have been ashaped in the betweenly zones, but they will allmeanly have had a short whilehood. For these betweenly isunders will, from thinkcrafts already atokened (namely from what we know of the soothly brittening of closely alinked or aspelling wightkin, and likewise of acknowledged isunders), wesen in the betweenly zones in lesser rimes than the isunders which they nige to belink. From this bewhy alone the betweenly [bookleaf] 179 chap. Vi. Overgangly wones.

Isunders will be atiely to misfallsome benothinging; and during the forthhappen of further awending through ikindsome choosing, they will almost iwis be beaten and undersoleed by the forms which they belink; for these from wesening in greater rimes will, in the gatherhood, andward more sundriness, and thus be further bettered through ikindsome choosing and gain further foredeals.

Lastly, looking not to any one time, but to all time, if my thoughtlay be true, rimeless betweenly isunders, linking most closely all the wightkin of the same maith together, must assuredly have wesened; but the very forthhappen of ikindsome choosing standily tends, as has been so often edmarked, to benothing the akennend forms and the betweenly links. Infollowingly outshow of their former wist could be found only amongst stonewight lefths, which are aspared, as we shall in a to-come bookdeal costen to show, in an outestly unfullcome and betwixtstelling edferth. On the fromth and overgangs of lifesome beings with odd wones and upbuild.—it has been asked by the opponents of such onsights as i hold, how, for bisen, a land meat-eating wight could have been forwended into one with waterly wones; for how could the wight in its overgangly onlay have onlived? It would be easy to show that within the same maith meat-eating wights wesen having every betweenly stephood between truly waterly and strictly earthly wones; and as each wesens by a struggle for life, it is clear that each is well throughfit in its wones to itsstead in ikind. Look at the mustela vison of north america, which has webbed feet and which onlikes an otter in its fur, short legs, and form of tail; during summer this wight dives for and preys on fish, but during the long winter [bookleaf] 180 arveths on thoughtlay. Chap. Vi. It leaves the frozen waters, and preys like other polecats on mice and land wights. If an undershedsome happenlay had been taken, and it had been asked how an bug-eating fourfootwight could acomingly have been forwended into a flying bat, the fraign would have been far more arvethfast, and i could have given no answer. Yet i think such arveths have very little weight. Here, as on other mealwhiles, i lie under a heavy afterdeal, for out of the many striking happenlays which i have gathered, i can give only one or two bisens of overgangly wones and upbuilds in closely alinked wightkin of the same wightkind; and of sunderlyened wones, either standy or otherwhile, in the same wightkin. And it seems to me that nothing less than a long list of such happenlays is enoughsome to lessen the arveth in any dealocksome happenlay like that of the bat. Look at the huered of squirrels; here we have the finest stepling from wights with their tails only slightly flattened, and from others, as sir j. Richardson has edmarked, with the hind deal of their bodies rather wide and with the skin on their flanks rather full, to the so-called flying squirrels; and flying squirrels have their limbs and even the bottomlay of the tail beoned by a broad expanse of skin, which serves as a parachute and allows them to glide through the air to an aweing farth from tree to tree. We cannot twight that each upbuild is of use to each kind of squirrel in its own landred, by enabling it to withfare birds or beasts of prey, or to gather food more quickly, or, as there is thinkcraft to believe, by lessening the freech from otherwhile falls. But it does not follow from this deedsake that the upbuild of each squirrel is the best that it is acomingly to ken under all ikindsome hodes. Let the loftlay and greenth awend, let other witherstriving rodents or new beasts of prey inyondshrithe, or old ones [bookleaf] 181 chap. Vi. Overgangly wones. Become awended, and all samerun would lead us to believe that some at least of the squirrels would decrease in rimes or become benothinged, unless they also became awended and bettered in upbuild in a togetheranswering way. Therefore, i can see no arveth, more besunders under awending hodes of life, in the throughstood asparing of untodealels with fuller and fuller flank-skinlings, each awending being nitworth, each being forspread, until by the upheaped onworkings of this forthhappen of ikindsome choosing, a fullcome so-called flying squirrel was tiddered. Now look at the galeopithecus or flying lemur, which formerly was falsely ranked amongst bats. It has an outestly wide flank-skinling, stretching from the corners of the jaw to the tail, and imbhaving the limbs and the lengthened fingers: the flank skinling is, also, furnished with an extensor muscle. Although no bestepped links of upbuild, fitted for gliding through the air, now belink the galeopithecus with the other lemuridæ, yet i can see no arveth in understelling that such links formerly wesened, and that each had been ashaped by the same steps as in the happenlay of the less fullcomely gliding squirrels; and that each stephood of upbuild had been nitworth to its besitter. Nor can i see any unovercomebere arveth in further believing it acomingly that the skinling-belinked fingers and fore-arm of the galeopithecus might be greatly lengthened by ikindsome choosing; and this, as far as the bodyworkths of flight are bemet, would forwend it into a bat. In bats which have the wing-skinling stretched out from the top of the shoulder to the tail, imbhaving the hind-legs, we forhaps see traces of an toolling fromly abuilt for gliding through the air rather than for flight. If about a dozen wightkinds of birds had become fornaughted or were unknown, who would have whethapfared to have [bookleaf] 182 arveths on thoughtlay. Chap. Vi. Surmised that birds might have wesened which used their wings solely as flappers, like the logger-headed duck (micropterus of eyton); as fins in the water and front legs on the land, like the penguin; as sails, like the thrithbird; and workhoodally for no sake, like the apteryx. Yet the upbuild of each of these birds is good for it, under the hodes of life to which it is outstelld, for each has to live by a struggle; but it is not needbehovely the best acomingly under all acomingly hodes. It must not be offlead from these edmarks that any of the stephoods of wing-upbuild here atpulled to, which forhaps may all have outfollowed from andnote, inquid the ikindsome steps by which birds have underfanged their fullcome wold of flight; but they serve, at least, to show what sunderlyened means of overgang are acomingly. Seeing that a few members of such water-breathing ilks as the shellbearers and thinshellbearers are throughfit to live on the land, and seeing that we have flying birds and sucklewights, flying bugs of the most sunderlyened types, and formerly had flying creepwights, it is kenbere that flying-fish, which now glide far through the air, slightly rising and turning by the ferk of their fluttering fins, might have been awended into fullcomely winged wights. If this had been onworked, who would have ever hyeshown that in an early overgangly onlay they had been inwoners of the open ocean, and had used their beginsome bodyworkths of flight outshutly, as far as we know, to withfare being forglendered by other fish? When we see any upbuild highly fullfremmed for any dealocksome wone, as the wings of a bird for flight, we should bear in mind that wights ewing early overgangly stephoods of the upbuild will seldom continue to wesen to the andward day, for they will have been undersoled by the very forthhappen of fullcoming through ikindsome choosing. Furthermore, we may ashut that overgangly [bookleaf] 183 chap. Vi. Overgangly wones.

Stephoods between upbuilds fitted for very undershedsome wones of life will seldom have been andwound at an early timedeal in great rimes and under many underrowfollowsome forms. Thus, to edwend to our hyeshowsome onlight of the flying-fish, it does not seem likely that fishes canfast of true flight would have been andwound under many underrowfollowsome forms, for taking prey of many kinds in many ways, on the land and in the water, until their bodyworkths of flight had come to a high stepock of fullcomeliness, so as to have given them a beshut foredeal over other wights in the hild for life. Hence the whate of anddecking wightkin with overgangly stephoods of upbuild in a stonewight hode will always be less, from their having wesened in lesser rimes, than in the happenlay of wightkin with fully andwound upbuilds.

I will now give two or three bisens of sunderlyened and of awended wones in the untodealels of the same wightkin. When either happenlay betides, it would be easy for ikindsome choosing to fit the wight, by some awending of its upbuild, for its forothered wones, or outshutly for one of its manysome undershedsome wones. But it is arvethsome to tell, and unakinly for us, whether wones allmeanly awend first and upbuild afterwards; or whether slight awendings of upbuild lead to forothered wones; both likely often forother almost sametimely. Of happenlays of forothered wones it will enoughen merely to atpull to that of the many british bugs which now feed on ely plants, or outshutly on saremadely stuffthings. Of sunderlyened wones unarimebere bisens could be given: i have often watched a tyrant flyfanger (saurophagus sulphuratus) in south america, hovering over one spot and then going on to another, like a kestrel, and at other times standing unaquetchsome on the togetherwesen of water, and then dashing like a kingfisher at a fish. In our own landred the michelr titmouse (parus michelfast) may be [bookleaf] 184 arveths on thoughtlay. Chap. Vi. Seen climbing branches, almost like a creeper; it often, like a shrike, kills small birds by blows on the head; and i have many times seen and heard it hammering the seeds of the yew on a branch, and thus breaking them like a nuthatch. In north america the black bear was seen by hearne swimming for hours with widely open mouth, thus fanging, like a whale, bugs in the water. Even in so outest a happenlay as this, if the bestock of bugs were standy, and if better throughfit witherstrives did not already wesen in the landred, i can see no arveth in a race of bears being made, by ikindsome choosing, more and more waterly in their upbuild and wones, with michelr and michelr mouths, till a forthshaft was tiddered as owleechsome as a whale. As we sometimes see untodealels of a wightkin following wones widely undershedsome from those both of their own wightkin and of the other wightkin of the same wightkind, we might bewait, on my thoughtlay, that such untodealels would otherwhile have given rise to new wightkin, having oddshipsome wones, and with their upbuild either slightly or hidgeberely awended from that of their davenly type. And such bisens do betide in ikind. Can a more striking bisen of throughfitting be given than that of a woodpecker for climbing trees and for fanging bugs in the chinks of the bark? Yet in north america there are woodpeckers which feed michelly on ovet, and others with lengthened wings which chase bugs on the wing; and on the plains of la plata, where not a tree grows, there is a woodpecker, which in every isshiply deal of its dight, even in its colouring, in the harsh tone of its steven, and undulatory flight, told me plainly of its close blood-maithred to our imean wightkin; yet it is a woodpecker which never climbs a tree! Holmthesterbirds are the most ethemly and oceanic of birds, yet in the quiet sounds of tierra del fuego, the puffinuria [bookleaf] 185 chap. Vi. Overgangly wones. Berardi, in its allmeanly wones, in its aweing wold of diving, its way of swimming, and of flying when unwillingly it takes flight, would be mistaken by any one for an auk or grebe; nevertheless, it is isshiply a holmthesterbird, but with many deals of its dight deeply awended. On the other hand, the acutest behower by underseeking the dead body of the water-ouzel would never have underlooked its under-waterly wones; yet this oddshipsome member of the strictly earthly thrush huered wholly onlives by diving,—grasping the stones with its feet and using its wings under water. He who believes that each being has been beshaped as we now see it, must otherwhile have felt overnim when he has met with a wight having wones and upbuild not at all in thweerness. What can be plainer than that the webbed feet of ducks and geese are ashaped for swimming? Yet there are upland geese with webbed feet which seldom or never go near the water; and no one nimth audubon has seen the frigate-bird, which has all its four toes webbed, alight on the overside of the sea. On the other hand, grebes and coots are highoutlyly waterly, although their toes are only bordered by skinling. What seems plainer than that the long toes of grallatores are ashaped for walking over swamps and floating plants, yet the water-hen is nearly as waterly as the coot; and the landrail nearly as earthly as the quail or whirquail. In such happenlays, and many others could be given, wones have awended without a togetheranswering awending of upbuild. The webbed feet of the upland goose may be said to have become leftlingish in workhood, though not in upbuild. In the frigate-bird, the deeply-scooped skinling between the toes shows that upbuild has begun to awend. He who believes in totweemed and unarimebere bedos of ishaft will say, that in these happenlays it has pleased the [bookleaf] 186 arveths on thoughtlay. Chap. Vi. Shapend to bewhy a being of one type to take thestead of one of another type; but this seems to me only edquiding the deedsake in dignified irord. He who believes in the struggle for wist and in the thoughsetlay of ikindsome choosing, will acknowledge that every lifesome being is standily bestriving to eak in rimes; and that if any one being forsunder ever so little, either in wones or upbuild, and thus gain an foredeal over some other inwoner of the landred, it will fang on thestead of that inwoner, however undershedsome it may be from its ownstead. Hence it will bewhy him no overnim that there should be geese and frigate-birds with webbed feet, either living on the dry land or most seldom alighting on the water; that there should be long-toed corncrakes living in meadows instead of in swamps; that there should be woodpeckers where not a tree grows; that there should be diving thrushes, and holmthesterbirds with the wones of auks. Bodyworkths of outest fullcomeliness and complication.—to understell that the eye, with all its unevenledgebere acrafts for adjusting the focus to undershedsome farths, for throughgiving undershedsome muchths of light, and for the rightsomening of trindley and chromatic maffsomeness, could have been ashaped by ikindsome choosing, seems, i freely andet, absurd in the highest acomingly andstep. Yet thinkcraft tells me, that if rimeful steplings from a fullcome and throughtangly eye to one very unfullcome and onelay, each stephood being nitworth to its besitter, can be shown to wesen; if further, the eye does forsunder ever so slightly, and the sundrinesss be erved, which is iwis the happenlay; and if any sundriness or awending in the bodyworkth be ever nitworth to a wight under awending hodes of life, then the arveth of believing that a fullcome and throughtangly eye could be ashaped by ikindsome [bookleaf] 187 chap. Vi. Bodyworkths of extreme perfection. Choosing, though unovercomebere by our hyeshow, can hardly be hidged real. How a feelingsinew comes to be spoorsome to light, hardly bemeets us more than how life itself first outstemmed; but i may edmark that manysome deedsakes make me underlook that any spoorsome feelingsinew may be made spoorsome to light, and likewise to those coarser wawlings of the air which tidder sound. In looking for the steplings by which an bodyworkth in any wightkin has been fullfremmed, we ought to look outshutly to its lineal beforecomers; but this is hardly ever acomingly, and we are thracked in each happenlay to look to wightkin of the same maith, that is to the sidely netherastiends from the same fromly akennend-form, in order to see what steplings are acomingly, and for the whate of some steplings having been yondstelled from the earlier stepocks of netherastieing, in an unawended or little awended hode. Amongst wesening backbonewight, we find but a small muchth of stepling in the upbuild of the eye, and from stonewight wightkin we can learn nothing on this head. In this great ilk we should likely have to netherastie far beneath the lowest known stonewight-making flatwiselayer to anddeck the earlier stepocks, by which the eye has been fullfremmed. In the articulata we can begin a followth with an eyely feelingsinew merely coated with huestuff, and without any other workcraftdom; and from this low stepock, rimeful steplings of upbuild, branching off in two groundsetly undershedsome lines, can be shown to wesen, until we reach a meathly high stepock of fullcomeliness. In somel shellbearers, for bisen, there is a double eyecoat, the inner one todealt into facets, within each of which there is a lens-shaped swelling. In other shellbearers the see-through cones which are coated by huestuff, and which davenly bedo only by outshutting sidely pencils of light, are outwardcurving at their upper ends [bookleaf] 188 arveths on thoughtlay. Chap. Vi. And must bedo by togetherbighnce; and at their lower ends there seems to be an unfullcome glassly stuffthing. With these deedsakes, here far too briefly and unfullcomely given, which show that there is much bestepped manyotheredness in the eyes of living shellbearers, and bearing in mind how small the rime of living wights is in ondeal to those which have become fornaughted, i can see no very great arveth (not more than in the happenlay of many other upbuilds) in believing that ikindsome choosing has forwended the onelay toolling of an eyely feelingsinew merely coated with huestuff and invested by see-through skinling, into an eyely thorling as fullcome as is besat by any member of the great articulate ilk. He who will go thus far, if he find on finishing this writlay that michel bodies of deedsakes, otherwise unaclearbere, can be acleared by the thoughtlay of netherastieing, ought not to hesitate to go further, and to throughgive that a upbuild even as fullcome as the eye of an ern might be ashaped by ikindsome choosing, although in this happenlay he does not know any of the overgangly stephoods. His thinkcraft ought to overcome his hyeshow; though i have felt the arveth far too keenly to be overnome at any andstep of pullbackyness in outstretching the thoughsetlay of ikindsome choosing to such startling lengths. It is hardly acomingly to forbow withmeteing the eye to a telescope. We know that this thorling has been fullfremmed by the long-throughstood forththriths of the highest soulbearend mindmayens; and we quithenly offlead that the eye has been ashaped by a somewhat samerunsome forthhappen. But may not this offleading be foretakeful? Have we any right to foretake that the shapend works by mindmayenly wolds like those of man? If we must withmete the eye to an eyely thorling, we ought in hyeshow to take a thick layer of see-through fleshandwork, with a feelingsinew spoorsome to light beneath, and then understell every [bookleaf] 189 chap. Vi. Bodyworkths of extreme perfection. Deal of this layer to be throughstandingly awending slowly in density, so as to totweemed into layers of undershedsome densities and thicknesses, stelled at undershedsome farths from each other, and with the oversides of each layer slowly awending in form. Further we must understell that there is a wold always intently watching each slight misfallsome awending in the see-through layers; and carefully choosing each awending which, under besundered imbstands, may in any way, or in any andstep, nige to tidder a tosheder image. We must understell each new onlay of the thorling to be manyened by the tenfoldhundthousand; and each to be aspared till a better be tiddered, and then the old ones to be fordone. In living bodies, sundriness will bewhy the slight awendings, strind will manyen them almost boundlessly, and ikindsome choosing will pick out with unerring skill each bettering. Let this forthhappen go on for tenfoldhundthousands on tenfoldhundthousands of years; and during each year on tenfoldhundthousands of untodealels of many kinds; and may we not believe that a living eyely thorling might thus be ashaped as oversome to one of glass, as the works of the shapend are to those of man? If it could be ashown that any throughtangly bodyworkth wesened, which could not acomingly have been ashaped by rimeful, afterfollowly, slight awendings, my thoughtlay would fullthroughly break down. But i can find out no such happenlay. No twight many bodyworkths wesen of which we do not know the overgangly stephoods, more besunders if we look to much-offonlyed wightkin, round which, according to my thoughtlay, there has been much fornaughting. Or again, if we look to an bodyworkth imean to all the members of a michel class, for in this latter happenlay the bodyworkth must have been first ashaped at an outestly far-off timedeal, since which all the many members of the ilk have been andwound; and in order to anddeck the early overgangly stephoods through which the bodyworkth has [bookleaf] 190 arveths on thoughtlay. Chap. Vi. Passed, we should have to look to very furn forebearersome forms, long since become fornaughted. We should be outestly imbheedy in beshuting that an bodyworkth could not have been ashaped by overgangly steplings of some kind. Rimeful happenlays could be given amongst the lower wights of the same bodyworkth fremming at the same time wholly toshed workhoods; thus the foodly canal orths, digests, and excretes in the forebug of the dragon-fly and in the fish cobites. In the hydra, the wight may be turned inside out, and the outside overside will then digest and the maw orth. In such happenlays ikindsome choosing might easily besunder, if any foredeal were thus gained, a deal or bodyworkth, which had fremmed two workhoods, for one workhood alone, and thus wholly awend its ikind by unspoorbere steps. Two toshed bodyworkths sometimes frem sametimely the same workhood in the same untodealel; to give one bisen, there are fish with gills or gills that breathe the air toleesed in the water, at the same time that they breathe free air in their swimbladders, this latter bodyworkth having a ductus pneumaticus for its bestock, and being todealt by highly worttubely betwixtsheds. In these happenlays, one of the two bodyworkths might with ease be awended and fullfremmed so as to frem all the work by itself, being ferked during the forthhappen of awending by the other bodyworkth; and then this other bodyworkth might be awended for some other and quite toshed sake, or be quite netherthrutched. The onlight of the swimbladder in fishes is a good one, forwhy it shows us clearly the highly weighty deedsake that an bodyworkth fromly abuilt for one sake, namely floating, may be forwended into one for a wholly undershedsome sake, namely orthing. The swimbladder has, also, been worked in as an accessory to the auditory bodyworkths of somel fish, or, for i do not know which [bookleaf] 191 chap. Vi. Transitions of bodyworkths. Onsight is now allmeanly held, a deal of the auditory toolling has been worked in as a fullfremmerling to the swimbladder. All bodylorers throughgive that the swimbladder is sameworthsome, or "thinklingly alike," in howstand and upbuild with the lungs of the higher backbonelingwight wights: hence there seems to me to be no great arveth in believing that ikindsome choosing has soothly forwended a swimbladder into a lung, or bodyworkth used outshutly for orthing. I can, indeed, hardly twight that all backbonelingwight wights having true lungs have netherastien by wonely akenning from an alderold fromkind, of which we know nothing, furnished with a floating toolling or swimbladder. We can thus, as i offlead from lorefather owen's interesting bewriting of these deals, understand the selcouth deedsake that every dealock of food and drink which we swallow has to pass over the opening of the windpipe, with some risk of falling into the lungs, notwithstanding the litty acraft by which the windpipeflap is closed. In the higher backbonewight the gills have wholly swund—the slits on the sides of the neck and the loop-like foor of the edders still marking in the forebirthling their former howstand. But it is kenbere that the now utterly lost gills might have been stepmeally worked in by ikindsome choosing for some quite toshed sake: in the same way as, on the onsight betweenheld by some ikindlorers that the gills and backsidescales of annelids are sameworthsome with the wings and wing-betields of bugs, it is likely that bodyworkths which at a very alderold timedeal served for orthing have been soothly forwended into bodyworkths of flight. In hidging overgangs of bodyworkths, it is so weighty to bear in mind the likelihood of overwending from one workhood to another, that i will give one more bisen. Stalkfeelingsinewbundlewighted moochshellwights have two littleock folds of skin, [bookleaf] 192 arveths on thoughtlay. Chap. Vi. Called by me the ovigerous frena, which serve, through the means of a sticky foroutle, to bekeep the eggs until they are hatched within the sack. These moochshellwights have no gills, the whole overside of the body and sack, imbhaving the small frena, serving for orthing. The balanidæ or stemfayed moochshellwights, on the other hand, have no ovigerous frena, the eggs lying loose at the bottom of the sack, in the well-inshut shell; but they have michel folded gills. Now i think no one will flite that the ovigerous frena in the one huered are strictly sameworthsome with the gills of the other huered; indeed, they bestep into each other. Therefore i do not twight that little folds of skin, which fromly served as ovigerous frena, but which, likewise, very slightly ferked the bedo of orthing, have been stepmeally forwended by ikindsome choosing into gills, sinfold through an eak in their size and the netherthrutching of their adhesive glands. If all stalkfeelingsinewbundlewighted moochshellwights had become fornaughted, and they have already thrawed far more fornaughting than have stemfayed moochshellwights, who would ever have hyeshown that the gills in this latter huered had fromly wesened as bodyworkths for forecoming the budlings from being washed out of the sack? Although we must be outestly imbheedy in beshuting that any bodyworkth could not acomingly have been tiddered by afterfollowly overgangly steplings, yet, untwightedly, grave happenlays of arveth betide, some of which will be imbspeaked in my to-come work. One of the gravest is that of wanmingebodyworkthwight bugs, which are often very undershedsomely abuilt from either the seedlifers or tudderfast birthlifers; but this happenlay will be treated of in the next bookdeal. The electric bodyworkths of fishes offer another happenlay of sunderful arveth; it is unacomingly to ken by what steps these wondrous bodyworkths have been tiddered; but, as owen and others have edmarked, [bookleaf] 193 chap. Vi. Transitions of bodyworkths. Their intimate upbuild closely onlikes that of imean muscle; and as it has lately been shown that rays have an bodyworkth closely samerunsome to the electric toolling, and yet do not, as matteuchi forthstomps, andwagon any electricity, we must own that we are far too unwittle to outground that no overgang of any kind is acomingly. The electric bodyworkths offer another and even more serious arveth; for they betide in only about a dozen fishes, of which manysome are widely far-off in their sibreds. Allmeanly when the same bodyworkth shows up in manysome members of the same ilk, besunders if in members having very undershedsome wones of life, we may knode its andwardness to erve from a imean beforecomer; and its unandwardness in some of the members to its loss through andnote or ikindsome choosing. But if the electric bodyworkths had been erved from one alderold akennend thus forelooked, we might have bewaited that all electric fishes would have been asunderfastly akinned to each other. Nor does earthlore at all lead to the belief that formerly most fishes had electric bodyworkths, which most of their awended netherastiends have lost. The andwardness of luminous bodyworkths in a few bugs, belonging to undershedsome families and orders, offers a evenlong happenlay of arveth. Other happenlays could be given; for bisen in plants, the very curious acraft of a mass of bloomdust-grains, borne on a foot-stalk with a sticky gland at the end, is the same in orchis and asclepias,—wightkinds almost as far-off as acomingly amongst bloomworting plants. In all these happenlays of two very toshed wightkin furnished with opensightly the same oddshipsome bodyworkth, it should be behowed that, although the allmeanly upshowing and workhood of the bodyworkth may be the same, yet some groundsetly undershed can allmeanly be arepped. I am bighfast to believe that in nearly the same way as two men have sometimes unoffhangingly hit on K [bookleaf] 194 arveths on thoughtlay. Chap. Vi. The very same findle, so ikindsome choosing, working for the good of each being and taking foredeal of samerunsome sundrinesss, has sometimes awended in very nearly the same way two deals in two lifesome beings, which owe but little of their upbuild in imean to erve from the same beforecomer. Although in many happenlays it is most arvethfast to beguess by what overgangs an bodyworkth could have tocome at its andward onlay; yet, hidging that the ondeal of living and known forms to the fornaughted and unknown is very small, i have been awed how seldom a bodyworkth can be named, towards which no overgangly stephood is known to lead. The truth of this edmark is indeed shown by that old lawlay in ikindsome yorelore of "ikind does not make jumps." we meet with this throughgiving in the writings of almost every outfanded ikindlorer; or, as milne edwards has well outthringed it, ikind is highmichel in isunder, but michelsmall in innbudlingstion. Why, on the thoughtlay of ishaft, should this be so? Why should all the deals and bodyworkths of many unoffhanging beings, each understelled to have been sundermeal beshaped for its davenlystead in ikind, be so everywhen linked together by bestepped steps? Why should not ikind have taken a leap from upbuild to upbuild? On the thoughtlay of ikindsome choosing, we can clearly understand why she should not; for ikindsome choosing can bedo only by taking foredeal of slight afterfollowly sundrinesss; she can never take a leap, but must forthstep by the shortest and slowest steps. Bodyworkths of little opensightly weightiness.—as ikindsome choosing bedoes by life and death,—by the asparing of untodealels with any rithbere sundriness, and by the fordoing of those with any unrithbere andwaying of upbuild,—i have sometimes felt much arveth in [bookleaf] 195 chap. Vi. Bodyworkths of little importance. Understanding the fromth of onelay deals, of which the weightiness does not seem enoughsome to bewhy the asparing of afterfollowlyly forsundering untodealels. I have sometimes felt as much arveth, though of a very undershedsome kind, on this head, as in the happenlay of an bodyworkth as fullcome and throughtangly as the eye. In the firststead, we are much too unwittle in sight to the whole setlay of any one lifesome being, to say what slight awendings would be of weightiness or not. In a former bookdeal i have given bisens of most trifling suchnesses, such as the down on ovet and the colour of the flesh, which, from toending the reess of bugs or from being togetherakinned with setnessly andsameences, might assuredly be bedoed on by ikindsome choosing. The tail of the longneckwight looks like an saremadely abuilt fly-flapper; and it seems at first unbelievebere that this could have been throughfit for its andward sake by afterfollowly slight awendings, each better and better, for so trifling an towardsthing as driving away flies; yet we should pause before being too positive even in this happenlay, for we know that the brittening and wist of orf and other wights in south america fullthroughly offhangs on their wold of withsetting the reess of bugs: so that untodealels which could by any means forstand themselves from these small foes, would be able to scope into new leasows and thus gain a great foredeal. It is not that the michelr fourfooters are soothly fordone (nimth in some seldly happenlays) by the flies, but they are unstoppingly harassed and their strength lowered, so that they are more subject to cothe, or not so well bemayened in a coming dearth to search for food, or to withfare from beasts of prey. Bodyworkths now of trifling weightiness have likely in some happenlays been of high weightiness to an early akennend, and, after having been slowly fullfremmed at a K 2 [bookleaf] 196 arveths on thoughtlay. Chap. Vi. Former timedeal, have been yondstelled in nearly the same onlay, although now become of very slight use; and any soothly demsome andwayings in their upbuild will always have been checked by ikindsome choosing. Seeing how weighty an bodyworkth of locomotion the tail is in most waterly wights, its allmeanly andwardness and use for many sakes in so many land wights, which in their lungs or awended swimbladders betray their waterly fromth, may forhaps be thus arimed for. A well-andwound tail having been ashaped in an waterly wight, it might underfollowly come to be worked in for all sorts of sakes, as a fly-flapper, an bodyworkth of prehension, or as an ferk in turning, as with the dog, though the ferk must be slight, for the hare, with hardly any tail, can double quickly enough. In the twothstead, we may sometimes knode weightiness to suchnesses which are really of very little weightiness, and which have outstemmed from quite twothsome bewhys, unoffhangingly of ikindsome choosing. We should mun that loftlay, food, &c., likely have some little straightfast inflowmayen on the dight; that suchnesses edupshow from the law of edwhirft; that togethersibred of growth will have had a most weighty inflowmayen in awending sundry upbuilds; and endly, that mingefast choosing will often have michelly awended the outly suchnesses of wights having a will, to give one seedlifer an foredeal in fighting with another or in charming the birthlifers. Moreover when a awending of upbuild has primarily arisen from the above or other unknown bewhys, it may at first have been of no foredeal to the wightkin, but may underfollowingly have been taken foredeal of by the netherastiendsof the wightkin under new hodes of life and with newly underfanged wones. To give a few bisens to onlight these latter [bookleaf] 197 chap. Vi. Bodyworkths of little importance. Edmarks. If green woodpeckers alone had wesened, and we did not know that there were many black and pied kinds, i dare say that we should have thought that the green colour was a litty throughfitting to hide this tree-looming bird from its foes; and infollowingly that it was a suchness of weightiness and might have been underfanged through ikindsome choosing; as it is, i have no twight that the colour is due to some quite toshed bewhy, likely to mingefast choosing. A trailing bamboo in the malay archipelego climbs the loftiest trees by the ferk of exquisitely abuilt hooks clustered imb the ends of the branches, and this acraft, no twight, is of the highest thanered to the plant; but as we see nearly alike hooks on many trees which are not climbers, the hooks on the bamboo may have arisen from unknown laws of growth, and have been underfollowingly taken foredeal of by the plant undergoing further awending and becoming a climber. The naked skin on the head of a vulture is allmeanly looked at as a straightfast throughfitting for wallowing in rottenness; and so it may be, or it may acomingly be due to the straightfast deedship of rotten matter; but we should be very imbheedy in drawing any such offleading, when we see that the skin on the head of the clean-feeding seedlifer turkey is likewise naked. The sutures in the skulls of young sucklewights have been advanced as a litty throughfitting for ferking akenning, and no twight they eathyen, or may be aldertharfly for this bedo; but as sutures betide in the skulls of young birds and creepwights, which have only to withfare from a broken egg, we may offlead that this upbuild has arisen from the laws of growth, and has been taken foredeal of in the akenning of the higher wights. We are deeply unwittle of the bewhys tiddering slight and unweighty sundrinesss; and we are forthwith [bookleaf] 198 arveths on thoughtlay. Chap. Vi. Made mindaware of this by imbthinking on the undersheds in the breeds of our housened wights in undershedsome landreds,—more besunders in the less couthened landreds where there has been but little artificial choosing. Careful behowers are overtold that a damp loftlay onworks the growth of the hair, and that with the hair the horns are togetherakinned. Barrow breeds always andsame from lowland breeds; and a barrowsome landred would likely onwork the hind limbs from exercising them more, and acomingly even the form of the hipringbone; and then by the law of sameworthsome sundriness, the front limbs and even the head would likely be onworked. The shape, also, of the hipringbone might onwork by pressure the shape of the head of the young in the womb. The laborious breathing needbehovely in high ards would, we have some thinkcraft to believe, eak the size of the chest; and again togethersibred would come into play. Wights kept by wildsoulbearends in undershedsome landreds often have to struggle for their own onlive, and would be outset to a somel scope to ikindsome choosing, and untodealels with slightly undershedsome setnesss would spow best under undershedsome loftlays; and there is thinkcraft to believe that setness and colour are togetherakinned. A good behower, also, onlays that in orf susceptibility to the reess of flies is togetherakinned with colour, as is the atielyness to be attered be somel plants; so that colour would be thus underthrown to the deedship of ikindsome choosing. But we are far too unwittle to belook on the akinsome weightiness of the manysome known and unknown laws of sundriness; and i have here atpulled to them only to show that, if we are unable to rake for the suchnessly undersheds of our housely breeds, which nevertheless we allmeanly throughgive to have arisen through wonely akenning, we ought not to lay too much stress on our [bookleaf] 199 chap. Vi. Bodyworkths of little importance. Unwareship of the targeockfast bewhy of the slight samerunsome undersheds between wightkin. I might have throughorded for this same sake the undersheds between the races of man, which are so strongly marked; i may ateak that some little light can opensightly be thrown on the fromth of these undersheds, chiefly through mingefast choosing of a dealocksome kind, but without here entering on fullfast atcuts my thinkcrafting would thench crumbsome. The foregoing edmarks lead me to say a few words on the protest lately made by some ikindlorers, against the utilitarian alderbeliefword that every atcut of upbuild has been tiddered for the good of its besitter. They believe that very many upbuilds have been beshaped for fairhood in the eyes of man, or for mere isunder. This alderbeliefword, if true, would be fullthroughly deathfast to my thoughtlay. Yet i fully throughgive that many upbuilds are of no straightfast use to their besitters. Bodily hodes likely have had some little onworking on upbuild, quite unoffhangingly of any good thus gained. Togethersibred of growth has no twight played a most weighty deal, and a nitworth awending of one deal will often have imblinked on other deals sunderlyened awendings of no straightfast use. So again suchnesses which formerly were nitworth, or which formerly had arisen from togethersibred of growth, or from other unknown bewhy, may edupshow from the law of edwhirft, though now of no direct use. The onworkings of mingefast choosing, when ewed in fairhood to charm the birthlifers, can be called nitworth only in rather a thracked spoor. But by far the most weighty hidging is that the chief deal of the dight of every being is sinfold due to erve; and infollowingly, though each being assuredly is well fitted for itsstead in ikind, many upbuilds now have no straightfast maithred to the wones of life of each wightkin. Thus, we can hardly believe that the webbed feet of the upland [bookleaf] 200 arveths on thoughtlay. Chap. Vi. Goose or of the frigate-bird are of sunderful use to these birds; we cannot believe that the same bones in the arm of the monkey, in the fore leg of the horse, in the wing of the bat, and in the flipper of the seal, are of sunderful use to these wights. We may safely knode these upbuilds to erve. But to the progenitor of the upland goose and of the frigate-bird, webbed feet no twight were as nitworth as they now are to the most waterly of wesening birds. So we may believe that the akennend of the seal had not a flipper, but a foot with five toes fitted for walking or grasping; and we may further whethapfare to believe that the manysome bones in the limbs of the monkey, horse, and bat, which have been erved from a imean akennend, were formerly of more sunderful use to that akennend, or its akennends, than they now are to these wights having such widely sunderlyened wones. Therefore we may offlead that these manysome bones might have been underfanged through ikindsome choosing, underthrown formerly, as now, to the manysome laws of erve, edwhirft, togethersibred of growth, &c. Hence every atcut of upbuild in every living forthshaft ( taking into hidge the straightfast deedship of bodily hodes) may be onsighted, either as having been of sunderful use to some forebearersome form, or as being now of sunderful use to the netherastiends of this form—either wissly, or inwissly through the throughtangly laws of growth. Ikindsome choosing cannot acomingly tidder any awending in any one wightkin outshutly for the good of another wightkin; though throughout ikind one wightkin unstoppingly takes foredeal of, and beforths by, the upbuild of another. But ikindsome choosing can and does often tidder upbuilds for the straightfast dem of other wightkin, as we see in the fang of the adder, and in the ovipositor of the ichneumon, by which its eggs are depo- [bookleaf] 201 chap. Vi. What ikindly choosing can do. Sited in the living bodies of other bugs. If it could be afanded that any deal of the upbuild of any one wightkin had been ashaped for the outshutly good of another wightkin, it would annihilate my thoughtlay, for such could not have been tiddered through ikindsome choosing. Although many quids may be found in works on ikindsome yorelore to this onworking, i cannot find even one which seems to me of any weight. It is throughgiven that the rattlesnake has a atter-fang for its own forstanding and for the fordoing of its prey; but some writmakers understell that at the same time this snake is furnished with a rattle for its own dem, namely, to warn its prey to withfare. I would almost as soon believe that the cat curls the end of its tail when yarking to spring, in order to warn the doomed mouse. But i have not roomhood here to enter on this and other such happenlays. Ikindsome choosing will never tidder in a being anything demsome to itself, for ikindsome choosing bedoes solely by and for the good of each. No bodyworkth will be ashaped, as paley has edmarked, for the sake of bewhying pain or for doing an dem to its besitter. If a fair evenweight be struck between the good and evil bewhyed by each deal, each will be found on the whole foredealful. After the whilestitch of time, under awending hodes of life, if any deal comes to be demsome, it will be awended; or if it be not so, the being will become fornaughted, as myriads have become fornaughted. Ikindsome choosing tends only to make each lifesome being as fullcome as, or slightly more fullcome than, the other inwoners of the same landred with which it has to struggle for wist. And we see that this is the andstep of fullcomeliness areached under ikind. The landfromfast tidderings of new zealand, for bisen, are fullcome one withmeted with another; but they are now quickly yielding before the advancing legions of plants K 3 [bookleaf] 202 arveths on thoughtlay. Chap. Vi. And wights inlead from europe. Ikindsome choosing will not tidder fullthrough fullcomeliness, nor do we always meet, as far as we can deemend, with this high standord under ikind. The rightsomening for the maffsomeness of light is said, on high alderdom, not to be fullcome even in that most fullcome bodyworkth, the eye. If our thinkcraft leads us to bewonder with enthusiasm a dright of unevenledgebere acrafts in ikind, this same thinkcraft tells us, though we may easily err on both sides, that some other acrafts are less fullcome. Can we hidge the sting of the wasp or of the bee as fullcome, which, when used against many reesing wights, cannot be withdrawn, owing to the backward serratures, and so unforecomeberely bewhys the death of the bug by tearing out its bodyworkths? If we look at the sting of the bee, as having fromly wesened in a far-off akennend as a boring and sawnotchly thorling, like that in so many members of the same great order, and which has been awended but not fullfremmed for its andward sake, with the atter fromly throughfit to bewhy galls underfollowingly intensified, we can forhaps understand how it is that the use of the sting should so often bring about the bug's own death: for if on the whole the wold of stinging be nitworth to the imeanship, it will fulfil all the needtharfs of ikindsome choosing, though it may bring about the death of some few members. If we bewonder the truly wonderful wold of scent by which the seedlifers of many bugs find their birthlifers, can we bewonder the tiddering for this onele sake of thousands of drones, which are utterly unnitworth to the imeanship for any other end, and which are endfastly slaughtered by their industrious and unwassombearing sisters? It may be arvethfast, but we ought to bewonder the wild inborndrivesome hatred of the queen-bee, which urges her eyeblinkly to fordo the [bookleaf] 203 chap. Vi. Summary. Young queens her daughters as soon as born, or to swelt herself in the hild; for untwightedly this is for the good of the imeanship; and motherly love or motherly hatred, though the latter fortunately is most seldly, is all the same to the unawendbere thoughsetlay of ikindsome choosing. If we bewonder the manysome hyequick acrafts, by which the bloomworts of the orchis and of many other plants are tudderfast-ened through bug deedcraft, can we hidge as evenworthly fullcome the highwroughtness by our fir-trees of dense clouds of bloomdust, in order that a few seedocks may be wafted by a whate breeze on to the foreseeds? Summary of bookdeal.—we have in this bookdeal imbspoken some of the arveths and withthrowings which may be thraffed against my thoughtlay. Many of them are very grave; but i think that in the imbspeech light has been thrown on manysome deedsakes, which on the thoughtlay of unoffhanging bedos of ishaft are utterly mistfull. We have seen that wightkin at any one timedeal are not unbindfastly sunderly, and are not linked together by a dright of betweenly steplings, deally forwhy the forthhappen of ikindsome choosing will always be very slow, and will bedo, at any one time, only on a very few forms; and deally forwhy the very forthhappen of ikindsome choosing almost infolds the continual undersoling and fornaughting of beforecoming and betweenly steplings. Closely alinked wightkin, now living on a throughstanding area, must often have been ashaped when the area was not throughstanding, and when the hodes of life did not unspoorberely bestep away from one deal to another. When two isunders are ashaped in two andlays of a throughstanding area, an betweenly isunder will often be ashaped, fitted for an betweenly zone; but from thinkcrafts atokened, the betweenly isunder will wonely wesen in lesser rimes than [bookleaf] 204 arveths on thoughtlay. Chap. Vi. The two forms which it belinks; infollowingly the two latter, during the foor of further awending, from wesening in greater rimes, will have a great foredeal over the less rimeful betweenly isunder, and will thus allmeanly spow in undersoling and benothinging it. We have seen in this bookdeal how imbheedy we should be in beshuting that the most undershedsome wones of life could not bestep into each other; that a bat, for bisen, could not have been ashaped by ikindsome choosing from a wight which at first could only glide through the air. We have seen that a wightkin may under new hodes of life awend its wones, or have sunderlyened wones, with some wones very unlike those of its nearest congeners. Hence we can understand, bearing in mind that each lifesome being is trying to live wherever it can live, how it has arisen that there are upland geese with webbed feet, ground woodpeckers, diving thrushes, and holmthesterbirds with the wones of auks. Although the belief that an bodyworkth so fullcome as the eye could have been ashaped by ikindsome choosing, is more than enough to stagger any one; yet in the happenlay of any bodyworkth, if we know of a long followth of steplings in throughtanglyity, each good for its besitter, then, under awending hodes of life, there is no logical imacomingliness in the underfanging of any kenbere andstep of fullcomeliness through ikindsome choosing. In the happenlays in which we know of no betweenly or overgangly onlays, we should be very imbheedy in beshuting that none could have wesened, for the homologies of many bodyworkths and their betweenly onlays show that wonderful overshapes in workhood are at least acomingly. For bisen, a swim-bladder has opensightly been forwended into an air-breathing lung. The same bodyworkth having fremmed [bookleaf] 205 chap. Vi. Summary. Sametimely very undershedsome workhoods, and then having been besundered for one workhood; and two very toshed bodyworkths having fremmed at the same time the same workhood, the one having been fullfremmed whilst ferked by the other, must often have michelly eathyend overgangs. We are far too unwittle, in almost every happenlay, to be bemayened to forthstomp that any deal or bodyworkth is so unweighty for the welfare of a wightkin, that awendings in its upbuild could not have been slowly upheaped by means of ikindsome choosing. But we may belieffastly believe that many awendings, wholly due to the laws of growth, and at first in no way foredealful to a wightkin, have been underfollowingly taken foredeal of by the still further awended netherastiends of this wightkin. We may, also, believe that a deal formerly of high weightiness has often been bekept (as the tail of an waterly wight by its earthly netherastiends), though it has become of such small weightiness that it could not, in its andward onlay, have been underfanged by ikindsome choosing,—a wold which bedoes solely by the asparing of notesome sundrinesss in the struggle for life. Ikindsome choosing will tidder nothing in one wightkin for the outshutly good or dem of another; though it may well tidder deals, bodyworths, and foroutings highly nitworth or even aldertharfly, or highly demsome to another wightkin, but in all happenlays at the same time nitworth to the owner. Ikindsome choosing in each well-stocked landred, must bedo chiefly through the witherstrive of the inwoners one with another, and infollowingly will tidder fullcomeliness, or strength in the hild for life, only according to the standord of that landred. Hence the inwoners of one landred, allmeanly the smaller one, will often yield, as we see they do yield, to the inwoners of another and allmeanly michelr landred. For in [bookleaf] 206 arveths on thoughtlay. Chap. Vi. The michelr landred there will have wesened more untodealels, and more sunderlyened forms, and the witherstrive will have been highearnster, and thus the standord of fullcomeliness will have been made higher. Ikindsome choosing will not needbehovely tidder fullthrough fullcomeliness; nor, as far as we can deemend by our narrowened faculties, can fullthrough fullcomeliness be everywhere found. On the thoughtlay of ikindsome choosing we can clearly understand the full meaning of that old lawlay in ikindsome yorelore, "ikind does not make jumps." this lawlay, if we look only to the andward inwoners of the world, is not strictly rightsome, but if we imbhave all those of eretimes, it must by my thoughtlay be strictly true. It is allmeanly acknowledged that all lifesome beings have been ashaped on two great laws—onehood of type, and the hodes of wist. By onehood of type is meant that groundsetly thweerness in upbuild, which we see in lifesome beings of the same ilk, and which is quite unoffhanging of their wones of life. On my thoughtlay, onehood of type is acleared by onehood of netherastieing. The outthring of hodes of wist, so often bestood on by the illustrious cuvier, is fully imbfathomed by the thoughsetlay of ikindsome choosing. For ikindsome choosing bedoes by either now throughfitting the forsundering deals of each being to its lifesome and inlifefast hodes of life; or by having throughfit them during long-eretide timedeals of time: the throughfittings being ferked in some happenlays by use and andnote, being slightly onworked by the straightfast deedship of the outly hodes of life, and being in all happenlays underthrown to the manysome laws of growth. Hence, in deedsake, the law of the hodes of wist is the higher law; as it imbhaves, through the erve of former throughfittings, that of onehood of type. [bookleaf] 207 chap. Vii. Inborndrive. Bookdeal vii. Inborndrive Inborndrives withmetebere with wones, but undershedsome in their fromth — inborndrives bestepped — aphides and ants — inborndrives sunderly — housely inborndrives, their fromth — ikindsome inborndrives of the cuckoo, thrithbird, and stealeaterly bees — eason-making ants — hive-bee, its bodyworkhouseling-making inborndrive — arveths on the thoughtlay of the ikindly choosing of inborndrives — wanmingebodyworkthwight or unwassombearing bugs — summary. The underthrow of inborndrive might have been worked into the previous bookdeals; but i have thought that it would be more convenient to treat the underthrow sundermeal, besunders as so wonderful an inborndrive as that of the hive-bee making its bodyworkhouselings will likely have betided to many readers, as a arveth enoughsome to overthrow my whole thoughtlay. I must premise, that i have nothing to do with the fromth of the firstsome mindly wolds, any more than i have with that of life itself. We are bemet only with the manyotherednesses of inborndrive and of the other mindly suchnesses of wights within the same ilk. I will not costen any bebinding of inborndrive. It would be easy to show that manysome toshed mindly deedships are imeanly imbfathomed by this term; but every one understands what is meant, when it is said that inborndrive impels the cuckoo to yondshrithe and to lay her eggs in other birds' nests. An deedship, which we ourselves should tharf outfand to bemayen us to frem, when fremmed by a wight, more besunders by a very young one, without any outfand, and when fremmed by many untodealels in the same way, without their knowing for what sake it is fremmed, is wonely said to be inborndrivesome. [bookleaf] 208 inborndrive. Chap. Vii. But i could show that none of these suchnesses of inborndrive are allhomely. A little dose, as pierre huber outthrings it, of deeming or thinkcraft, often comes into play, even in wights very low in the scale of ikind. Frederick cuvier and manysome of the older metaphysicians have withmeted inborndrive with wone. This withmeting gives, i think, an edmarkberely targeockfast thinkling of the frame of mind under which an inborndrivesome deedship is fremmed, but not of its fromth. How orawarely many wonely deedships are fremmed, indeed not seldom in straightfast withersetness to our mindaware will! Yet they may be awended by the will or thinkcraft. Wones easily become onbound with other wones, and withsomel timedeals of time and onlays of the body. When once underfanged, they often belive standy throughout life. Manysome other ords of look-alikeness between inborndrives and wones could be orded out. As in edledging a well-known song, so in inborndrives, one deedship follows another by a sort of rhythm; if a person be underbroken in a song, or in edledging anything by rote, he is allmeanly thracked to go back to edfind the wonely train of thought: so p. Huber found it was with a forebutterfly, which makes a very complicated hammock; for if he took a forebutterfly which had fullworked its hammock up to, say, the sixth stepock of onbuild, and put it into a hammock fullworked up only to the third stepock, the forebutterfly sinfold ed-fremmed the fourth, fifth, and sixth stepocks of onbuild. If, however, a forebutterfly were taken out of a hammock made up, for bisen, to the third stepock, and were put into one finished up to the sixth stepock, so that much of its work was already done for it, far from feeling the beforthing of this, it was much embarrassed, and, in order to fullwork its hammock, seemed thracked to start from the third stepling, where it had left off, and thus tried to fullwork the already finished work. [bookleaf] 209 chap. Vii. Inborndrive like wone. If we understell any wonely deedship to become erved—and i think it can be shown that this does sometimes happen—then the look-alikeness between what fromly was a wone and an inborndrive becomes so close as not to be toshed. If mozart, instead of playing the pianoforte at three years old with wonderfully little doship, had played a tune with no doship at all, he might truly be said to have done so inborndrivesomely. But it would be the most serious dwild to understell that the greater rime of inborndrives have been underfanged by wone in one strind, and then yondstelled by erve to aftercoming strinds. It can be clearly shown that the most wonderful inborndrives with which we are acquainted, namely, those of the hive-bee and of many ants, could not acomingly have been thus underfanged. It will be allhomely throughgiven that inborndrives are as weighty as bodily framework for the welfare of each wightkin, under its andward hodes of life. Under awended hodes of life, it is at least acomingly that slight awendings of inborndrive might be notesome to a wightkin; and if it can be shown that inborndrives do forsunder ever so little, then i can see no arveth in ikindsome choosing asparing and throughstandingly beheaping sundrinesss of inborndrive to any scope that may be notesome. It is thus, as i believe, that all the most throughtangly and wonderful inborndrives have outstemmed. As awendings of bodily upbuild arise from, and are eaked by, use or wone, and are aquinen or lost by andnote, so i do not twight it has been with inborndrives. But i believe that the onworkings of wone are of quite underrowfollowsome weightiness to the onworkings of the ikindsome choosing of what may be called misfallsome sundrinesss of inborndrives;—that is of sundrinesss tiddered by the same unknown bewhys which tidder slight andwayings of bodily upbuild. No throughtangly inborndrive can acomingly be tiddered through [bookleaf] 210 inborndrive. Chap. Vii. Ikindsome choosing, nimth by the slow and stepmeal upheaping of rimeful, slight, yet notesome, sundrinesss. Hence, as in the happenlay of bodily upbuilds, we ought to find in ikind, not the soothly overgangly steplings by which each throughtangly inborndrive has been underfanged—for these could be found only in the lineal beforecomers of each wightkin—but we ought to find in the sidely lines of netherastieing some outshow of such steplings; or we ought at least to be able to show that steplings of some kind are acomingly; and this we iwis can do. I have been overnome to find, taking into hidge the inborndrives of wights having been but little behowed nimth in europe and north america, and for no inborndrive being known amongst fornaughted wightkin, how very allmeanly steplings, leading to the most throughtangly inborndrives, can be anddecked. The lawlay of "ikind does not make jumps" belays with almost evenworth thrake to inborndrives as to bodily bodyworkths. Forotherings of inborndrive may sometimes be eathyend by the same wightkin having undershedsome inborndrives at undershedsome timedeals of life, or at undershedsome yeartides of the year, or whensteadd under undershedsome imbstands, &c.; in which happenlay either one or the other inborndrive might be aspared by ikindsome choosing. And such bisens of manyotheredness of inborndrive in the same wightkin can be shown to betide in ikind. Again as in the happenlay of bodily upbuild, and throughshapeberely with my thoughtlay, the inborndrive of each wightkin is good for itself, but has never, as far as we can deemend, been tiddered for the outshutly good of others. One of the strongest bisens of a wight opensightly fremming an deedship for the sole good of another, with which i am acquainted, is that of aphides willfully yielding their sweet forouting to ants: that they do so willfully, the following deedsakes show. I removed all the ants from a maith of about a dozen aphides on a dock- [bookleaf] 211 chap. Vii. Inborndrive. Plant, and forecame their there-be during manysome hours. After this timestretch, i felt sure that the aphides would want to excrete. I watched them for some time through a lens, but not one forouted; i then tickled and stroked them with a hair in the same way, as well as i could, as the ants do with their headfeelers; but not one forouted. Afterwards i allowed an ant to nease them, and it forthwith seemed, by its eager way of running about, to be well aware what a rich flock it had anddecked; it then began to play with its headfeelers on the gutroom first of one aphis and then of another; and each aphis, as soon as it felt the headfeelers, forthwith lifted up its gutroom and forouted a throughclear drop of sweet sew, which was eagerly forglendered by the ant. Even the quite young aphides behaved in this way, showing that the deedship was inborndrivesome, and not the outfollow of outfand. But as the forouting is outestly sticky-thick, it is likely a limpfulness to the aphides to have it removed; and therefore likely the aphides do not inborndrivesomely excrete for the sole good of the ants. Although i do not believe that any wight in the world frems an deedship for the outshutly good of another of a toshed wightkin, yet each wightkin tries to take foredeal of the inborndrives of others, as each takes foredeal of the weaker bodily upbuild of others. So again, in some few happenlays,somel inborndrives cannot be hidged as fullthroughly fullcome; but as atcuts on this and other such ords are not aldertharfly, they may be here passed over. As some andstep of sundriness in inborndrives under a onlay of ikind, and the erve of such sundrinesss, are aldertharfly for the deedship of ikindsome choosing, as many bisens as acomingly ought to have been here given; but want of roomhood forecomes me. I can only forthstomp, that inborndrives iwis do forsunder—for bisen, [bookleaf] 212 inborndrive. Chap. Vii. The migratory inborndrive, both in scope and stighting, and in its total loss. So it is with the nests of birds, which forsunder deally in offhanginess on the tostands chosen, and on the ikind and warmthworth of the landred inwoned, but often from bring-aboutss wholly unknown to us: audubon has given manysome edmarkbere happenlays of undersheds in nests of the same wightkin in the northern and southern beoned onlays. Fear of any dealocksome enemy is iwis an inborndrivesome suchness, as may be seen in nestling birds, though it is strengthened by outfand, and by the sight of fear of the same enemy in other wights. But fear of man is slowly underfanged, as i have elsewhere shown, by sundry wights inwoning alderdrystow islands; and we may see a bisen of this, even in england, in the greater wildness of all our michel birds than of our small birds; for the michel birds have been most persecuted by man. We may safely knode the greater wildness of our michel birds to this bring-about; for in uninwoned islands michel birds are not more fearful than small; and the magpie, so wary in england, is tame in norway, as is the hooded crow in egypt. That the allmeanly andhowstand of untodealels of the same wightkin, born in a onlay of ikind, is outestly sunderlyened, can be shown by a dright of deedsakes. Manysome happenlays also, could be given, of otherwhile and selcouth wones in somel wightkin, which might, if foredealful to the wightkin, give rise, through ikindsome choosing, to quite new inborndrives. But i am well aware that these allmeanly quids, without deedsakes given in atcut, can tidder but a trumless onworking on the reader's mind. I can only edledge my assurance, that i do not speak without good outshow. The acomingliness, or even likelihood, of erved sundrinesss of inborndrive in a onlay of ikind will be strengthened by briefly hidging a few happenlays under [bookleaf] 213 chap. Vii. Housely inborndrives. Housening. We shall thus also be bemayened to see the edsightsome deals which wone and the choosing of so-called misfallsome sundrinesss have played in awending the mindly suchnesses of our housely wights. A rime of frimdy and authentic bisens could be given of the erve of all shades of andhowstand and tastes, and likewise of the oddest tricks, onbound withsomel frames of mind or timedeals of time. But let us look to the couthly happenlay of the manysome breeds of dogs: it cannot be twighted that young orders (i have myself seen a striking bisen) will sometimes ord and even back other dogs the very first time that they are taken out; retrieving is iwis in some andstep erved by retrievers; and a niging to run round, instead of at, a flock of sheep, by shepherd-dogs. I cannot see that these deedships, fremmed without outfand by the young, and in nearly the same way by each untodealel, fremmed with eager delight by each breed, and without the end being known,—for the young order can no more know that he ords to ferk his master, than the white butterfly knows why she lays her eggs on the leaf of the cabbage,—i cannot see that these deedships andsame isshiply from true inborndrives. If we were to see one kind of wolf, when young and without any training, as soon as it scented its prey, stand motionless like a statue, and then slowly crawl forward with a odd gait; and another kind of wolf rushing round, instead of at, a herd of deer, and driving them to a farfast ord, we should assuredly call these deedships inborndrivesome. Housely inborndrives, as they may be called, are iwis far less fixed or insunderly than ikindsome inborndrives; but they have been bedoed on by far less rigorous choosing, and have been yondstelled for an withmeteberely shorter timedeal, under less fixed hodes of life. How strongly these housely inborndrives, wones, and dis- [bookleaf] 214 inborndrive. Chap. Vii. Howstands are erved, and how frimdily they become mingled, is well shown when undershedsome breeds of dogs are rooded. Thus it is known that a rood with a bull-dog has onworked for many strinds the ellen and obstinacy of greyhounds; and a rood with a greyhound has given to a whole huered of shepherd-dogs a niging to hunt hares. These housely inborndrives, when thus tested by rooding, onlike ikindsome inborndrives, which in a like way become frimdily blended together, and for a long timedeal outstell traces of the inborndrives of either akennend: for bisen, le roy bewrites a dog, whose great-alderfather was a wolf, and this dog showed a trace of its wild akennendage only in one way, by not coming in a straight line to his master when called. Housely inborndrives are sometimes spoken of as deedships which have become erved solely from long-throughstood and athrismful wone, but this, i think, is not true. No one would ever have thought of teaching, or likely could have taught, the tumbler-plumpdove to tumble,—an deedship which, as i have witnessed, is fremmed by young birds, that have never seen a plumpdove tumble. We may believe that some one plumpdove showed a slight niging to this selcouth wone, and that the long-throughstood choosing of the best untodealels in afterfollowly strinds made tumblers what they now are; and near glasgow there are house-tumblers, as i hear from mr. Brent, which cannot fly eighteen inches high without going head over heels. It may be twighted whether any one would have thought of training a dog to ord, had not some one dog quithenly shown a niging in this line; and this is known otherwhile to happen, as i once saw in a siver terrier. When the first niging was once ewed, do-wayly choosing and the erved onworkings of athrismful training in each afterfollowly strind would soon fullwork the work; and underawared [bookleaf] 215 chap. Vii. Housely inborndrives. Choosing is still at work, as each man tries to infang, without inwhelving to better the breed, dogs which will stand and hunt best. On the other hand, wone alone in some happenlays has enoughened; no wight is more arvethfast to tame than the young of the wild rabbit; hardly any wight is tamer than the young of the tame rabbit; but i do not understell that housely rabbits have ever been chosen for tameness; and i foretake that we must knode the whole of the erved awend from outest wildness to outest tameness, sinfold to wone and long-throughstood close benarrowenedness. Ikindsome inborndrives are lost under housening: a edmarkbere bisen of this is seen in those breeds of fowls which very seldom or never become "broody," that is, never wish to sit on their eggs. Familiarity alone forecomes our seeing how allhomely and michelly the minds of our housely wights have been awended by housening. It is hardly acomingly to twight that the love of man has become inborndrivesome in the dog. All wolves, foxes, jackals, and wightkin of the cat wightkind, when kept tame, are most eager to rees fowl, sheep, and pigs; and this niging has been found unhealbere in dogs which have been brought home as puppies from landreds, such as tierra del fuego and australia, where the wildsoulbearends do not keep these housely wights. How seldom, on the other hand, do our couthened dogs, even when quite young, tharf to be taught not to rees fowl, sheep, and pigs! No twight they otherwhile do make an rees, and are then beaten; and if not cured, they are fordone; so that wone, with some andstep of choosing, has likely thweered in couthening by erve our dogs. On the other hand, young chickens have lost, wholly by wone, that fear of the dog and cat which no twight was fromly inborndrivesome in them, in the same way as it is so plainly inborndrivesome in [bookleaf] 216 inborndrive. Chap. Vii. Young pheasants, though reared under a hen. It is not that chickens have lost all fear, but fear only of dogs and cats, for if the hen gives the freech-chuckle, they will run (more besunders young turkeys) from under her, and bedern themselves in the imbholding grass or thickets; and this is opensightly done for the inborndrivesome sake of allowing, as we see in wild ground-birds, their mother to fly away. But this inborndrive bekept by our chickens has become unnitworth under housening, for the mother-hen has almost lost by andnote the wold of flight. Hence, we may ashut, that housely inborndrives have been underfanged and ikindsome inborndrives have been lost deally by wone, and deally by man choosing and beheaping during afterfollowly strinds, odd mindly wones and deedships, which at first showed up from what we must in our unwareship call a misfall. In some happenlays athrismful wone alone has enoughened to tidder such erved mindly awendings; in other happenlays athrismful wone has done nothing, and all has been the outfollow of choosing, pursued both do-wayly and orawarely; but in most happenlays, likely, wone and choosing have bedoed together. We shall, forhaps, best understand how inborndrives in a onlay of ikind have become awended by choosing, by hidging a few happenlays. I will choose only three, out of the manysome which i shall have to imbspeak in my to-come work,—namely, the inborndrive which leads the cuckoo to lay her eggs in other birds' nests; the eason-making inborndrive of somel ants; and the comb-making wold of the hive-bee: these two latter inborndrives have allmeanly, and most rightly, been ranked by ikindlorers as the most wonderful of all known inborndrives. It is now imeanly throughgiven that the more forthwith and endsome bewhy of the cuckoo's inborndrive is, that [bookleaf] 217 chap. Vii. Of the cuckoo. She lays her eggs, not daily, but at timestretchs of two or three days; so that, if she were to make her own nest and sit on her own eggs, those first laid would have to be left for some time unincubated, or there would be eggs and young birds of undershedsome eldths in the same nest. If this were the happenlay, the forthhappen of laying and hatching might be inconveniently long, more besunders as she has to yondshrithe at a very early timedeal; and the first hatched young would likely have to be fed by the seedlifer alone. But the american cuckoo is in this derst; for she makes her own nest and has eggs and young afterfollowlyly hatched, all at the same time. It has been forthstomped that the american cuckoo otherwhile lays her eggs in other birds' nests; but i hear on the high alderdom of dr. Brewer, that this is a mistake. Nevertheless, i could give manysome bisens of sundry birds which have been known otherwhile to lay their eggs in other birds' nests. Now let us understell that the alderold akennend of our european cuckoo had the wones of the american cuckoo; but that otherwhile she laid an egg in another bird's nest. If the old bird beforthed by this otherwhile wone, or if the young were made more lifethrithsome by foredeal having been taken of the mistaken motherly inborndrive of another bird, than by their own mother's care, encumbered as she can hardly fail to be by having eggs and young of undershedsome eldths at the same time; then the old birds or the fostered young would gain an foredeal. And samerun would lead me to believe, that the young thus reared would be apt to follow by erve the otherwhile and maffsome wone of their mother, and in their turn would be apt to lay their eggs in other birds' nests, and thus be successful in rearing their young. By a throughstood forthhappen of this ikind, i believe that the selcouth inborndrive of our cuckoo could be, and has been, L [bookleaf] 218 inborndrive. Chap. Vii. Wightkindsted. I may ateak that, according to dr. Gray and to some other behowers, the european cuckoo has not utterly lost all motherly love and care for her own offspring. The otherwhile wone of birds laying their eggs in other birds' nests, either of the same or of a toshed wightkin, is not very unimean with the gallinaceæ; and this forhaps aclears the fromth of a onely inborndrive in the alinked maith of thrithbirdes. For manysome hen thrithbirdes, at least in the happenlay of the america wightkin, beone and lay first a few eggs in one nest and then in another; and these are hatched by the seedlifers. This inborndrive may likely be arimed for by the deedsake of the hens laying a michel rime of eggs; but, as in the happenlay of the cuckoo, at timestretchs of two or three days. This inborndrive, however, of the american thrithbird has not as yet been fullfremmed; for a overnimming rime of eggs lie strewed over the plains, so that in one day's hunting i picked up no less than twenty lost and wasted eggs. Many bees are stealeaterly, and always lay their eggs in the nests of bees of other kinds. This happenlay is more edmarkbere than that of the cuckoo; for these bees have not only their inborndrives but their upbuild awended in accordance with their stealeaterly wones; for they do not besit the bloomdust-gathering toolling which would be needbehovely if they had to store food for their own young. Some wightkin, likewise, of sphegidæ (wasp-like bugs) are stealeaterly on other wightkin; and m. Fabre has lately shown good thinkcraft for believing that although the threadwaistedwasp allmeanly makes its own burrow and stores it with paralysed prey for its own forebugs to feed on, yet that when this bug finds a burrow already made and stored by another sphex, it takes foredeal of the prize, and becomes for the mealwhile stealeaterly. In this happenlay, as with the understelled happenlay of the cuckoo, i can [bookleaf] 219 chap. Vii. Eason-making inborndrive. See no arveth in ikindsome choosing making an otherwhile wone foreversome, if of foredeal to the wightkin, and if the bug whose nest and stored food are thus firenly fanged, be not thus benothinged. Eason-making inborndrive.—this edmarkbere inborndrive was first anddecked in the redant by pierre huber, a better behower even than his mear father. This ant is fullthroughly offhangy on its easons; without their ferk, the wightkin would iwis become fornaughted in a onele year. The seedlifers and tudderfast birthlifers do no work. The workers or unwassombearing birthlifers, though most energetic and ellenful in forfanging easons, do no other work. They are uncanfast of making their own nests, or of feeding their own forebugs. When the old nest is found inconvenient, and they have to yondshrithe, it is the easons which toend the yondshrithing, and soothly bear their masters in their jaws. So utterly helpless are the masters, that when huber shut up thirty of them without a eason, but with plenty of the food which they like best, and with their forebugs and shellockforebugs to whet them to work, they did nothing; they could not even feed themselves, and many swalt of hunger. Huber then inlead a onele eason (darkant), and she eyeblinkly set to work, fed and saved the overlivers; made some bodyworkhouselings and yeamed the forebugs, and put all to rights. What can be more orwoneliness than these well-foriwised deedsakes? If we had not known of any other eason-making ant, it would have been hopeless to have belooked how so wonderful an inborndrive could have been fullfremmed. Bloodant was likewise first anddecked by p. Huber to be a eason-making ant. This wightkin is found in the southern deals of england, and its wones have been yeamed to by mr. F. Smith, of the british L 2 [bookleaf] 220 inborndrive. Chap. Vii. Museum, to whom i am much beholden for kenstuff on this and other underthrows. Although fully trusting to the quids of huber and mr. Smith, i tried to nighledge the underthrow in a forthinksome frame of mind, as any one may well be unbeguilted for twighting the truth of so orwoneliness and hateworthy an inborndrive as that of making easons. Hence i will give the behowings which i have myself made, in some little atcut. I opened fourteen nests of bloodant, and found a few easons in all. Seedlifers and tudderfast feseedlifers of the eason-wightkin are found only in their own davenly imeanships, and have never been behowed in the nests of bloodant. The easons are black and not above half the size of their red masters, so that the againstshow in their upshowing is very great. When the nest is slightly dreeved, the easons otherwhile come out, and like their masters are much quetched and forstand the nest: when the nest is much dreeved and the forebugs and shellockforebugs are outset, the easons work energetically with their masters in bearing them away to a stead of holdfastness. Hence, it is clear, that the easons feel quite at home. During the months of june and july, on three afterfollowly years, i have watched for many hours manysome nests in surrey and susakenbodyworkthsplit, and never saw a eason either leave or enter a nest. As, during these months, the easons are very few in rime, i thought that they might behave undershedsomely when more rimeful; but mr. Smith inkens me that he has watched the nests at sundry hours during may, june and august, both in surrey and hampshire, and has never seen the easons, though andward in michel rimes in august, either leave or enter the nest. Hence he considers them as strictly household easons. The masters, on the other hand, may be standily seen bringing in materials for the nest, and food of all kinds. During the andward year, however, in the month [bookleaf] 221 chap. Vii. Eason-making inborndrive. Of july, i came arood a imeanship with an unwonely michel stock of easons, and i behowed a few easons mingled with their masters leaving the nest, and marching along the same road to a tall scotch-fir-tree, twenty-five yards farfast, which they astoe together, likely in search of aphides or cocci. According to huber, who had michel opportunities for behowing, in switzerland the easons wonely work with their masters in making the nest, and they alone open and close the doors in the morning and evening; and, as huber outthringly onlays, their douthkingsome workhood is to search for aphides. This undershed in the wonely wones of the masters and easons in the two landreds, likely offhangs merely on the easons being forefanged in greater rimes in switzerland than in england. One day i fortunately whated to witness a yondshrithing from one nest to another, and it was a most interesting spectacle to behold the masters carefully bearing, as huber has bewrote, their easons in their jaws. Another day my mindlook was struck by about a score of the eason-makers haunting the same spot, and opensightly not in search of food; they nighledged and were lifethrithsomely repulsed by an unoffhanging imeanship of the eason wightkin (darkant); sometimes as many as three of these ants clinging to the legs of the eason-making bloodant. The latter ruthlessly killed their small opponents, and bore their dead bodies as food to their nest, twenty-nine yards farfast; but they were forecame from getting any shellockforebugs to rear as easons. I then dug up a small parcel of the shellockforebugs of darkant from another nest, and put them down on a bare spot near thestead of hild; they were eagerly fanged, and borne off by the tyrants, who forhaps fancied that, after all, they had been sigorfast in their late hild. [bookleaf] 222 inborndrive. Chap. Vii. At the same time i laid on the samestead a small parcel of the shellockforebugs of another wightkin, yellowant, with a few of these little yellow ants still clinging to the breaklings of the nest. This wightkin is sometimes, though seldom, made into easons, as has been bewritten by mr. Smith. Although so small a wightkin, it is very ellenful, and i have seen it gramely rees other ants. In one bisen i found to my overnim an unoffhanging imeanship of yellowant under a stone beneath a nest of the eason-making bloodant; and when i had misfallsomely dreeved both nests, the little ants reesed their big neighbours with overnimming ellen. Now i was frimdy to foriwiss whether bloodant could toshed the shellockforebugs of darkant, which they wonely make into easons, from those of the little and wodely yellowant, which they seldom forefang, and it was opensightly that they did at once toshed them: for we have seen that they eagerly and eyeblinkly fanged the shellockforebugs of darkant, whereas they were much ghasted when they came arood the shellockforebugs, or even the earth from the nest of yellowant, and quickly ran away; but in about a fourth of an hour, shortly after all the little yellow ants had crawled away, they took heart and bore off the shellockforebugs. One evening i neased another imeanship of bloodant, and found a rime of these ants entering their nest, bearing the dead bodies of darkant (showing that it was not a yondshrithing) and rimeful shellockforebugs. I traced the edwhirfting file burthened with booty, for about forty yards, to a very thick clump of heath, whence i saw the last untodealel of bloodant betread up, bearing a shellockforebug; but i was not able to find the harrowed nest in the thick heath. The nest, however, must have been close at hand, for two or three untodealels of darkant were rushing about in the greatest quetchedness, and one was [bookleaf] 223 chap. Vii. Eason-making inborndrive. Perched motionless with its own shellockforebug in its mouth on the top of a spray of heath over its strouded home. Such are the deedsakes, though they did not need atruming by me, in sight to the wonderful inborndrive of making easons. Let it be behowed what an againstshow the inborndrivesome wones of bloodant bring up with those of the f. Rufescens. The latter does not build its own nest, does not toend its own yondshrithings, does not gather food for itself or its young, and cannot even feed itself: it is fullthroughly offhangy on its rimeful easons. Bloodant, on the other hand, besits much fewer easons, and in the early deal of the summer outestly few. The masters toend when and where a new nest shall be ashaped, and when they yondshrithe, the masters bear the easons. Both in switzerland and england the easons seem to have the outshutly care of the forebugs, and the masters alone go on eason-making outfootings. In switzerland the easons and masters work together, making and bringing materials for the nest: both, but chiefly the easons, nige, and misunder as it may be called, their aphides; and thus both gather food for the imeanship. In england the masters alone wonely leave the nest to gather building materials and food for themselves, their easons and forebugs. So that the masters in this landred thidge much less thanered from their easons than they do in switzerland. By what steps the inborndrive of bloodant outstemmed i will not belike to beguess. But as ants, which are not eason-makers, will, as i have seen, bear off shellockforebugs of other wightkin, if scattered near their nests, it is acomingly that shellockforebugs fromly stored as food might become andwound; and the ants thus uninwhelvely reared would then follow their davenly inborndrives, and do what work they could. If their andwardness afanded nitworth to the wightkin which had fanged them—if it were more foredealsome [bookleaf] 224 inborndrive. Chap. Vii. To this wightkin to forefang workers than to forthbecraft them—the wone of gathering shellockforebugs fromly for food might by ikindsome choosing be strengthened and made foreversome for the very undershedsome sake of raising easons. When the inborndrive was once underfanged, if borne out to a much less scope even than in our british bloodant, which, as we have seen, is less ferked by its easons than the same wightkin in switzerland, i can see no arveth in ikindsome choosing eaking and awending the inborndrive—always understelling each awending to be of use to the wightkin—until an ant was ashaped as abjectly offhangy on its easons as is the formica rufescens. Bodyworkhouseling-making inborndrive of the hive-bee.—i will not here enter on littleock atcuts on this underthrow, but will merely give an outline of the ashuts at which i have tocome. He must be a dull man who can underseek the throughlovely upbuild of a comb, so littily throughfit to its end, without enthusiastic bewondering. We hear from mathematicians that bees have dowisely solved a ormindgrasp arveth, and have made their bodyworkhouselings of the davenly shape to hold the greatest acomingly muchth of honey, with the least acomingly dretting of dearworth wax in their onbuild. It has been edmarked that a skilful workman, with fitting tools and ametes, would find it very arvethfast to make bodyworkhouselings of wax of the true form, though this is fullcomely onworked by a crowd of bees working in a dark hive. Grant whatever inborndrives you please, and it seems at first quite unkenbere how they can make all the needbehovely hurns and flatoversides, or even onget when they are rightsomely made. But the arveth is not nearly so great as it at first thenches: all this litty work can be shown, i think, to follow from a few very onelay inborndrives. [bookleaf] 225 chap. Vii. Bodyworkhouselings of the hive-bee. I was led to underfand this underthrow by mr. Waterhouse, who has shown that the form of the bodyworkhouseling stands in close maithred to the andwardness of afaying bodyworkhouselings; and the following onsight may, forhaps, be hidged only as a awending of his thoughtlay. Let us look to the great thoughsetlay of stepling, and see whether ikind does not swettle to us her do-way of work. At one end of a short followth we have eathmood-bees, which use their old forebutterflybeds to hold honey, sometimes ateaking to them short tubes of wax, and likewise making totweemed and very unwoneshapefastness rounded bodyworkhouselings of wax. At the other end of the followth we have the bodyworkhouselings of the hive-bee, stelled in a double layer: each bodyworkhouseling, as is well known, is an sixhurnly evenlongsidessameshapedendsshape, with the bottomlaysome edges of its six sides bevelled so as to fay on to a threehurnsidedibuild, ashaped of three slantfourhurnishs. These slantfourhurnishs have somel hurns, and the three which form the threehurnsidedibuildly bottomlay of a onele bodyworkhouseling on one side of the comb, enter into the setness of the bottomlays of three afaying bodyworkhouselings on the witherrights side. In the followth between the outest fullcomeliness of the bodyworkhouselings of the hive-bee and the sinfoldishy of those of the eathmood-bee, we have the bodyworkhouselings of the mexican vanillabee houselya, carefully bewritten and figured by pierre huber. The vanillabee itself is betweenly in upbuild between the hive and eathmood bee, but more nearly akinned to the latter: it forms a nearly woneshapefastness waxen comb of cylindrical bodyworkhouselings, in which the young are hatched, and, in ateak, some michel bodyworkhouselings of wax for holding honey. These latter bodyworkhouselings are nearly trindley and of nearly evenworth sizes, and are getherherded into an unwoneshapefastness mass. But the weighty ord to bemark, is that these bodyworkhouselings are always made at that andstep of nearness to each other, that they would have throughrooded or broken into each other, if the trindles had been fullworked; but this is never thaved, the bees building fullcomely flat walls of wax between the trindles L 3 [bookleaf] 226 inborndrive. Chap. Vii. Which thus nige to throughrood. Hence each bodyworkhouseling consists of an outer trindley muchthdeal and of two, three, or more fullcomely flat oversides, according as the bodyworkhouseling afays two, three, or more other bodyworkhouselings. When one bodyworkhouseling comes into contbedo with three other bodyworkhouselings, which, from the trindles being nearly of the same size, is very loomly and needbehovely the happenlay, the three flat oversides are beoned into a threehurnsidedibuild; and this threehurnsidedibuild, as huber has edmarked, is manifestly a gross imitation of the three-sided threehurnsidedibuildly bottomlayship of the bodyworkhouseling of the hive-bee. As in the bodyworkhouselings of the hive-bee, so here, the three flatoverside oversides in any one bodyworkhouseling needbehovely enter into the onbuild of three afaying bodyworkhouselings. It is opensightly that the vanillabee saves wax by this way of building; for the flat walls between the afaying bodyworkhouselings are not double, but are of the same thickness as the outer trindley muchthdeals, and yet each flat muchthdeal forms a deal of two bodyworkhouselings. Imbthinking on this happenlay, it betided to me that if the vanillabee had made its trindles at some given farth from each other, and had made them of evenworth sizes and had dighted them symmetrically in a double layer, the outfollowing upbuild would likely have been as fullcome as the comb of the hive-bee. Accordingly i wrote to lorefather miller, of cambridge, and this meterlorer has kindly read over the following quid, drawn up from his kenstuff, and tells me that it is strictly rightsome:— If a rime of evenworth trindles be bewritten with their middlens stelled in two evenlong layers; with the middlen of each trindle at the farth of radius × v 2, or radius × 1.41421 (or at some lesser farth), from the middlens of the six imbholding trindles in the same layer; and at the same farth from the middlens of the afaying trindles in the other and evenlong layer; then, if flatoversides of throughrooding between the manysome trindles in [bookleaf] 227 chap. Vii. Bodyworkhouselings of the hive-bee. Both layers be ashaped, there will outfollow a double layer of sixhurnly evenlongsidessameshapedendsshapes beoned together by threehurnsidedibuildal bottomlays ashaped of three slantfourhurnishs; and the slantfourhurnishs and the sides of the sixhurnly evenlongsidessameshapedendsshapes will have every hurn selfsamely the same with the best ameteings which have been made of the bodyworkhouselings of the hive-bee. Hence we may safely ashut that if we could slightly awend the inborndrives already besat by the vanillabee, and in themselves not very wonderful, this bee would make a upbuild as wonderfully fullcome as that of the hive-bee. We must understell the vanillabee to make her bodyworkhouselings truly trindley, and of evenworth sizes; and this would not be very overnimming, seeing that she already does so to a somel scope, and seeing what fullcomely cylindrical burrows in wood many bugs can make, opensightly by turning round on a fixed ord. We must understell the vanillabee to dight her cells in level layers, as she already does her cylindrical bodyworkhouselings; and we must further understell, and this is the greatest arvethfasty, that she can somehow deemend targeockfastly at what farth to stand from her fellow-labourers when manysome are making their trindles; but she is already so far bemayened to deemend of farth, that she always bewrites her trindles so as to throughrood michelly; and then she beones the ords of throughrooding by fullcomely flat oversides. We have further to understell, but this is no arveth, that after sixhurnly evenlongsidessameshapedendsshapes have been ashaped by the throughrooding of afaying trindles in the same layer, she can prolong the sixhurn to any length needed to hold the stock of honey; in the same way as the rude eathmood-bee adds cylinders of wax to the circular mouths of her old forebutterflybeds. By such awendings of inborndrives in themselves not very wonderful,—hardly more wonderful than those which guide a bird to make its nest,—i believe that the hive-bee [bookleaf] 228 inborndrive. Chap. Vii. Has underfanged, through ikindsome choosing, her unevenledgebere forebuilddrawcraftsome wolds. But this thoughtlay can be tested by fand. Following the bisen of mr. Tegetmeier, i totweemed two combs, and put between them a long, thick, evenfourhurnshape strip of wax: the bees eyeblinkly began to unbetield littleock circular pits in it; and as they deepened these little pits, they made them wider and wider until they were forwended into shallow basins, showing up to the eye fullcomely true or deals of a trindle, and of about the diameter of a bodyworkhouseling. It was most interesting to me to behow that wherever manysome bees had begun to unbetield these basins near together, they had begun their work at such a farth from each other, that by the time the basins had underfanged the above quided width (i.e. About the width of an wonely bodyworkhouseling), and were in depth about one sixth of the diameter of the trindle of which they ashaped a deal, the rims of the basins throughrooded or broke into each other. As soon as this betided, the bees blan to unbetield, and began to build up flat walls of wax on the lines of throughrooding between the basins, so that each sixhurnly evenlongsidessameshapedendsshape was built upon the festooned edge of a smooth basin, instead of on the straight edges of a three-sided threehurnsidedibuild as in the happenlay of wonely bodyworkhouselings. I then put into the hive, instead of a thick, evenfourhurnshape piece of wax, a thin and narrow, knife-edged ridge, coloured with highbrightred. The bees eyeblinkly began on both sides to unbetield little basins near to each other, in the same way as before; but the ridge of wax was so thin, that the bottoms of the basins, if they had been unbetielded to the same depth as in the former fand, would have broken into each other from the witherrights sides. The bees, however, did not thraw this to happen, and they stopped their unbetieldings in due [bookleaf] 229 chap. Vii. Bodyworkhouselings of the hive-bee. Time; so that the basins, as soon as they had been a little deepened, came to have flat bottoms; and these flat bottoms, ashaped by thin little plates of the highbrightred wax having been left ungnawed, were onsat, as far as the eye could deemend, weetilly along the flatoversides of hyeshowsome throughrooding between the basins on the witherrights sides of the ridge of wax. In deals, only little bits, in other deals, michel muchthdeals of a slantfourhurnish plate had been left between the withlaid basins, but the work, from the unikindsome state of things, had not been neatly fremmed. The bees must have worked at very nearly the same rimespeed on the witherrights sides of the ridge of highbrightred wax, as they circularly gnawed away and deepened the basins on both sides, in order to have spowed in thus leaving flat plates between the basins, by stopping work along the betweenly flatoversides or flatoversides of throughrooding. Hidging how flexible thin wax is, i do not see that there is any arveth in the bees, whilst at work on the two sides of a strip of wax, ongeting when they have gnawed the wax away to the davenly thinness, and then stopping their work. In wonely combs it has thenched to me that the bees do not always spow in working at weetilly the same rimespeed from the witherrights sides; for i have bemarked half-fullworked slantfourhurnishs at the bottomlay of a just-begun bodyworkhouseling, which were slightly ashraffed on one side, where i understell that the bees had unbetielded too quickly, and outwardcurving on the withlaid side, where the bees had worked less quickly. In one well-marked bisen, i put the comb back into the hive, and allowed the bees to go on working for a short time, and again undersought the bodyworkhouseling, and i found that the slantfourhurnish plate had been fullworked, and had become fullcomely flat: it was fullthroughly unacomingly, from the outest thinness of the little slantfourhurnish plate, that they could have onworked [bookleaf] 230 inborndrive. Chap. Vii. This by gnawing away the outwardcurving side; and i underlook that the bees in such happenlays stand in the withlaid bodyworkhouselings and push and bend the ductile and warm wax (which as i have tried is easily done) into its davenly betweenly flatoverside, and thus flatten it. From the fand of the ridge of highbrightred wax, we can clearly see that if the bees were to build for themselves a thin wall of wax, they could make their bodyworkhouselings of the davenly shape, by standing at the davenly farth from each other, by unbetielding at the same rimespeed, and by bestriving to make evenworth trindley hollows, but never allowing the trindles to break into each other. Now bees, as may be clearly seen by underseeking the edge of a growing comb, do make a rough, imb-reachly wall or rim all round the comb; and they gnaw into this from the witherrights sides, always working circularly as they deepen each bodyworkhouseling. They do not make the whole three-sided threehurnsidedibuildly bottomlay of any one bodyworkhouseling at the same time, but only the one slantfourhurnish plate which stands on the outest growing togetherwesen, or the two plates, as the happenlay may be; and they never fullwork the upper edges of the slantfourhurnish plates, until the sixhurnly walls are begun. Some of these quids andsame from those made by the rightly mear elder huber, but i am overtold of their targeockfastness; and if i had roomhood, i could show that they are throughshapebere with my thoughtlay. Huber's quid that the very first bodyworkhouseling is unbetielded out of a little evenlong-sided wall of wax, is not, as far as i have seen, strictly rightsome; the first beginning having always been a little hood of wax; but i will not here enter on these atcuts. We see how weighty a deal unbetielding plays in the onbuild of the bodyworkhouselings; but it would be a great dwild to understell that the bees cannot build up a rough wall of wax in the davenly [bookleaf] 231 chap. Vii. Bodyworkhouselings of the hive-bee. Howstand—that is, along the flatoverside of throughrooding between two afaying trindles. I have manysome neeslings showing clearly that they can do this. Even in the rude imb-reachly rim or wall of wax round a growing comb, bighings may sometimes be behowed, togetheranswering in howstand to the flatoversides of the slantfourhurnish bottomlaysome plates of to-come bodyworkhouselings. But the rough wall of wax has in every happenlay to be finished off, by being michelly gnawed away on both sides. The way in which the bees build is frimdy; they always make the first rough wall from ten to twenty times thicker than the overmuchly thin finished wall of the bodyworkhouseling, which will endfastly be left. We shall understand how they work, by understelling stonebuilders first to pile up a broad ridge of limeclay, and then to begin cutting it away evenworthly on both sides near the ground, till a smooth, very thin wall is left in the middle; the stonebuilders always piling up the cut-away limeclay, and ateaking fresh limeclay, on the knap of the ridge. We shall thus have a thin wall steadily growing upward; but always crowned by a entish coping. From all the bodyworkhouselings, both those just begun and those fullworked, being thus crowned by a strong coping of wax, the bees can cluster and crawl over the comb without teening the breakly sixhurnly walls, which are only about one four-hundredth of an inch in thickness; the plates of the threehurnsidedibuildly bottomlay being about twice as thick. By this sunderfast way of building, strength is throughstandingly given to the comb, with the utmost endfast setlay of wax. It seems at first to ateak to the arveth of understanding how the bodyworkhouselings are made, that a dright of bees all work together; one bee after working a short time at one bodyworkhouseling going to another, so that, as huber has quided, a score of untodealels work even at the beginning of the first bodyworkhouseling. I was able dowisely to show this deedsake, by betielding the edges of the sixhurnly walls [bookleaf] 232 inborndrive. Chap. Vii. Of a onele bodyworkhouseling, or the outest togetherwesen of the imb-reachly rim of a growing comb, with an outestly thin layer of melted highbrightred wax; and i everywhen found that the colour was most neshly tospread by the bees—as neshly as a painter could have done with his brush—by unclefts of the coloured wax having been taken from the spot on which it had been stelled, and worked into the growing edges of the bodyworkhouselings all round. The work of onbuild seems to be a sort of evenweight struck between many bees, all inborndrivesomely standing at the same akinsome farth from each other, all trying to sweep evenworth spheres, and then building up, or leaving ungnawed, the flatoversides of throughrooding between these trindles. It was really frimdy to ontoken in happenlays of arveth, as when two pieces of comb met at an hurn, how often the bees would wholely pull down and rebuild in undershedsome ways the same bodyworkhouseling, sometimes edhappening to a shape which they had at first withset. When bees have astead on which they can stand in their davenly howstands for working,—for bisen, on a slip of wood, stelled wissly under the middle of a comb growing downwards so that the comb has to be built over one face of the slip—in this happenlay the bees can lay the groundsets of one wall of a new sixhurn, in its strictly davenlystead, projecting beyond the other fullworked bodyworkhouselings. It enoughens that the bees should be bemayened to stand at their davenly akinsome farths from each other and from the walls of the last fullworked bodyworkhouselings, and then, by striking hyeshowsome trindles, they can build up a wall betweenly between two afaying trindles; but, as far as i have seen, they never gnaw away and finish off the hurns of a bodyworkhouseling till a michel deal both of that bodyworkhouseling and of the afaying bodyworkhouselings has been built. This canmayen in bees of laying down undersomel imbstands a rough wall in its davenlystead between two just-com- [bookleaf] 233 chap. Vii. Bodyworkhouselings of the hive-bee. Menced bodyworkhouselings, is weighty, as it bears on a deedsake, which seems at first quite underwharvesome of the foregoing thoughtlay; namely, that the bodyworkhouselings on the outest edge of wasp-combs are sometimes strictly sixhurnly; but i have not roomhood here to enter on this underthrow. Nor does there seem to me any great arveth in a onele bug (as in the happenlay of a queen-wasp) making sixhurnly bodyworkhouselings, if she work offwrixlely on the inside and outside of two or three bodyworkhouselings begun at the same time, always standing at the davenly akinsome farth from the deals of the bodyworkhouselings just begun, sweeping trindles or cylinders, and building up betweenly flatoversides. It is even kenbere that an bug might, by fixing on a ord at which to begin a bodyworkhouseling, and then moving outside, first to one ord, and then to five other ords, at the davenly akinsome farths from the imbmid ord and from each other, strike the flatoversides of throughrooding, and so make an offonlyed sixhurn: but i am not aware that any such happenlay has been behowed; nor would any good be offstreamed from a onele sixhurn being built, as in its onbuild more materials would be tharfed than for a cylinder. As ikindsome choosing bedoes only by the upheaping of slight awendings of upbuild or inborndrive, each notesome to the untodealel under its hodes of life, it may thinkcraftly be asked, how a long and bestepped afterfollowingness of awended forebuilddrawcraftsome inborndrives, all tending towards the andward fullcome plan of onbuild, could have beforthed the akennends of the hive-bee? I think the answer is not arvethfast: it is known that bees are often hard pressed to get enoughsome bloomsugar; and i am inkenned by mr. Tegetmeier that it has been fandsomely found that no less than from twelve to fifteen pounds of dry sugar are dretted by a hive of bees for the foroutle of each pound of wax; so that a highmichel muchth of fluid bloomsugar must be gathered and dretted by the bees in a hive for [bookleaf] 234 inborndrive. Chap. Vii. The foroutle of the wax needbehovely for the onbuild of their combs. Moreover, many bees have to belive idle for many days during the forthhappen of foroutle. A michel store of honey is aldertharfly to underbear a michel stock of bees during the winter; and the holdfastness of the hive is known mainly to offhang on a michel rime of bees being underborne. Hence the saving of wax by michelly saving honey must be a most weighty firststuff of success in any huered of bees. Of foor the success of any wightkin of bee may be offhangy on the rime of its stealeaters or other foes, or on quite toshed bewhys, and so be altogether unoffhanging of the muchth of honey which the bees could gather. But let us understell that this latter imbstand toended, as it likely often does toend, the rimes of a eathmood-bee which could wesen in a landred; and let us further understell that the imeanship lived throughout the winter, and infollowingly tharfed a store of honey: there can in this happenlay be no twight that it would be an foredeal to our eathmood-bee, if a slight awending of her inborndrive led her to make her waxen bodyworkhouselings near together, so as to throughrood a little; for a wall in imean even to two afaying bodyworkhouselings, would save some little wax. Hence it would throughstandingly be more and more foredealful to our eathmood-bee, if she were to make her bodyworkhouselings more and more woneshapefastness, nearer together, and getherherded into a mass, like the bodyworkhouselings of the vanillabee; for in this happenlay a michel deal of the bounding overside of each bodyworkhouseling would serve to bound other bodyworkhouselings, and much wax would be saved. Again, from the same bewhy, it would be foredealful to the vanillabee, if she were to make her bodyworkhouselings closer together, and more woneshapefastness in every way than at andward; for then, as we have seen, the trindley oversides would wholly swind, and would all be restelled by flatoverside oversides; and the vanillabee [bookleaf] 235 chap. Vii. Wanmingebodyworkthwight bugs. Would make a comb as fullcome as that of the hive-bee. Beyond this stepock of fullcomeliness in forebuilddrawcraft, ikindsome choosing could not lead; for the comb of the hive-bee, as far as we can see, is fullthroughly fullcome in wealthdomening wax. Thus, as i believe, the most wonderful of all known inborndrives, that of the hive-bee, can be acleared by ikindsome choosing having taken foredeal of rimeful, afterfollowly, slight awendings of more onelay inborndrives; ikindsome choosing having by slow andsteps, more and more fullcomely, led the bees to sweep evenworth trindles at a given farth from each other in a double layer, and to build up and unbetield the wax along the flatoversides of throughrooding. The bees, iwis, no more knowing that they swept their trindles at one dealocksome farth from each other, than they know what are the manysome hurns of the sixhurnly evenlongsidessameshapedendsshapes and of the bottomlaysome slantfourhurnish plates. The motive wold of the forthhappen of ikindsome choosing having been setlay of wax; that untodealel swarm which wasted least honey in the foroutle of wax, having spowed best, and having yondstelled by erve its newly underfanged wealthdomly inborndrive to new swarms, which in their turn will have had the best whate of aftercoming in the struggle for wist. No twight many inborndrives of very arvethfast aclearing could be withlaid to the thoughtlay of ikindsome choosing,—happenlays, in which we cannot see how an inborndrive could acomingly have outstemmed; happenlays, in which no betweenly steplings are known to wesen; happenlays of inborndrive of opensightly such trifling weightiness, that they could hardly have been bedoed on by ikindsome choosing; happenlays of inborndrives almost selfsamely the same in wights so far-off in the scale of ikind, that we cannot rake [bookleaf] 236 inborndrive. Chap. Vii. For their alikeship by erve from a imean akennend, and must therefore believe that they have been underfanged by unoffhanging bedos of ikindsome choosing. I will not here enter on these manysome happenlays, but will benarrowen myself to one sunderful arveth, which at first thenched to me unovercomebere, and soothly deathfast to my whole thoughtlay. I atpull to the wanmingebodyworkthwights or unwassombearing birthlifers in bug-imeanships: for these wanmingebodyworkthwights often andsame widely in inborndrive and in upbuild from both the seedlifers and tudderfast birthlifers, and yet, from being unwassombearing, they cannot forspread their kind. The underthrow well andtheens to be imbspoken at great length, but i will here take only a onele happenlay, that of working or unwassombearing ants. How the workers have been made unwassombearing is a arveth; but not much greater than that of any other striking awending of upbuild; for it can be shown that some bugs and other articulate wights in a onlay of ikind otherwhile become unwassombearing; and if such bugs had been folkshiply, and it had been notesome to the imeanship that a rime should have been yearly born canfast of work, but uncanfast of probecrafting, i can see no very great arveth in this being onworked by ikindsome choosing. But i must pass over this foreish arveth. The great arveth lies in the working ants andsaming widely from both the seedlifers and the tudderfast birthlifers in upbuild, as in the shape of the thorax and in being destitute of wings and sometimes of eyes, and in inborndrive. As far as inborndrive alone is bemet, the highmichel undershed in this edsight between the workers and the fullcome birthlifers, would have been far better bebisened by the hive-bee. If a working ant or other wanmingebodyworkthwight bug had been a wight in the wonely onlay, i should have unpullbackingly foretaken that all its suchnesses had been slowly underfanged through ikindsome choosing; namely, by an untodealel [bookleaf] 237 chap. Vii. Wanmingebodyworkthwight bugs. Having been born with some slight notesome awending of upbuild, this being erved by its offspring, which again besundered and were again chosen, and so onwards. But with the working ant we have an bug andsaming greatly from its akennends, yet fullthroughly unwassombearing; so that it could never have yondstelled afterfollowlyly underfanged awendings of upbuild or inborndrive to its afterkin. It may well be asked how is it acomingly to sibsome this happenlay with the thoughtlay of ikindsome choosing? First, let it be muned that we have unarimebere bisens, both in our housely tidderings and in those in a onlay of ikind, of all sorts of undersheds of upbuild which have become togetherakinned tosomel eldths, and to either akenbodyworkthsplit. We have undersheds togetherakinned not only to one akenbodyworkthsplit, but to that short timedeal alone when the edtidderly setlay is dofast, as in the nuptial feathers of many birds, and in the hooked jaws of the seedlifer salmon. We have even slight undersheds in the horns of undershedsome breeds of orf in maithred to an saremadely unfullcome onlay of the seedlifer akenbodyworkthsplit; for oxen of somel breeds have longer horns than in other breeds, in withmeting with the horns of the bulls or cows of these same breeds. Hence i can see no real arveth in any suchness having become togetherakinned with the unwassombearing hode of somel members of bug-imeanships: the arveth lies in understanding how such togetherakinned awendings of upbuild could have been slowly upheaped by ikindsome choosing. This arveth, though showing up unovercomebere, is lessened, or, as i believe, swinds, when it is muned that choosing may be belaid to the huered, as well as to the untodealel, and may thus gain the frickled end. Thus, a well-flavoured vegetable is cooked, and the untodealel is fordone; but the cropcrafter sows seeds of the same stock, and belieffastly bewaits to [bookleaf] 238 inborndrive. Chap. Vii. Get nearly the same isunder; breeders of orf wish the flesh and fat to be well marbled together; the wight has been slaughtered, but the breeder goes with belieffastness to the same huered. I have such faith in the wolds of choosing, that i do not twight that a breed of orf, always yielding oxen with orwoneliness long horns, could be slowly ashaped by carefully watching which untodealel bulls and cows, when matched, tiddered oxen with the longest horns; and yet no one ox could ever have forspread its kind. Thus i believe it has been with folkshiply bugs: a slight awending of upbuild, or inborndrive, togetherakinned with the unwassombearing hode of somel members of the imeanship, has been foredealful to the imeanship: infollowingly the tudderfast seedlifers and birthlifers of the same imeanship flourished, and yondstelled to their tudderfast offspring a niging to tidder unwassombearing members having the same awending. And i believe that this forthhappen has been edledged, until that highmichel muchth of undershed between the tudderfast and unwassombearing birthlifers of the same wightkin has been tiddered, which we see in many folkshiply bugs. But we have not as yet rinen on the peak of the arveth; namely, the deedsake that the wanmingebodyworkthwights of manysome ants andsame, not only from the tudderfast birthlifers and seedlifers, but from each other, sometimes to an almost unbelievebere andstep, and are thus todealt into two or even three castes. The castes, moreover, do not allmeanly bestep into each other, but are fullcomely well bebound; being as toshed from each other, as are any two wightkin of the same wightkind, or rather as any two wightkinds of the same huered. Thus in eciton, there are working and soldier wanmingebodyworkthwights, with jaws and inborndrives orwoneliness undershedsome: in cryptocerus, the workers of one caste alone bear a wonderful sort of shield on their heads, the use of which is quite unknown: in the mexican myrme- [bookleaf] 239 chap. Vii. Wanmingebodyworkthwight bugs. Cocystus, the workers of one caste never leave the nest; they are fed by the workers of another caste, and they have an aldermichelly andwound gutroom which secretes a sort of honey, bestocking thestead of that forouted by the aphides, or the housely orf as they may be called, which our european ants guard or imprison. It will indeed be thought that i have an overweening belieffastness in the thoughsetlay of ikindsome choosing, when i do not throughgive that such wonderful and well-statheled deedsakes at once annihilate my thoughtlay. In the more onelay happenlay of wanmingebodyworkthwight bugs all of one caste or of the same kind, which have been made by ikindsome choosing, as i believe to be quite acomingly, undershedsome from the tudderfast seedlifers and birthlifers,—in this case, we may safely ashut from the samerun of wonely sundrinesss, that each afterfollowly, slight, notesome awending did not likely at first show up in all the untodealel wanmingebodyworkthwights in the same nest, but in a few alone; and that by the long-throughstood choosing of the tudderfast akennends which tiddered most wanmingebodyworkthwights with the notesome awending, all the wanmingebodyworkthwights endfastly came to have the frickled suchness. On this onsight we ought otherwhile to find wanmingebodyworkthwight-bugs of the same wightkin, in the same nest, andwarding steplings of upbuild; and this we do find, even often, hidging how few wanmingebodyworkthwight-bugs out of europe have been carefully undersought. Mr. F. Smith has shown how overnimmingly the wanmingebodyworkthwights of manysome british ants andsame from each other in size and sometimes in colour; and that the outest forms can sometimes be fullcomely linked together by untodealels taken out of the same nest: i have myself withmeted fullcome steplings of this kind. It often happens that the michelr or the smaller sized workers are the most rimeful; or that both michel and small are rimeful, with those of an betweenly size scanty in rimes. Formica flava has michelr and [bookleaf] 240 inborndrive. Chap. Vii. Smaller workers, with some of betweenly size; and, in this wightkin, as mr. F. Smith has behowed, the michelr workers have onelay eyes (obodyworkhouselingi), which though small can be plainly toshed, whereas the smaller workers have their obodyworkhouselingi leftlingish. Having carefully tosplit manysome neeslings of these workers, i can affirm that the eyes are far more leftlingish in the smaller workers than can be arimed for merely by their ondealy lesser size; and i fully believe, though i dare not forthstomp so positively, that the workers of betweenly size have their obodyworkhouselingi in an weetilly betweenly hode. So that we here have two bodies of unwassombearing workers in the same nest, andsaming not only in size, but in their bodyworkths of sight, yet belinked by some few members in an betweenly hode. I may tostep by ateaking, that if the smaller workers had been the most nitworth to the imeanship, and those seedlifers and birthlifers had been throughstandingly chosen, which tiddered more and more of the smaller workers, until all the workers had come to be in this hode; we should then have had a wightkin of ant with wanmingebodyworkthwights very nearly in the same hode with those of myrmica. For the workers of myrmica have not even leftlings of obodyworkhouselingi, though the seedlifer and birthlifer ants of this wightkind have well-andwound obodyworkhouselingi. I may give one other case: so belieffastly did i bewait to find steplings in weighty ords of upbuild between the undershedsome castes of wanmingebodyworkthwights in the same wightkin, that i gladly took mr. F. Smith's offer of rimeful neeslings from the same nest of the dea ant (anomma) of west africa. The reader will forhaps best beworth the muchth of undershed in these workers, by my giving not the soothly ameteings, but a strictly accurimespeed onlight: the undershed was the same as if we were to see a set of workmen building [bookleaf] 241 chap. Vii. Wanmingebodyworkthwight bugs. A house of whom many were five feet four inches high, and many sixteen feet high; but we must understell that the michelr workmen had heads four instead of three times as big as those of the smaller men, and jaws nearly five times as big. The jaws, moreover, of the working ants of the manysome sizes andsamed wonderfully in shape, and in the form and rime of the teeth. But the weighty deedsake for us is, that though the workers can be maithed into castes of undershedsome sizes, yet they bestep unspoorberely into each other, as does the widely-undershedsome upbuild of their jaws. I speak belieffastly on this latter ord, as mr. Lubbock made drawings for me with the camera lucida of the jaws which i had tosplit from the workers of the manysome sizes. With these deedsakes before me, i believe that ikindsome choosing, by bedoing on the tudderfast akennends, could form a wightkin which should woneshapefastnessly tidder wanmingebodyworkthwights, either all of michel size with one form of jaw, or all of small size with jaws having a widely undershedsome upbuild; or lastly, and this is our peak of arveth, one set of workers of one size and upbuild, and sametimely another set of workers of an undershedsome size and upbuild;—a bestepped followth having been first ashaped, as in the case of the dea ant, and then the outest forms, from being the most nitworth to the imeanship, having been tiddered in greater and greater rimes through the ikindsome choosing of the akennends which wightkindsted them; until none with an betweenly upbuild were tiddered. Thus, as i believe, the wonderful deedsake of two toshedly bebound castes of unwassombearing workers wesening in the same nest, both widely undershedsome from each other and from their akennends, has outstemmed. We can see how nitworth their tiddering may have been to a folkshiply imeanship of bugs, on the same thoughsetlay that the idole of M [bookleaf] 242 inborndrive. Chap. Vii. Labour is nitworth to couthened man. As ants work by erved inborndrives and by erved tools or weapons, and not by underfanged knowledge and manudeedsakeured thorlings, a fullcome idole of labour could be onworked with them only by the workers being unwassombearing; for had they been tudderfast, they would have betwixtrooded, and their inborndrives and upbuild would have become blended. And ikind has, as i believe, onworked this bewonderbere idole of labour in the communities of ants, by the means of ikindsome choosing. But i am bound to andet, that, with all my faith in this thoughsetlay, i should never have forefollowed that ikindsome choosing could have been onworkful in so high a andstep, had not the happenlay of these wanmingebodyworkthwight bugs overtold me of the deedsake. I have, therefore, imbspoken this happenlay, at some little but wholly unenoughsome length, in order to show the wold of ikindsome choosing, and likewise forwhy this is by far the most serious sunderful arveth, which my thoughtlay has enwithed. The happenlay, also, is very interesting, as it afands that with wights, as with plants, any muchth of awending in upbuild can be onworked by the upheaping of rimeful, slight, and as we must call them misfallsome, sundrinesss, which are in any way notesome, without adrill or wone having come into play. For no muchth of adrill, or wone, or will, in the utterly unwassombearing members of a imeanship could acomingly have onworked the upbuild or inborndrives of the tudderfast members, which alone leavenetherastiends. I am overnome that no one has advanced this ashowsome happenlay of wanmingebodyworkthwight bugs, against the well-known alderbeliefword of lamarck. Summary.—i have bestriven briefly in this bookdeal to show that the mindly suchnesses of our housely wights forsunder, and that the sundrinesss are erved. Still more briefly i have costened to show that inborndrives [bookleaf] 243 chap. Vii. Summary. Forsunder slightly in a state of ikind. No one will flite that inborndrives are of the highest weightiness to each wight. Therefore i can see no arveth, under awending hodes of life, in ikindsome choosing beheaping slight awendings of inborndrive to any scope, in any nitworth stighting. In some happenlays wone or use and andnote have likely come into play. I do not belike that the deedsakes given in this bookdeal strengthen in any great andstep my thoughtlay; but none of the happenlays of arveth, to the best of my deeming, annihilate it. On the other hand, the deedsake that inborndrives are not always fullthroughly fullcome and are atiely to mistakes;—that no inborndrive has been tiddered for the outshutly good of other wights, but that each wight takes foredeal of the inborndrives of others;—that the lawlay in ikindsome yorelore, of "ikind does not make jumps" is belaybere to inborndrives as well as to bodily upbuild, and is plainly aclearbere on the foregoing onsights, but is otherwise unaclearbere,—all nige to trumen the thoughtlay of ikindsome choosing. This thoughtlay is, also, strengthened by some few other deedsakes in sight to inborndrives; as by that imean case of closely alinked, but iwis toshed, wightkin, when inwoning farfast deals of the world and living under hidgeberely undershedsome hodes of life, yet often bekeeping nearly the same inborndrives. For bisen, we can understand on the thoughsetlay of erve, how it is that the thrush of south america lines its nest with mud, in the same odd way as does our british thrush: how it is that the seedlifer wrens (troglodytes) of north america, build "cock-nests," to roost in, like the seedlifers of our toshed kitty-wrens,—a wone wholly unlike that of any other known bird. Endly, it may not be a logical deduction, but to my hyeshow it is far more befrithsome to look at such inborndrives as the young M 2 [bookleaf] 244 inborndrive. Chap. Vii. Cuckoo ejecting its foster-brothers,—ants making easons,—the forebugs of fourskinlingwingedforebugdweller feeding within the live bodies of forebutterflies,—not as asunderfastly ingifted or beshaped inborndrives, but as small afterfollows of one allmeanly law, leading to the forthgoing of all lifesome beings, namely, manyen, forsunder, let the strongest live and the weakest die. [bookleaf] 245 chap. Viii. Twibloodtudderism. Bookdeal viii. Twibloodtudderness Ished between the unwassombearingness of first roods and of twibloodtudders — unwassombearingness sundry in andstep, not allhomely, onworked by close betwixtbreeding, removed by housening — laws awielding the unwassombearingness of twibloodtudders — unwassombearingness not a sunderful ingift, but infallish on other undersheds — bewhys of the unwassombearingness of first roods and of twibloodtudders — evenlongdom between the onworkings of awended hodes of life and rooding — fertility of isunders when rooded and of their mongrel offspring not allhomely — twibloodtudders and mongrels withmeted unoffhangingly of their tudderfastness — summary. The onsight allmeanly betweenheld by ikindlorers is that wightkin, when betwixtrooded, have been asunderfastly ingifted with the suchness of unwassombearingness, in order to forecome the confusion of all lifesome forms. This onsightsomelly seems at first likely, for wightkin within the same landred could hardly have kept toshed had they been canfast of rooding freely. The weightiness of the deedsake that twibloodtudders are very allmeanly unwassombearing, has, i think, been much underrated by some late writers. On the thoughtlay of ikindsome choosing the happenlay is besunders weighty, inasmuch as the unwassombearingness of twibloodtudders could not acomingly be of any foredeal to them, and therefore could not have been underfanged by the throughstood asparing of afterfollowly notesome andsteps of unwassombearingness. I hope, however, to be able to show that unwassombearingness is not a asunderfastly underfanged or ingifted suchness, but is infallish on other underfanged undersheds. In treating this underthrow, two ilks of deedsakes, to a michel scope groundsetly undershedsome, have allmeanlyly been fordwilmed together; namely, the unwassombearingness of two [bookleaf] 246 twibloodtudderism. Chap. Viii. Wightkin when first rooded, and the unwassombearingness of the twibloodtudders tiddered from them. Pure wightkin have iwis their bodyworkths of edtiddering in a fullcome hode, yet when betwixtrooded they tidder either few or no offspring. Twibloodtudders, on the other hand, have their edtidderly bodyworkths workhoodally strengthless, as may be clearly seen in the onlay of the seedlifer firststuff in both plants and wights; though the bodyworkths themselves are fullcome in upbuild, as far as the smallseer swettles. In the first happenlay the two mingefast firststuffs which go to form the forebirthling are fullcome; in the twoth happenlay they are either not at all andwound, or are unfullcomely andwound. This ished is weighty, when the bewhy of the unwassombearingness, which is imean to the two happenlays, has to be hidged. The ished has likely been slurred over, owing to the unwassombearingness in both happenlays being looked on as a sunderful ingift, beyond the selfwieldlandidole of our thinkcrafting wolds. The tudderfastness of isunders, that is of the forms known or believed to have netherastien from imean akennends, when betwixtrooded, and likewise the tudderfastness of their mongrel offspring, is, on my thoughtlay, of evenworth importance with the unwassombearingness of wightkin; for it seems to make a broad and clear ished between isunders and wightkin. First, for the unwassombearingness of wightkin when rooded and of their twibloodtudder offspring. It is unacomingly to throughlore the manysome minwrits and works of those two warely and bewonderbere behowers, kölreuter and gärtner, who almost thitherlaid their lives to this underthrow, without being deeply inthrung with the high allmeanlyness of some andstep of unwassombearingness. Kölreuter makes the rule allhomely; but then he cuts the knot, for in ten cases in which he found two forms, hidged by most writmakers as toshed wightkin, quite tudderfast together, he [bookleaf] 247 chap. Viii. Unwassombearingness. Unpullbackingly ranks them as isunders. Gärtner, also, makes the rule evenworthly allhomely; and he flites the whole tudderfastness of kölreuter's ten happenlays. But in these and in many other happenlays, gärtner is obliged carefully to count the seeds, in order to show that there is any andstep of unwassombearingness. He always withmetes the aldermost rime of seeds tiddered by two wightkin when rooded and by their twibloodtudder offspring, with the throughsnithe rime tiddered by both siver akennend-wightkin in a onlay of ikind. But a serious bewhy of dwild seems to me to be here inlead: a plant to be twibloodtudderised must be gelded, and, what is often more weighty, must be toshut in order to forecome bloomdust being brought to it by bugs from other plants. Nearly all the plants fanded on by gärtner were potted, and opensightly were kept in a chamber in his house. That these forthhappenes are often demsome to the tudderfastness of a plant cannot be twighted; for gärtner gives in his table about a score of happenlays of plants which he gelded, and saremadely tudderfast-ened with their own bloomdust, and (outshutting all happenlays such as the beanwights, in which there is an acknowledged arveth in the forhanding) half of these twenty plants had their tudderfastness in some andstep bewanned. Moreover, as gärtner during manysome years edledgedly rooded the firstrose and cowslip, which we have such good thinkcraft to believe to be isunders, and only once or twice spowed in getting tudderfast seed; as he found the imean red and blue pimpernels (imbworldoffhangybloomopenwort fieldwort and darkbluewort), which the best wortlorers rank as isunders, fullthroughly unwassombearing together; and as he came to the same beshut in manysome other samerunsome happenlays; it seems to me that we may well be thaved to twight whether many other wightkin are really so unwassombearing, when betwixtrooded, as gärtner believes. [bookleaf] 248 twibloodtudderism. Chap. Viii. It is fullknown, on the one hand, that the unwassombearingness of sundry wightkin when rooded is so undershedsome in andstep and besteps away so unspoorberely, and, on the other hand, that the tudderfastness of siver wightkin is so easily onworked by sundry imbstands, that for all prbedoical sakes it is most arvethfast to say where fullcome tudderfastness ends and unwassombearingness begins. I think no better outshow of this can be tharfed than that the two most outfanded behowers who have ever lived, namely, kölreuter and gärtner, should have tocome at fullthroughly witherrights ashuts in sight to the very same wightkin. It is also most underrighting to withmete—but i have not roomhood here to enter on atcuts—the outshow advanced by our best wortlorers on the fraign whether somel twightful forms should be ranked as wightkin or isunders, with the outshow from tudderfastness throughorded by undearshedsome twibloodtudderers, or by the same writmaker, from fands made during undershedsome years. It can thus be shown that neither unwassombearingness nor tudderfastness affords any clear ished between wightkin and isunders; but that the outshow from this outspring besteps away, and is twightful in the same andstep as is the outshow offstreamed from other setnessly and upbuildly undersheds. In sight to the unwassombearingness of twibloodtudders in afterfollowly strinds; though gärtner was bemayened to rear some twibloodtudders, carefully guarding them from a rood with either siver akennend, for six or seven, and in one happenlay for ten strinds, yet he forthstomps positively that their tudderfastness never eaked, but allmeanly greatly andgrew. I do not twight that this is wonely the happenlay, and that the tudderfastness often suddenly lowers in the first few strinds. Nevertheless i believe that in all these fands the tudderfastness has been aquinen by an unoffhanging bewhy, namely, from close betwixtbreeding. I have gathered so michel a body of deedsakes, showing [bookleaf] 249 chap. Viii. Unwassombearingness. That close betwixtbreeding lessens tudderfastness, and, on the other hand, that an otherwhile rood with a toshed untodealel or isunder eaks tudderfastness, that i cannot twight the rightsomeness of this almost allhomely belief amongst breeders. Twibloodtudders are seldom raised by fandsomends in great rimes; and as the akennend-wightkin, or other alinked twibloodtudders, allmeanly grow in the same garden, the neases of bugs must be carefully forecame during the bloomworting yeartide: hence twibloodtudders will allmeanly be tudderfast-ened during each strind by their own untodealel bloomdust; and i am overtold that this would be demsome to their tudderfastness, already lessened by their twibloodtudder fromth. I am strengthened in this belief by a edmarkbere quid edledgedly made by gärtner, namely, that if even the less tudderfast twibloodtudders be saremadely tudderfast-ened with twibloodtudder bloomdust of the same kind, their tudderfastness, notwithstanding the loom ill onworkings of forhanding, sometimes beshutly eaks, and goes on eaking. Now, in saremadely tudderfast-ening bloomdust is as often taken by whate (as i know from my own outfand) from the bloomdustbags of another bloomwort, as from the bloomdustbags of the bloomwort itself which is to be tudderfast-ened; so that a rood between two bloomworts, though likely on the same plant, would be thus onworked. Moreover, whenever complicated fands are in forthstride, so careful an behower as gärtner would have gelded his twibloodtudders, and this would have insured in each strind a rood with the bloomdust from a toshed bloomwort, either from the same plant or from another plant of the same twibloodtudder ikind. And thus, the selcouth deedsake of the eak of tudderfastness in the afterfollowly strinds of saremadely tudderfast-ened twibloodtudders may, i believe, be arimed for by close betwixtbreeding having been forbowed. Now let us turn to the outfollows tocome at by the third most outfanded twibloodtudderer, namely, the hon. And M 3 [bookleaf] 250 twibloodtudderism. Chap. Viii. Rev. W. Herbert. He is as emphatic in his ashut that some twibloodtudders are fullcomely tudderfast—as tudderfast as the siver akennend-wightkin—as are kölreuter and gärtner that some andstep of unwassombearingness between toshed wightkin is a allhomely law of ikind. He fanded on some of the very same wightkin as did gärtner. The undershed in their outfollows may, i think, be in deal arimed for by herbert's great cropcraftsome skill, and by his having hothouses at his command. Of his many weighty quids i will here give only a onele one as an bisen, namely, that "every foreseed in a pod of headlongwarmlilly tudderfast-ened by c. Revolutum tiddered a plant, which (he says) i never saw to betide in a happenlay of its ikindsome fecundation." so that we here have fullcome, or even more than imeanly fullcome, tudderfastness in a first rood between two toshed wightkin. This happenlay of the crinum leads me to bepull to a most sunderfast deedsake, namely, that there are untodealel plants, as withsomel wightkin of lobelia, and with all the wightkin of the wightkind knighttunglewort, which can be far more easily tudderfast-ened by the bloomdust of another and toshed wightkin, than by their own bloomdust. For these plants have been found to yield seed to the bloomdust of a toshed wightkin, though quite unwassombearing with their own bloomdust, notwithstanding that their own bloomdust was found to be fullcomely good, for it tudderfast-ened toshed wightkin. So that somel untodealel plants and all the untodealels of somel wightkin can soothly be twibloodtudderised much more readily than they can be self-tudderfast-ened! For bisen, a bulb of knighttunglewort aulicum tiddered four bloomworts; three were tudderfast-ened by herbert with their own bloomdust, and the fourth was underfollowingly tudderfast-ened by the bloomdust of a getherened twibloodtudder netherastiend from three other and toshed wightkin: the outfollow was that "the eggbearlings of the three first bloomworts soon blan to grow, and after a [bookleaf] 251 chap. Viii. Unwassombearingness. Few days swalt wholely, whereas the pod inforebirthened by the bloomdust of the twibloodtudder made lifethrithsome growth and quick forthstride to full-grownness, and bore good seed, which vegetated freely." in a letter to me, in 1839, mr. Herbert told me that he had then tried the fand during five years, and he throughstood to try it during manysome underfollowing years, and always with the same outfollow. This outfollow has, also, been atrumed by other behowers in the happenlay of knighttunglewort with its under-wightkinds, and in the happenlay of some other wightkinds, as lobelia, passiwortmaith and verbascum. Although the plants in these fands thenched fullcomely healthy, and although both the foreseeds and bloomdust of the same bloomwort were fullcomely good with edsight to other wightkin, yet as they were workhoodally unfullcome in their two-way self-deedship, we must offlead that the plants were in an unikindsome onlay. Nevertheless these deedsakes show on what slight and rownfast bewhys the lesser or greater tudderfastness of wightkin when rooded, in withmeting with the same wightkin when self-tudderfast-ened, sometimes offhangs. The prbedoical fands of cropcrafters, though not made with ikindwitshiply targeockfastness, andtheen some bemark. It is couthfast in how complicated a way the wightkin of storkbillseedvatwort, fuchsia, slipperwort, offwrixlewort, bellshapedbloomevergreen, &c., have been rooded, yet many of these twibloodtudders seed freely. For bisen, herbert forthstomps that a twibloodtudder from slipperwort clusterbloom and plantaginea, wightkin most widely disalike in allmeanly wone, "edtiddered itself as fullcomely as if it had been a ikindsome wightkin from the barrows of chile." i have taken some pains to foriwis the andstep of tudderfastness of some of the throughtangly roods of bellshapedbloomevergreens, and i am assured that many of them are fullcomely tudderfast. Mr. C. Athel, for bisen, inkens me that he raises stocks for grafting from a twibloodtudder [bookleaf] 252 twibloodtudderism. Chap. Viii. Between rhod. Ponticum and catawbiense, and that this twibloodtudder "seeds as freely as it is acomingly to hyeshow." had twibloodtudders, when fairly treated, gone on andgrowing in tudderfastness in each afterfollowly strind, as gärtner believes to be the happenlay, the deedsake would have been couthfast to nurserymen. Horticulturists raise michel beds of the same twibloodtudders, and such alone are fairly treated, for by bug deedcraft the manysome untodealels of the same twibloodtudder isunder are allowed to freely rood with each other, and the demsome inflowmayen of close betwixtbreeding is thus forecame. Any one may readily overtell himself of the onworkfastness of bug-deedcraft by underseeking the bloomworts of the more unwassombearing kinds of twibloodtudder bellshapedbloomevergreens, which tidder no bloomdust, for he will find on their bloomdustthechers plenty of bloomdust brought from other bloomworts. In sight to wights, much fewer fands have been carefully tried than with plants. If our setlayly dightings can be trusted, that is if the wightkinds of wights are as toshed from each other, as are the wightkinds of plants, then we may offlead that wights more widely totweemed in the scale of ikind can be more easily rooded than in the happenlay of plants; but the twibloodtudders themselves are, i think, more unwassombearing. I twight whether any happenlay of a fullcomely tudderfast twibloodtudder wight can be hidged as thoroughly well truened. It should, however, be borne in mind that, owing to few wights breeding freely under benarrowenedness, few fands have been fairly tried: for bisen, the yellowfinch-bird has been rooded with nine other finches, but as not one of these nine wightkin breeds freely in benarrowenedness, we have no right to bewait that the first roods between them and the yellowfinch, or that their twibloodtudders, should be fullcomely tudderfast. Again, with edsight to the tudderfastness in afterfollowly strinds of the more tudderfast [bookleaf] 253 chap. Viii. Unwassombearingness. Twibloodtudder wights, i hardly know of a bisen in which two huereds of the same twibloodtudder have been raised at the same time from undershedsome akennends, so as to forbow the ill onworkings of close betwixtbreeding. On the againstwise, brothers and sisters have wonely been rooded in each afterfollowly strind, in withersetness to the standily edledged admonition of every breeder. And in this happenlay, it is not at all overnimming that the inborn unwassombearingness in the twibloodtudders should have gone on eaking. If we were to bedo thus, and pair brothers and sisters in the happenlay of any siver wight, which from any bewhy had the least niging to unwassombearingness, the breed would assuredly be lost in a very few strinds. Although i do not know of any thoroughly well-truened happenlays of fullcomely tudderfast twibloodtudder wights, i have some thinkcraft to believe that the twibloodtudders from cervulus vaginalis and reevesii, and from phasianus colchicus with p. Torquatus and with p. Versicolor are fullcomely tudderfast. The twibloodtudders from the imean and chinese geese (a. Cygnoides), wightkin which are so undershedsome that they are allmeanly ranked in toshed wightkinds, have often bred in this landred with either siver akennend, and in one onele bisen they have bred among themselves. This was onworked by mr. Eyton, who raised two twibloodtudders from the same akennends but from undershedsome hatches; and from these two birds he raised no less than eight twibloodtudders (michelchildren of the siver geese) from one nest. In india, however, these rood-bred geese must be far more tudderfast; for i am assured by two highoutlyly canfast deemends, namely mr. Blyth and capt. Hutton, that whole flocks of these rooded geese are kept in sundry deals of the landred; and as they are kept for beforth, where neither siver akennend-wightkin wesens, they must iwis be highly tudderfast. An alderbeliefword which outstemmed with pallas, has been [bookleaf] 254 twibloodtudderism. Chap. Viii. Michelly anome by now-time ikindlorers; namely, that most of our housely wights have netherastien from two or more fromthfast wightkin, since togethermingled by betwixtrooding. On this onsight, the fromthfast wightkin must either at first have tiddered quite tudderfast twibloodtudders, or the twibloodtudders must have become in underfollowing strinds quite tudderfast under housening. This latter otherling seems to me the most likely, and i am bighfast to believe in its truth, although it rests on no straightfast outshow. I believe, for bisen, that our dogs have netherastien from manysome wild stocks; yet, with forhaps the outtake of somel inlandish housely dogs of south america, all are quite tudderfast together; and samerun makes me greatly twight, whether the manysome fromthfast wightkin would at first have freely bred together and have tiddered quite tudderfast twibloodtudders. So again there is thinkcraft to believe that our european and the humped indian orf are quite tudderfast together; but from deedsakes betwixtrorded to me by mr. Blyth, i think they must be hidged as toshed wightkin. On this onsight of the fromth of many of our housely wights, we must either give up the belief of the almost allhomely unwassombearingness of toshed wightkin of wights when rooded; or we must look at unwassombearingness, not as an unoutstampbere suchness, but as one canfast of being removed by housening. Endly, looking to all the foriwised deedsakes on the betwixtrooding of plants and wights, it may be ashut that some andstep of unwassombearingness, both in first roods and in twibloodtudders, is an outestly allmeanly outfollow; but that it cannot, under our andward onlay of knowledge, be hidged as fullthroughly allhomely. Laws awielding the unwassombearingness of first crosses and of twibloodtudders.—we will now hidge a little more in atcut the [bookleaf] 255 chap. Viii. Laws of unwassombearingness. Imbstands and rules awielding the unwassombearingness of first roods and of twibloodtudders. Our chief towardsthing will be to see whether or not the rules inquid that wightkin have asunderfastly been ingifted with this quality, in order to forecome their rooding and blending together in utter confusion. The following rules and ashuts are chiefly drawn up from gärtner's bewonderbere work on the twibloodtuddering of plants. I have taken much pains to foriwis how far the rules belay to wights, and hidging how scanty our knowledge is in sight to twibloodtudder wights, i have been overnome to find how allmeanly the same rules belay to both kingdoms. It has been already edmarked, that the andstep of tudderfastness, both of first roods and of twibloodtudders, besteps from zero to fullcome tudderfastness. It is overnimming in how many frimdy ways this stepling can be shown to wesen; but only the barest outline of the deedsakes can here be given. When bloomdust from a plant of one huered is stelled on the bloomdustthecher of a plant of a toshed huered, it exerts no more inflowmayen than so much inlifefast dust. From this fullthrough zero of tudderfastness, the bloomdust of undershedsome wightkin of the same wightkind belaid to the bloomdustthecher of some one wightkin, yields a fullcome stepling in the rime of seeds tiddered, up to nearly fullwork or even quite fullwork tudderfastness; and, as we have seen, in somel uneverywhenhapfast happenlays, even to an overmuch of tudderfastness, beyond that which the plant's own bloomdust will tidder. So in twibloodtudders themselves, there are some which never have tiddered, and likely never would tidder, even with the bloomdust of either siver akennend, a onele tudderfast seed: but in some of these happenlays a first trace of tudderfastness may be arepped, by the bloomdust of one of the siver akennend-wightkin bewhying the bloomwort of the twibloodtudder to wither earlier than it otherwise would have done; and the early withering of the bloomwort is well known to be a sign [bookleaf] 256 twibloodtudderism. Chap. Viii. Of beginsome fertilisation. From this outest andstep of unwassombearingness we have self-tudderfast-ened twibloodtudders tiddering a greater and greater rime of seeds up to fullcome tudderfastness. Twibloodtudders from two wightkin which are very arvethfast to rood, and which seldom tidder any offspring, are allmeanly very unwassombearing; but the evenlongdom between the arveth of making a first rood, and the unwassombearingness of the twibloodtudders thus tiddered—two ilks of deedsakes which are allmeanly fordwilmed together—is by no means strict. There are many happenlays, in which two siver wightkin can be beoned with unwonely eathyness, and tidder rimeful twibloodtudder-offspring, yet these twibloodtudders are edmarkberely unwassombearing. On the other hand, there are wightkin which can be rooded very seldom, or with outest arveth, but the twibloodtudders, when at last tiddered, are very tudderfast. Even within the underties of the same wightkind, for bisen in dianthus, these two witherrights happenlays betide. The tudderfastness, both of first roods and of twibloodtudders, is more easily onworked by unrithbere hodes, than is the tudderfastness of siver wightkin. But the andstep of tudderfastness is likewise inbornly sunderly; for it is not always the same when the same two wightkin are rooded under the same imbstands, but offhangs in deal upon the setness of the untodealels which happen to have been chosen for the fand. So it is with twibloodtudders, for their andstep of tudderfastness is often found to andsame greatly in the manysome untodealels raised from seed out of the same inholdock and outset to weetilly the same hodes. By the term setlayly sibred is meant, the look-alikeness between wightkin in upbuild and in setness, more besunders in the upbuild of deals which are of high bodylorely weightiness and which andsame little in the alinked wightkin. Now the tudderfastness of first roods [bookleaf] 257 chap. Viii. Laws of unwassombearingness. Between wightkin, and of the twibloodtudders tiddered from them, is michelly awielded by their setlayly sibred. This is clearly shown by twibloodtudders never having been raised between wightkin ranked by setlaylorers in toshed huereds; and on the other hand, by very closely alinked wightkin allmeanly uniting with eathyness. But the togetheranswering between setlayly sibred and the eathyness of rooding is by no means strict. A dright of happenlays could be given of very closely alinked wightkin which will not beone, or only with outest arveth; and on the other hand of very toshed wightkin which beone with the utmost eathyness. In the same huered there may be a wightkind, as dianthus, in which very many wightkin can most readily be rooded; and another wightkind, as silene, in which the most persevering forththriths have failed to tidder between outestly close wightkin a onele twibloodtudder. Even within the underties of the same wightkind, we meet with this same undershed; for bisen, the many wightkin of nightshademaithworts have been more michelly rooded than the wightkin of almost any other wightkind; but gärtner found that n. Acuminata, which is not a dealocksomely toshed wightkin, stubbornly failed to tudderfast-en, or to be tudderfast-ened by, no less than eight other wightkin of nightshademaithworts. Very many samerunsome deedsakes could be given. No one has been able to ord out what kind, or what muchth, of undershed in any edknowbere suchness is enoughsome to forecome two wightkin rooding. It can be shown that plants most widely undershedsome in wone and allmeanly upshowing, and having strongly marked undersheds in every deal of the bloomwort, even in the bloomdust, in the ovet, and in the firstleafs, can be rooded. Yearly and perennial plants, leafdropping and evergreen trees, plants inwoning undershedsome standsteads and fitted for outestly undershedsome loftlays, can often be rooded with ease. [bookleaf] 258 twibloodtudderism. Chap. Viii. By a reciprocal rood between two wightkin, i mean the happenlay, for bisen, of a stallion-horse being first rooded with a birthlifer-ass, and then a seedlifer-ass with a mare: these two wightkin may then be said to have been reciprocally rooded. There is often the widest acomingly undershed in the eathyness of making reciprocal roods. Such happenlays are highly weighty, for they afand that the canmayen in any two wightkin to rood is often fullthroughly unoffhanging of their setlayly sibred, or of any edknowbere undershed in their whole dight. On the other hand, these happenlays clearly show that the canmayen for rooding is belinked with setnessly undersheds unongetbere by us, and benarrowened to the edtidderly setlay. This undershed in the outfollow of reciprocal roods between the same two wightkin was long ago behowed by kölreuter. To give a bisen: mirabilis jalappa can easily be tudderfast-ened by the bloomdust of m. Longiwortmaith, and the twibloodtudders thus tiddered are enoughsomely tudderfast; but kölreuter tried more than two hundred times, during eight following years, to tudderfast-en reciprocally m. Longiwortmaith with the bloomdust of m. Jalappa, and utterly failed. Manysome other evenworthly striking happenlays could be given. Thuret has behowed the same deedsake withsomel sea-weeds or fuci. Gärtner, moreover, found that this undershed of eathyness in making reciprocal roods is outestly imean in a lesser andstep. He has behowed it even between forms so closely akinned (as matthiola annua and glabra) that many wortlorers rank them only as isunders. It is also a edmarkbere deedsake, that twibloodtudders raised from reciprocal roods, though iwis getherened of the very same two wightkin, the one wightkin having first been used as the father and then as the mother, allmeanly andsame in tudderfastness in a small, and otherwhile in a high andstep. Manysome other sunderfast rules could be given from [bookleaf] 259 chap. Viii. Laws of unwassombearingness. Gärtner: for bisen, some wightkin have a edmarkbere wold of rooding with other wightkin; other wightkin of the same wightkind have a edmarkbere wold of inthringing their likeness on their twibloodtudder offspring; but these two wolds do not at all needbehovely go together. There are somel twibloodtudders which instead of having, as is wonely, an betweenly suchness between their two akennends, always closely onlike one of them; and such twibloodtudders, though outly so like one of their siver akennend-wightkin, are with seldly outtakes outestly unwassombearing. So again amongst twibloodtudders which are wonely betweenly in upbuild between their akennends, outtakely and uneverywhenhapfast untodealels sometimes are born, which closely onlike one of their siver akennends; and these twibloodtudders are almost always utterly unwassombearing, even when the other twibloodtudders raised from seed from the same inholdock have a hidgebere andstep of tudderfastness. These deedsakes show how fullthroughly tudderfastness in the twibloodtudder is unoffhanging of its outly look-alikeness to either siver akennend. Hidging the manysome rules now given, which awield the tudderfastness of first roods and of twibloodtudders, we see that when forms, which must be hidged as good and toshed wightkin, are beoned, their tudderfastness besteps from zero to fullcome tudderfastness, or even to tudderfastness undersomel hodes in overmuch. That their tudderfastness, besides being highoutlyly opentakely to rithbere and unrithbere hodes, is inbornly sunderly. That it is by no means always the same in andstep in the first rood and in the twibloodtudders tiddered from this rood. That the tudderfastness of twibloodtudders is not akinned to the andstep in which they onlike in outly upshowing either akennend. And lastly, that the eathyness of making a first rood between any two wightkin is not always awielded by their setlayly sibred or [bookleaf] 260 twibloodtudderism, chap. Viii. Andstep of look-alikeness to each other. This latter quid is clearly afanded by reciprocal roods between the same two wightkin, for according as the one wightkin or the other is used as the father or the mother, there is allmeanly some undershed, and otherwhile the widest acomingly undershed, in the eathyness of onworkinging an onehood. The twibloodtudders, moreover, tiddered from reciprocal roods often andsame in tudderfastness. Now do these throughtangly and sunderfast rules inquid that wightkin have been ingifted with unwassombearingness sinfold to forecome their becoming fordwilmed in ikind? I think not. For why should the unwassombearingness be so outestly undershedsome in andstep, when sundry wightkin are rooded, all of which we must understell it would be evenworthly weighty to keep from blending together? Why should the andstep of unwassombearingness be inbornly sunderly in the untodealels of the same wightkin? Why should some wightkin rood with eathyness, and yet tidder very unwassombearing twibloodtudders; and other wightkin rood with outest arveth, and yet tidder fairly tudderfast twibloodtudders? Why should there often be so great an undershed in the outfollow of a reciprocal rood between the same two wightkin? Why, it may even be asked, has the tiddering of twibloodtudders been thaved? To grant to wightkin the sunderful wold of tiddering twibloodtudders, and then to stop their further propagation by undershedsome andsteps of unwassombearingness, not strictly akinned to the eathyness of the first onehood between their akennends, seems to be a selcouth dighting. The foregoing rules and deedsakes, on the other hand, seemf to me clearly to inquid that the unwassombearingness both of first roods and of twibloodtudders is sinfold infallish or offhangy on unknown undersheds, chiefly in the edtidderly setlays, of the wightkin which are rooded. The undersheds being of so odd and narrowened a ikind, [bookleaf] 261 chap. Viii. Withmeted with grafting. That, in reciprocal roods between two wightkin the seedlifer mingefast firststuff of the one will often freely bedo on the birthlifer mingefast firststuff of the other, but not in a edwhorven stighting. It will be advisable to aclear a little more fully by an bisen what i mean by unwassombearingness being infallish on other undersheds, and not a asunderfastly ingifted suchness. As the canmayen of one plant to be grafted or budded on another is so wholely unweighty for its welfare in a onlay of ikind, i foretake that no one will understell that this canmayen is a asunderfastly ingifted suchness, but will throughgive that it is infallish on undersheds in the laws of growth of the two plants. We can sometimes see the thinkcraft why one tree will not take on another, from undersheds in their rimespeed of growth, in the hardness of their wood, in the timedeal of the flow or ikind of their sap, &c.; but in a dright of happenlays we can atoken no thinkcraft whatever. Great manyotheredness in the size of two plants, one being woody and the other herbsome, one being evergreen and the other leafdropping, and throughfitting to widely undershedsome loftlays, does not always forecome the two grafting together. As in twibloodtuddering, so with grafting, the canmayen is narrowened by setlayly sibred, for no one has been able to graft trees together belonging to quite toshed huereds; and, on the other hand, closely alinked wightkin, and isunders of the same wightkin, can wonely, but not everywhen, be grafted with ease. But this canmayen, as in twibloodtuddering, is by no means fullthroughly awielded by setlayly sibred. Although many toshed wightkinds within the same huered have been grafted together, in other happenlays wightkin of the same wightkind will not take on each other. The pear can be grafted far more readily on the quince, which is ranked as a toshed wightkind, than on the apple, which is a member of the same wightkind. Even undershedsome isunders of the pear take [bookleaf] 262 twibloodtudderism. Chap. Viii. With undershedsome andsteps of eathyness on the quince; so do undershedsome isunders of the apricot and peach onsomel isunders of the plum. As gärtner found that there was sometimes an inborn undershed in undershedsome untodealels of the same two wightkin in rooding; so sagaret believes this to be the happenlay with undershedsome untodealels of the same two wightkin in being grafted together. As in reciprocal roods, the eathyness of onworkinging an onehood is often very far from evenworth, so it sometimes is in grafting; the imean gooseberry, for bisen, cannot be grafted on the currant, whereas the currant will take, though with arveth, on the gooseberry. We have seen that the unwassombearingness of twibloodtudders, which have their edtidderly bodyworkths in an unfullcome hode, is a very undershedsome happenlay from the arveth of uniting two siver wightkin, which have their edtidderly bodyworkths fullcome; yet these two toshed happenlays run to a somel scope evenlong. Something samerunsome betides in grafting; for thouin found that three wightkin of robinia, which seeded freely on their own roots, and which could be grafted with no great arveth on another wightkin, when thus grafted were made barren. On the other hand,somel wightkin of sorbus, when grafted on other wightkin, yielded twice as much ovet as when on their own roots. We are reminded by this latter deedsake of the orwoneliness happenlay of knighttunglewort, lobelia, &c., which seeded much more freely when tudderfast-ened with the bloomdust of toshed wightkin, than when self-tudderfast-ened with their own bloomdust. We thus see, that although there is a clear and groundsetly undershed between the mere adhesion of grafted stocks, and the onehood of the seedlifer and birthlifer firststuffs in the bedo of edtiddering, yet that there is a rude andstep of evenlongdom in the outfollows of grafting and [bookleaf] 263 chap. Viii. Bewhys of unwassombearingness. Of rooding toshed wightkin. And as we must look at the frimdy and throughtangly laws awielding the eathyness with which trees can be grafted on each other as infallish on unknown undersheds in their vegetative setlays, so i believe that the still more throughtangly laws awielding the eathyness of first roods, are infallish on unknown undersheds, chiefly in their edtidderly setlays. These undersheds, in both happenlays, follow to a somel scope, as might have been bewaited, setlayly sibred, by which every kind of look-alikeness and unalikeship between lifesome beings is costened to be outthringed. The deedsakes by no means seem to me to inquid that the greater or lesser arveth of either grafting or rooding together sundry wightkin has been a sunderful ingift; although in the happenlay of rooding, the arveth is as weighty for the tholing and stathelfastness of insunderly forms, as in the happenlay of grafting it is unweighty for their welfare. Bewhys of the unwassombearingness of first crosses and of twibloodtudders.—we may now look a little closer at the likely bewhys of the unwassombearingness of first roods and of twibloodtudders. These two happenlays are groundsetly undershedsome, for, as just edmarked, in the oneness of two siver wightkin the seedlifer and birthlifer mingefast firststuffs are fullcome, whereas in twibloodtudders they are unfullcome. Even in first roods, the greater or lesser arveth in onworkinging a onehood opensightly offhangs on manysome toshed bewhys. There must sometimes be a bodily imacomingliness in the seedlifer firststuff reaching the foreseed, as would be the happenlay with a plant having a grasple too long for the bloomdust-tubes to reach the eggbearling. It has also been behowed that when bloomdust of one wightkin is stelled on the bloomdustthecher of a farfastly alinked wightkin, though the bloomdust-tubes stick out, they do not throughthring the bloomdustthecherly overside. Again, the [bookleaf] 264 twibloodtudderism. Chap. Viii. Seedlifer firststuff may reach the birthlifer firststuff, but be uncanfast of bewhying an forebirthling to be andwound, as seems to have been the happenlay with some of thuret's fands on fuci. No aclearing can be given of these deedsakes, any more than whysomel trees cannot be grafted on others. Lastly, an forebirthling may be andwound, and then swelt at an early timedeal. This latter otherling has not been enoughsomely yeamed to; but i believe, from behowings betwixtrorded to me by mr. Hewitt, who has had great outfand in twibloodtudderising gallinaceous birds, that the early death of the forebirthling is a very loom bewhy of unwassombearingness in first roods. I was at first very unwilling to believe in this onsight; as twibloodtudders, when once born, are allmeanly healthy and long-lived, as we see in the happenlay of the imean mule. Twibloodtudders, however, are undershedsomely imbstandd before and after birth: when born and living in a landred where their two akennends can live, they are allmeanly stelled under suitable hodes of life. But a twibloodtudder takes deal of only half of the ikind and setness of its mother, and therefore before birth, as long as it is bylived within its mother's womb or within the egg or seed tiddered by the mother, it may be outset to hodes in some andstep unsuitable, and infollowingly be atiely to swelt at an early timedeal; more besunders as all very young beings seem highoutlyly spoorsome to demsome or unikindsome hodes of life. In sight to the unwassombearingness of twibloodtudders, in which the mingefast firststuffs are unfullcomely andwound, the happenlay is very undershedsome. I have more than once atpulld to a michel body of deedsakes, which i have gathered, showing that when wights and plants are removed from their ikindsome hodes, they are outestly atiely to have their edtidderly setlays seriously onworked. This, in deedsake, is [bookleaf] 265 chap. Viii. Bewhys of unwassombearingness. The great bar to the housening of wights. Between the unwassombearingness thus overtobrought and that of twibloodtudders, there are many ords of alikeship. In both happenlays the unwassombearingness is unoffhanging of allmeanly health, and is often afered by overmuch of size or great luxuriance. In both happenlays, the unwassombearingness betides in sundry andsteps; in both, the seedlifer firststuff is the most atiely to be onworked; but sometimes the birthlifer more than the seedlifer. In both, the niging goes to a somel scope with setlayly sibred, for whole maiths of wights and plants are made strengthless by the same unikindsome hodes; and whole maiths of wightkin nige to tidder unwassombearing twibloodtudders. On the other hand, one wightkin in a maith will sometimes withset great awends of hodes with unbewanned tudderfastness; andsomel wightkin in a maith will tidder unwonely tudderfast twibloodtudders. No one can tell, till he tries, whether any dealocksome wight will breed under benarrowenedness or any plant seed freely under culture; nor can he tell, till he tries, whether any two wightkin of a wightkind will tidder more or less unwassombearing twibloodtudders. Lastly, when lifesome beings are stelled during manysome strinds under hodes not ikindsome to them, they are outestly atiely to forsunder, which is due, as i believe, to their edtidderly setlays having been asunderfastly onworked, though in a lesser andstep than when unwassombearingness befollows. So it is with twibloodtudders, for twibloodtudders in afterfollowly strinds are highoutlyly atiely to forsunder, as every fandsomend has behowed. Thus we see that when lifesome beings are stelled under new and unikindsome hodes, and when twibloodtudders are tiddered by the unikindsome rooding of two wightkin, the edtidderly setlay, unoffhangingly of the allmeanly onlay of health, is onworked by unwassombearingness in a very alike way. In the one happenlay, the hodes of life have been dreeved, though often in so slight a andstep as to N [bookleaf] 266 twibloodtudderism. Chap. Viii. Be inunhefty by us; in the other happenlay, or that of twibloodtudders, the outly hodes have belived the same, but the dight has been dreeved by two undershedsome upbuilds and setnesss having been blended into one. For it is hardly acomingly that two dights should be getherened into one, without some dreeveance betiding in the andwinding, or timedealsome deedship, or two-way maithred of the undershedsome deals and bodyworkths one to another, or to the hodes of life. When twibloodtudders are able to breed among themselves, they yondstell to their offspring from strind to strind the same getherened dight, and hence we need not be overnome that their unwassombearingness, though in some andstep sunderly, seldom aquines. It must, however, be andetted that we cannot understand, nimth on cloudfast forethoughtlays, manysome deedsakes with edsight to the unwassombearingness of twibloodtudders; for bisen, the unevenworthly tudderfastness of twibloodtudders tiddered from reciprocal roods; or the eaked unwassombearingness in those twibloodtudders which otherwhile and outtakely onlike closely either siver akennend. Nor do i belike that the foregoing edmarks go to the root of the matter: no aclearing is offered why an lifer, when stelled under unikindsome hodes, is made unwassombearing. All that i have costened to show, is that in two happenlays, in some edsights alinked, unwassombearingness is the imean outfollow,—in the one happenlay from the hodes of life having been dreeved, in the other happenlay from the dight having been dreeved by two dights having been getherened into one. It may seem fanciful, but i underlook that a alike evenlongdom outstretchs to an alinked yet very undershedsome ilk of deedsakes. It is an old and almost allhomely belief, founded, i think, on a hidgebere body of outshow, that slight awends in the hodes of life are forthly to all living things. We see this bedoed on by [bookleaf] 267 chap. Viii. Fertility of mongrels. Thorpers and gardeners in their loom wrixling of seed, tubers, &c., from one soil or loftlay to another, and back again. During the edmayening of wights, we plainly see that great beforthing is offstreamed from almost any awend in the wones of life. Again, both with plants and wights, there is fullsome outshow, that a rood between very toshed untodealels of the same wightkin, that is between members of undershedsome strains or under-breeds, gives lifethrith and tudderfastness to the offspring. I believe, indeed, from the deedsakes atpulled to in our fourth bookdeal, that a somel muchth of rooding is aldertharfly even with weaponedwifesters; and that close betwixtbreeding throughstood during manysome strinds between the nearest sibreds, besunders if these be kept under the same hodes of life, always beleads weakness and unwassombearingness in the afterkin. Hence it seems that, on the one hand, slight forotherings in the hodes of life beforthing all lifesome beings, and on the other hand, that slight roods, that is roods between the seedlifers and birthlifers of the same wightkin which have besundered and become slightly undershedsome, give lifethrith and tudderfastness to the offspring. But we have seen that greater awends, or awends of a dealocksome ikind, often make lifesome beings in some andstep unwassombearing; and that greater roods, that is roods between seedlifers and birthlifers which have become widely or insunderly undershedsome, tidder twibloodtudders which are allmeanly unwassombearing in some andstep. I cannot forpet myself that this evenlongdom is a misfall or an illusion. Both followth of deedsakes seem to be belinked together by some imean but unknown bond, which is isshiply akinned to the thoughsetlay of life. Tudderfastness of isunders when rooded, and of their mongrel offspring.—it may be thraffed, as a most strengthsome groundhood N 2 [bookleaf] 268 twibloodtudderism. Chap. Viii.

that there must be some isshiply ished between wightkin and isunders, and that there must be some dwild in all the foregoing edmarks, inasmuch as isunders, however much they may andsame from each other in outly upshowing, rood with fullcome eathyness, and yield fullcomely tudderfast offspring. I fully throughgive that this is almost everywhen the happenlay. But if we look to isunders tiddered under ikind, we are forthwith forwound in hopeless arveths; for if two hitherto againthought isunders be found in any andstep unwassombearing together, they are at once ranked by most ikindlorers as wightkin. For bisen, the blue and red pimpernel, the firstrose and cowslip, which are hidged by many of our best wortlorers as isunders, are said by gärtner not to be quite tudderfast when rooded, and he infollowingly ranks them as untwighted wightkin. If we thus outground in a circle, the tudderfastness of all isunders tiddered under ikind will assuredly have to be granted.

If we turn to isunders, tiddered, or understelled to have been tiddered, under housening, we are still forwound in twight. For when it is quided, for bisen, that the german spitz dog beones more easily than other dogs with foxes, or that somel south american inlandish housely dogs do not readily rood with european dogs, the aclearing which will betide to every one, and likely the true one, is that these dogs have netherastien from manysome fromthfast toshed wightkin. Nevertheless the fullcome tudderfastness of so many housely isunders, andsaming widely from each other in upshowing, for bisen of the plumpdove or of the cabbage, is a edmarkbere deedsake; more besunders when we imbthink how many wightkin there are, which, though onliking each other most closely, are utterly unwassombearing when betwixtrooded. Manysome hidgings, however, make the tudderfastness of housely isunders less edmarkbere than [bookleaf] 269 chap. Viii. Fertility of mongrels. At first a misfalls. It can, in the firststead, be clearly shown that mere outly unalikeship between two wightkin does not toend their greater or lesser andstep of unwassombearingness when rooded; and we may belay the same rule to housely isunders. In the twothstead, some highoutly ikindlorers believe that a long foor of housening tends to eliminate unwassombearingness in the afterfollowly strinds of twibloodtudders, which were at first only slightly unwassombearing; and if this be so, we surely ought not to bewait to find unwassombearingness both showing up and swinding under nearly the same hodes of life. Lastly, and this seems to me by far the most weighty hidging, new races of wights and plants are tiddered under housening by man's do-wayly and underawared wold of choosing, for his own use and pleasure: he neither wishes to choose, nor could choose, slight undersheds in the edtidderly setlay, or other setnessly undersheds togetherakinned with the edtidderly setlay. He bestocks his manysome isunders with the same food; treats them in nearly the same way, and does not wish to awend their allmeanly wones of life. Ikind bedoes oneshapedly and slowly during vast timedeals of time on the whole dight, in any way which may be for each forthshaft's own good; and thus she may, either wissly, or more likely inwissly, through togethersibred, awend the edtidderly setlay in the manysome netherastiends from any one wightkin. Seeing this undershed in the forthhappen of choosing, as borne on by man and ikind, we need not be overnome at some undershed in the outfollow. I have as yet spoken as if the isunders of the same wightkin were everywhen tudderfast when betwixtrooded. But it seems to me unacomingly to withset the outshow of the wist of a somel muchth of unwassombearingness in the few following happenlays, which i will briefly oryolster. The outshow is at least as good as that from which we believe [bookleaf] 270 twibloodtudderism. Chap. Viii. In the unwassombearingness of a dright of wightkin. The outshow is, also, offstreamed from hately witnesses, who in all other happenlays hidge tudderfastness and unwassombearingness as safe deemocks of insunderly ished. Gärtner kept during manysome years a dwarf kind of maize with yellow seeds, and a tall isunder with red seeds, growing near each other in his garden; and although these plants have totweemed akenbodyworkthsplits, they never quithenly rooded. He then tudderfast-ened thirteen bloomworts of the one with the bloomdust of the other; but only a onele head tiddered any seed, and this one head tiddered only five grains. Forhanding in this happenlay could not have been demsome, as the plants have totweemed akenbodyworkthsplits. No one, i believe, has underlooked that these isunders of maize are toshed wightkin; and it is weighty to bemark that the twibloodtudder plants thus raised were themselves fullcomely tudderfast; so that even gärtner did not whethapfare to hidge the two isunders as insunderly toshed. Girou de buzareingues rooded three isunders of gourd, which like the maize has totweemed akenbodyworkthsplits, and he forthstomps that their two-way tudderfast-ening is by so much the less easy as their undersheds are greater. How far these fands may be trusted, i know not; but the forms fanded on, are ranked by sagaret, who mainly founds his isunderening by the test of intudderfastness, as isunders. The following happenlay is far more edmarkbere, and seems at first quite unbelievebere; but it is the outfollow of an aweing rime of fands made during many years on nine wightkin of verbascum, by so good an behower and so hately a witness, as gärtner: namely, that yellow and white isunders of the same wightkin of verbascum when betwixtrooded tidder less seed, than do either coloured isunders when tudderfast-ened with bloomdust from their own coloured bloomworts. Moreover, he forthstomps that when [bookleaf] 271 chap. Viii. Fertility of mongrels. Yellow and white isunders of one wightkin are rooded with yellow and white isunders of a toshed wightkin, more seed is tiddered by the roods between the same coloured bloomworts, than between those which are undershedsomely coloured. Yet these isunders of verbascum andward no other undershed besides the mere colour of the bloomwort; and one isunder can sometimes be raised from the seed of the other. From behowings which i have made onsomel isunders of hollyhock, i am bighfast to underlook that they andward samerunsome deedsakes. Kölreuter, whose targeockfastness has been atrumed by every underfollowing behower, has afanded the edmarkbere deedsake, that one isunder of the imean tobacco is more tudderfast, when rooded with a widely toshed wightkin, than are the other isunders. He fanded on five forms, which are imeanly againthought to be isunders, and which he tested by the highernstst trial, namely, by reciprocal roods, and he found their mongrel offspring fullcomely tudderfast. But one of these five isunders, when used either as father or mother, and rooded with the nightshademaithworts glutinosa, always yielded twibloodtudders not so unwassombearing as those which were tiddered from the four other isunders when rooded with n. Glutinosa. Hence the edtidderly setlay of this one isunder must have been in some way and in some andstep awended. From these deedsakes; from the great arveth of foriwising the intudderfastness of isunders in a onlay of ikind, for a understelled isunder if intudderfast in any andstep would allmeanly be ranked as wightkin; from man choosing only outly suchnesses in the tiddering of the most toshed housely isunders, and from not wishing or being able to tidder ormindgrasp and workhoodal undersheds in the edtidderly setlay; from these manysome hidgings and deedsakes, i do not think that the very allmeanly [bookleaf] 272 twibloodtudderism. Chap. Viii. Tudderfastness of isunders can be afanded to be of allhomely betidings, or to form a groundsetly ished between isunders and wightkin. The allmeanly tudderfastness of isunders does not seem to me enoughsome to overthrow the onsight which i have taken with edsight to the very allmeanly, but not insunderly, unwassombearingness of first roods and of twibloodtudders, namely, that it is not a sunderful ingift, but is infallsome on slowly underfanged awendings, more besunders in the edtidderly setlays of the forms which are rooded. Twibloodtudders and mongrels withmeted, unoffhangingly of their tudderfastness.—unoffhangingly of the fraign of tudderfastness, the offspring of wightkin when rooded and of isunders when rooded may be withmeted in manysome other edsights. Gärtner, whose strong wish was to draw a marked line of ished between wightkin and isunders, could find very few and, as it seems to me, quite unweighty undersheds between the so-called twibloodtudder offspring of wightkin, and the so-called mongrel offspring of isunders. And, on the other hand, they agree most closely in very many weighty edsights. I shall here imbspeak this underthrow with outest shorthood. The most weighty ished is, that in the first strind mongrels are more sunderly than twibloodtudders; but gärtner throughgives that twibloodtudders from wightkin which have long been bebuilt are often sunderly in the first strind; and i have myself seen striking bisens of this deedsake. Gärtner further throughgives that twibloodtudders between very closely alinked wightkin are more sunderly than those from very toshed wightkin; and this shows that the undershed in the andstep of sundriness besteps away. When mongrels and the more tudderfast twibloodtudders are forspread for manysome strinds an outest muchth of sundriness in their offspring is notori- [bookleaf] 273 chap. Viii. Twibloodtudders and mongrels. Ous; but some few happenlays both of twibloodtudders and mongrels long bekeeping oneshapedness of suchness could be given. The sundriness, however, in the afterfollowly strinds of mongrels is, forhaps, greater than in twibloodtudders. This greater sundriness of mongrels than of twibloodtudders does not seem to me at all overnimming. For the akennends of mongrels are isunders, and mostly housely isunders (very few fands having been tried on ikindsome isunders), and this infolds in most happenlays that there has been short-ago sundriness; and therefore we might bewait that such sundriness would often stand through and be over-ateaked to that arising from the mere bedo of rooding. The slight andstep of sundriness in twibloodtudders from the first rood or in the first strind, in againstshow with their outest sundriness in the aftercoming strinds, is a frimdy deedsake and andtheens attention. For it bears on and trumens the onsight which i have taken on the bewhy of wonely sundriness; namely, that it is due to the edtidderly setlay being highoutlyly spoorsome to any awend in the hodes of life, being thus often made either strengthless or at least uncanfast of its davenly workhood of tiddering offspring selfsame with the akennend-form. Now twibloodtudders in the first strind are netherastien from wightkin (outshutting those long bebuilt) which have not had their edtidderly setlays in any way onworked, and they are not sunderly; but twibloodtudders themselves have their edtidderly setlays seriously onworked, and theirnetherastiends are highly sunderly. But to edwhirft to our withmeting of mongrels and twibloodtudders: gärtner onlays that mongrels are more atiely than twibloodtudders to edwend to either akennend-form; but this, if it be true, is iwis only an undershed in andstep. Gärtner further bestands that when any two wightkin, although most closely alinked to each other, are N 3 [bookleaf] 274 twibloodtudderism. Chap. Viii. Rooded with a third wightkin, the twibloodtudders are widely undershedsome from each other; whereas if two very toshed isunders of one wightkin are rooded with another wightkin, the twibloodtudders do not andsame much. But this ashut, as far as i can make out, is founded on a onele fand; and seems wissly withlaid to the outfollows of manysome fands made by kölreuter. These alone are the unweighty undersheds, which gärtner is able to ord out, between twibloodtudder and mongrel plants. On the other hand, the look-alikeness in mongrels and in twibloodtudders to their edsightsome akennends, more besunders in twibloodtudders tiddered from nearly akinned wightkin, follows according to gärtner the same laws. When two wightkin are rooded, one has sometimes a woddsrengthfast wold of inthringing its likeness on the twibloodtudder; and so i believe it to be with isunders of plants. With wights one isunder iwis often has this woddsrengthfast wold over another isunder. Twibloodtudder plants tiddered from a reciprocal rood, allmeanly onlike each other closely; and so it is with mongrels from a reciprocal rood. Both twibloodtudders and mongrels can be lowered to either siver akennend-form, by edledged roods in afterfollowly strinds with either akennend. These manysome edmarks are opensightly belaybere to wights; but the underthrow is here overmuchly complicated, deally owing to the wist of twothsome mingefast suchnesses; but more besunders owing to woddsrengthfastness in yondstellting likeness running more strongly in one akenbodyworkthsplit than in the other, both when one wightkin is rooded with another, and when one isunder is rooded with another isunder. For bisen, i think those writmakers are right, who upkeep that the ass has a woddsrengthfast wold over the horse, so that both the mule and the hinny more onlike the ass than the horse; but that the woddsrengthfastness runs more strongly in the seedlifer-ass than in [bookleaf] 275 chap. Viii. Twibloodtudders and mongrels. The birthlifer, so that the mule, which is the offspring of the seedlifer-ass and mare, is more like an ass, than is the hinny, which is the offspring of the birthlifer-ass and stallion. Much stress has been laid by some writmakers on the understelled deedsake, that mongrel wights alone are born closely like one of their akennends; but it can be shown that this does sometimes betide with twibloodtudders; yet i grant much less loomly with twibloodtudders than with mongrels. Looking to the happenlays which i have gathered of rood-bred wights closely onliking one akennend, the look-alikenesss seem chiefly benarrowened to suchnesses almost owleechsome in their ikind, and which have suddenly shown up—such as whiteship, blackship, underandwoundness of tail or horns, or ateakly fingers and toes; and do not relate to suchnesses which have been slowly underfanged by choosing. Infollowingly, sudden edwhirfts to the fullcome suchness of either akennend would be more likely to betide with mongrels, which are netherastien from isunders often suddenly tiddered and half-owleechsome in suchness, than with twibloodtudders, which are netherastien from wightkin slowly and quithenly tiddered. On the whole i wholely agree with dr. Prosper lucas, who, after arranging an aldermichel body of deedsakes with edsight to wights, comes to the ashut, that the laws of look-alikeness of the child to its akennends are the same, whether the two akennends andsame much or little from each other, namely in the onehood of untodealels of the same isunder, or of undershedsome isunders, or of toshed wightkin. Laying aside the fraign of tudderfastness and unwassombearingness, in all other edsights there seems to be a allmeanly and close alikeship in the offspring of rooded wightkin, and of rooded isunders. If we look at wightkin as having been asunderfastly beshaped, and at isunders as having been tiddered by twothsome laws, this alikeship would be an [bookleaf] 276 twibloodtudderism. Chap. Viii. Aweing deedsake. But it evenlietherens fullcomely with the onsight that there is no isshiply ished between wightkin and isunders. Summary of bookdeal.—first roods between forms enoughsomely toshed to be ranked as wightkin, and their twibloodtudders, are very allmeanly, but not allhomely, unwassombearing. The unwassombearingness is of all andsteps, and is often so slight that the two most careful fandsomends who have ever lived, have come to fullthroughly witherrights ashuts in ranking forms by this test. The unwassombearingness is inbornly sunderly in untodealels of the same wightkin, and is highoutlyly opentakely of rithbere and unrithbere hodes. The andstep of unwassombearingness does not strictly follow setlayly sibred, but is awielded by manysome frimdy and throughtangly laws. It is allmeanly undershedsome, and sometimes widely undershedsome, in reciprocal roods between the same two wightkin. It is not always evenworth in andstep in a first rood and in the twibloodtudder tiddered from this rood. In the same way as in grafting trees, the canmayen of one wightkin or isunder to take on another, is infallish on allmeanly unknown undersheds in their vegetative setlays, so in rooding, the greater or less eathyness of one wightkin to beone with another, is infallish on unknown undersheds in their edtidderly setlays. There is no more thinkcraft to think that wightkin have been asunderfastly ingifted with sundry andsteps of unwassombearingness to forecome them rooding and blending in ikind, than to think that trees have been asunderfastly ingifted with sundry and somewhat samerunsome andsteps of arveth in being grafted together in order to forecome them becoming inarched in our woddss. The unwassombearingness of first roods between siver wightkin, which have their edtidderly setlays fullcome, seems [bookleaf] 277 chap. Viii. Summary. To offhang on manysome imbstands; in some happenlays michelly on the early death of the forebirthling. The unwassombearingness of twibloodtudders, which have their edtidderly setlays unfullcome, and which have had this setlay and their whole dight dreeved by being getherened of two toshed wightkin, seems closely alinked to that unwassombearingness which so loomly onworks siver wightkin, when their ikindsome hodes of life have been dreeved. This onsight is underborne by a evenlongdom of another kind;—namely, that the rooding of forms only slightly undershedsome is rithbere to the lifethrith and tudderfastness of their offspring; and that slight awends in the hodes of life are opensightly rithbere to the lifethrith and tudderfastness of all lifesome beings. It is not overnimming that the andstep of arveth in uniting two wightkin, and the andstep of unwassombearingness of their twibloodtudder-offspring should allmeanly togetheranswer, though due to toshed bewhys; for both offhang on the muchth of undershed of some kind between the wightkin which are rooded. Nor is it overnimming that the eathyness of onworkinging a first rood, the tudderfastness of the twibloodtudders tiddered, and the canmayen of being grafted together—though this latter canmayen opensightly offhangs on widely undershedsome imbstands—should all run, to a somel scope, evenlong with the setlayly sibred of the forms which are underthrown to fand; for setlayly sibred costens to outthring all kinds of look-alikeness between all wightkin. First roods between forms known to be isunders, or enoughsomely alike to be hidged as isunders, and their mongrel offspring, are very allmeanly, but not quite allhomely, tudderfast. Nor is this nearly allmeanly and fullcome tudderfastness overnimming, when we mun how atiely we are to outground in a circle with edsight to isunders in a onlay of ikind; and when we mun that the greater rime of isunders have been tiddered under domesti- [bookleaf] 278 twibloodtudderism. Chap. Viii. Cation by the choosing of mere outly undersheds, and not of undersheds in the edtidderly setlay. In all other edsights, outshutting tudderfastness, there is a close allmeanly look-alikeness between twibloodtudders and mongrels. Endly, then, the deedsakes briefly given in this bookdeal do not seem to me withlaid to, but even rather to underbear the onsight, that there is no groundsetly ished between wightkin and isunders. [bookleaf] 279 chap. Ix. Unfullcomeliness of earthlorely edferth. Bookdeal ix. On the unfullcomliness of the earthlorely edferth On the unandwardness of betweenly isunders at the andward day — on the ikind of fornaughted betweenly isunders; on their rime — on the vast whilestitch of time, as offlead from the rimespeed of offstell and of astripping — on the armth of our alderoldbeinglorely gatherships — on the intermittence of earthlorely shapennesses — on the unandwardness of betweenly isunders in any one shapenness — on the sudden upshowing of maiths of wightkin — on their sudden upshowing in the lowest known stonewight-making flatwiselayers. In the sixth bookdeal i arimed the chief withthrowings which might be rightly thraffed against the onsights upkept in this writheap. Most of them have now been imbspoken. One, namely the toshedness of insunderly forms, and their not being blended together by unarimebere overgangly links, is a very opensightly arveth. I atokened thinkcrafts why such links do not imeanly betide at the andward day, under the imbstands opensightly most rithbere for their andwardness, namely on an outstretchly and throughstanding area with bestepped bodily hodes. I bestrove to show, that the life of each wightkin offhangs in a more weighty way on the andwardness of other already bebound lifesome forms, than on loftlay; and, therefore, that the really awielding hodes of life do not bestep away quite unspoorberely like heat or moisture. I bestrove, also, to show that betweenly variations, from wesening in lesser rimes than the forms which they belink, will allmeanly be beaten out and benothinged during the foor of further awending and bettering. The main bewhy, however, of unarimebere betweenly links not now betiding everywhere throughout ikind offhangs [bookleaf] 280 unfullcomeliness of the chap. Ix.

on the very forthhappen of ikindsome choosing, through which new isunders throughstandingly take thesteads of and benothing their akennend-forms. But just in ondeal as this forthhappen of benothinging has bedoed on an aldermichel scale, so must the rime of betweenly isunders, which have formerly wesened on the earth, be truly aldermichel. Why then is not every earthlorely ashapenness and every flatwiselayer full of such betweenly links? Earthlore assuredly does not swettle any such finely bestepped lifesome chain; and this, forhaps, is the most opensightly and gravest withthrowing which can be thraffed against my thoughtlay. The aclearing lies, as i believe, in the outest unfullcomeliness of the earthlorely edferth.

In the firststead it should always be borne in mind what sort of betweenly forms must, on my thoughtlay, have formerly wesened. I have found it arvethfast, when looking at any two wightkin, to forbow meteshowing

To myself, forms wissly betweenly between them. But this is a wholly false onsight; we should always look for forms betweenly between each wightkin and a imean but unknown akennend; and the akennend will allmeanly have andsamed in some edsights from all its awended netherastiends. To give a onelay onlight: the fantail and pouter plumpdoves have bothnetherastien from the rock-plumpdove; if we besat all the betweenly isunders which have ever wesened, we should have an outestly close followth between both and the rock-plumpdove; but we should have no isunders wissly betweenly between the fantail and pouter; none, for bisen, togetherstelling a tail somewhat expanded with a crop somewhat enmicheld, the suchnessly ownships of these two breeds. These two breeds, moreover, have become so much awended, that if we had no yorelorely or unstraightfast outshow with sight to their fromth, it would not have been acomingly to have

[bookleaf] 281 chap. Ix. Earthlorely edferth. Toended from a mere withmeting of their upbuild with that of the rock-plumpdove, whether they had netherastien from this wightkin or from some other alinked wightkin, such as c. Oenas. So with ikindsome wightkin, if we look to forms very toshed, for bisen to the horse and tapir, we have no thinkcraft to understell that links ever wesened wissly betweenly between them, but between each and an unknown imean akennend. The imean akennend will have had in its whole dight much allmeanly look-alikeness to the tapir and to the horse; but in some ords of upbuild may have andsamed hidgeberely from both, even forhaps more than they andsame from each other. Hence in all such happenlays, we should be unable to edknow the akennend-form of any two or more wightkin, even if we closely withmeted the upbuild of the akennend with that of its awendednetherastiends, unless at the same time we had a nearly fullcome chain of the betweenly links. It is just acomingly by my thoughtlay, that one of two living forms might have netherastien from the other; for bisen, a horse from a tapir; and in this happenlay straightfast betweenly links will have wesened between them. But such a happenlay would infold that one form had belived for a very long timedeal unawended, whilst itsnetherastiends had undergone a vast muchth of awend; and the thoughsetlay of witherstrive between lifer and lifer, between child and akennend, will make this a very seldly event; for in all happenlays the new and bettered forms of life will nige to undersole the old and unbettered forms. By the thoughtlay of ikindsome choosing all living wightkin have been belinked with the akennend-wightkin of each wightkind, by undersheds not greater than we see between the isunders of the same wightkin at the andward [bookleaf] 282 unfullcomeliness of the chap. Ix Day; and these akennend-wightkin, now allmeanly fornaughted, have in their turn been alikely belinked with more alderold wightkin; and so on backwards, always togetherbighingng to the imean beforecomer of each great ilk. So that the rime of betweenly and overgangly links, between all living and fornaughted wightkin, must have been inconceivably great. But assuredly, if this thoughtlay be true, such have lived upon this earth. On the whilestitch of time.—unoffhangingly of our not finding stonewight lefthsof such boundlessly rimeful belinking links, it may be withthrown, that time will not have enoughened for so great an muchth of lifesome awend, all awends having been onworked very slowly through ikindsome choosing. It is hardly acomingly for me even to recall to the reader, who may not be a prbedoical earthlorer, the deedsakes leading the mind feebly to grasp the whilestitch of time. He who can read sir charles lyell's michel work on the thoughsetlays of earthlore, which the to-come yorelorer will edknow as having tiddered a imbwhirft in ikindsome ikindwitship, yet does not throughgive how incomprehensibly vast have been the eretide timedeals of time, may at once close this writheap. Not that it enoughens to throughlore the thoughsetlays of earthlore, or to read sunderful writlays by undershedsome behowers on totweemed shapennesses, and to mark how each writmaker costens to give an unenoughsome thinkling of the whilehood of each shapenness or even each flatwiselayer. A man must for years underseek for himself great piles of overinstelled flatwiselayers, and watch the sea at work grinding down old rocks and making fresh siltstuff, before he can hope to grasp anything of the whilestitch of time, the edmindships of which we see imb us. It is good to wander along lines of sea-coast, when ashaped of meathly hard rocks, and mark the [bookleaf] 283 chap. Ix. Earthlorely edferth. Forthhappen of netherrotting. The tides in most happenlays reach the cliffs only for a short time twice a day, and the waves eat into them only when they are throughfilled with sand or pebbles; for there is thinkcraft to believe that siver water can onwork little or nothing in wearing away rock. At last the bottomlay of the cliff is undermined, huge breaklings fall down, and these beliving fixed, have to be worn away, uncleft by uncleft, until lowered in size they can be rolled about by the waves, and then are more quickly ground into pebbles, sand, or mud. But how often do we see along the bottomlays of withertreading cliffs rounded boulders, all thickly clothed by sealy tidderings, showing how little they are abraded and how seldom they are rolled about! Moreover, if we follow for a few miles any line of rocky cliff, which is undergoing netherrotting, we find that it is only here and there, along a short length or round a promontory, that the cliffs are at the andward time thrawing. The upshowing of the overside and the greenth show that elsewhere years have forstroked since the waters washed their bottomlay. He who most closely throughlores the deedship of the sea on our shores, will, i believe, be most deeply inthrung with the slowness with which rocky coasts are worn away. The observations on this head by hugh miller, and by that highmood behower mr. Smith of jordan hill, are most inthringsome. With the mind thus inthrung, let any one underseek beds of samenrock many thousand feet in thickness, which, though likely ashaped at a quicker rimespeed than many other offstells, yet, from being ashaped of worn and rounded pebbles, each of which bears the stamp of time, are good to show how slowly the mass has been upheaped. Let him mun lyell's deep edmark, that the thickness and scope of siltstuffly shapennesses [bookleaf] 284 unfullcomeliness of the chap. Ix. Are the outfollow and amete of the netherrotting which the earth's crust has elsewhere thrawed. And what an muchth of netherrotting is infolded by the siltstuffary offstells of many landreds! Lorefather ramsay has given me the aldermost thickness, in most happenlays from soothly ameteing, in a few happenlays from forereckon, of each shapenness in undershedsome deals of great britain; and this is the outfollow:— Feet. Alderoldlifelingly flatwiselayers (not imbhaving firesome beds) .. 57,154



—making altogether 72,584 feet; that is, very nearly thirteen and three-fourths british miles. Some of these shapennesses, which are aspelled in england by thin beds, are thousands of feet in thickness on the earthdeal. Moreover, between each afterfollowly ashapedness, we have, in the onthink of most earthlorers, aldermichelly long blank timedeals. So that the lofty pile of siltstuffly rocks in britain, gives but an unenoughsome thinkling of the time which has forstroked during their upheaping; yet what time this must have dretted! Good behowers have forereckoned that siltstuff is offstelled by the great mississippi ea at the rimespeed of only 600 feet in a hundred thousand years. This forereckon may be quite dwolesome; yet, hidging over what wide roomhoods very fine siltstuff is yondborne by the currents of the sea, the forthhappen of upheaping in any one area must be outestly slow. But the muchth of astripping which the flatwiselayers have in manysteads thrawed, unoffhangingly of the rimespeed of upheaping of the netherrotted matter, likely offers the best outshow of the whilestitch of time. I mun having been much struck with the outshow of astripping, when looking at firebarrowly islands, which have been [bookleaf] 285 chap. Ix. Earthlorely edferth. Worn by the waves and pared all round into roodlong cliffs of one or two thousand feet in height; for the gentle slope of the lava-streams, due to their formerly flowstuff onlay, showed at a glance how far the hard, rocky beds had once stretched out into the open ocean. The same story is still more plainly told by faults,—those great cracks along which the flatwiselayers have been upheaved on one side, or thrown down on the other, to the height or depth of thousands of feet; for since the crust cracked, the overside of the land has been so fullthroughly flatoversided down by the deedship of the sea, that no trace of these vast andstowings is outly seebere. The craven fault, for bisen, outstretchs for upwards of 30 miles, and along this line the upright tosteading of the flatwiselayers has besundered from 600 to 3000 feet. Prof. Ramsay has forlaid a rake of a downthrow in hurnsea of 2300 feet; and he inkens me that he fully believes there is one in merionethshire of 12,000 feet; yet in these happenlays there is nothing on the overside to show such highmichel feeths; the pile of rocks on the one or other side having been smoothly swept away. The hidging of these deedsakes inthrings my mind almost in the same way as does the ordless bestrive to grapple with the thinkling of foreverness. I am costened to give one other happenlay, the well-known one of the astripping of the weald. Though it must be throughgiven that the astripping of the weald has been a mere trifle, in withmeting with that which has removed masses of our alderoldlifelingly flatwiselayers, in deals ten thousand feet in thickness, as shown in prof. Ramsay's masterly minwrit on this underthrow. Yet it is an bewonderbere lesson to stand on the north downs and to look at the farfast south downs; for, muning that at no great farth to the west the northern and southern cliffs meet and close, one can safely meteshow to [bookleaf] 286 unfullcomeliness of the chap. Ix. Oneself the great dome of rocks which must have betielded up the weald within so narrowened a timedeal as since the latter deal of the chalk beshaping. The farth from the northern to the southern downs is about 22 miles, and the thickness of the manysome shapennesses is on an throughsnithe about 1100 feet, as i am inkenned by prof. Ramsay. But if, as some earthlorers understell, a scope of older rocks underlies the weald, on the flanks of which the overlying siltstuffly offstells might have upheaped in thinner masses than elsewhere, the above forereckon would be dwolesome; but this outspring of twight likely would not greatly onwork the forereckon as belaid to the western outestness of the andlay. If, then, we knew the rimespeed at which the sea imeanly wears away a line of cliff of any given height, we could amete the time needed to have astripped the weald. This, iwis, cannot be done; but we may, in order to form some crude imbthought on the underthrow, foretake that the sea would eat into cliffs 500 feet in height at the rimespeed of one inch in a yearhundred. This will at first thench much too small a hidging; but it is the same as if we were to foretake a cliff one yard in height to be eaten back along a whole line of coast at the rimespeed of one yard in nearly every twenty-two years. I twight whether any rock, even as soft as chalk, would yield at this rimespeed nimth on the most outset coasts; though no twight the netherrotting of a lofty cliff would be more quick from the breakeldth of the fallen breaklings. On the other hand, i do not believe that any line of coast, ten or twenty miles in length, ever thraws netherrotting at the same time along its whole indented length; and we must mun that almost all flatwiselayers inhold harder layers or knotlings, which from long withsetting towearing form a breakwater at the bottomlay. Hence, under wonely imbstands, i ashut that for a cliff 500 feet in height, a astripping [bookleaf] 287 chap. Ix. Earthlorely edferth. Of one inch per yearhundred for the whole length would be an michel hidging. At this rimespeed, on the above data, the astripping of the weald must have tharfed 306,662,400 years; or say three hundred tenfoldhundthousand years. The deedship of fresh water on the weethly bighfast wealden andlay, when upraised, could hardly have been great, but it would somewhat lower the above forereckon. On the other hand, during besways of level, which we know this area has undergone, the overside may have wesened for tenfoldhundthousands of years as land, and thus have withfaren the deedship of the sea: when deeply underdipped for forhaps evenworthly long timedeals, it would, likewise, have withfaren the deedship of the coast-waves. So that in all likelihood a far longer timedeal than 300 tenfoldhundthousand years has forstroked since the latter deal of the twothary timedeal. I have made these few edmarks forwhy it is highly weighty for us to gain some thinkling, however unfullcome, of the whilestitch of years. During each of these years, over the whole world, the land and the water has been befolked by hosts of living forms. What an boundless rime of strinds, which the mind cannot grasp, must have come after each other in the long roll of years! Now turn to our richest earthlorely sarehouses, and what a paltry ewe we behold! On the armth of our alderoldbeinglorely gatherships.—that our alderoldbeinglorely gatherships are very unfullcome, is throughgiven by every one. The edmark of that bewonderbere alderoldbeinglorer, the late edward forbes, should not be forgotten, namely, that rimes of our stonewight wightkin are known and named from onele and often broken neeslings, or from a few neeslings gathered on some one spot. Only a small muchthdeal of the overside of the earth has been earthlorely rossed, and no deal with [bookleaf] 288 unfullcomeliness of the chap. Ix. Enoughsome care, as the weighty anddecks made every year in europe afand. No lifer wholly soft can be aspared. Shells and bones will decay and swind when left on the bottom of the sea, where siltstuff is not beheaping. I believe we are throughstandingly taking a most dwolesome onsight, when we orquidly throughgive to ourselves that siltstuff is being offstelled over nearly the whole bed of the sea, at a rimespeed enoughsomely quick to inbed and aspare stonewight lefths. Throughout an aldermichelly michel ondeal of the ocean, the bright blue tint of the water bespeaks its siverness. The many happenlays on edferth of a shapennes throughshapeberely betielded, after an aldermichel timestretch of time, by another and later beshaping, without the underlying bed having thrawed in the timestretch any wear and tear, seem aclearbere only on the onsight of the bottom of the sea not seldom lying for eldths in an unawended hode. The lefthswhich do become inbedded, if in sand or gravel, will when the beds are upraised allmeanly be toleesed by the throughstraining of rain-water. I underlook that but few of the very many wights which live on the beach between high and low watermark are aspared. For bisen, the manysome wightkin of the chthamalinæ (a under-huered of stemfayed moochshellwights) coat the rocks all over the world in boundless rimes: they are all strictly shorely, with the outtake of a onele mediterranea wightkin, which inwones deep water and has been found stonewight in sicily, whereas not one other wightkin has hitherto been found in any thirdsome shapenness: yet it is now known that the wightkind chthamalus wesened during the chalk timedeal. The thinshellbearers wightkind chiton offers a ondealy samerunsome happenlay. With edsight to the earthly tidderings which lived during the twothary and alderoldlifelingly timedeals, it is overmichel to onlay that our outshow from stonewight [bookleaf] 289 chap. Ix. Earthlorely edferth. Lefthsis breaklingary in an outest andstep. For bisen, not a land shell is known belonging to either of these vast timedeals, with one outtake anddecked by sir c. Lyell in the coalstuffly strata of north america. In sight to sucklewightly lefths, a onele glance at the yorelorely table forlaid in the underfill to lyell's manual, will bring home the truth, how accidental and seldly is their asparing, far better than bookleafs of atcut. Nor is their seldomness overnimming, when we mun how michel a ondeal of the bones of thirdsome sucklewights have been anddecked either in caves or in lacustrine offstells; and that not a shraff or true lacustrine bed is known belonging to the eldth of our twothsome or alderoldlifelingly shapennesses. But the unfullcomeliness in the earthlorely edferth mainly outfollows from another and more weighty bring-about than any of the foregoing; namely, from the manysome shapennesses being totweemed from each other by wide timestretchs of time. When we see the shapennesses meatboardened in written works, or when we follow them in ikind, it is arvethfast to forbow believing that they are closely afollowsome. But we know, for bisen, from sir r. Murchison's great work on russia, what wide gaps there are in that landred between the overinstelled shapennesses; so it is in north america, and in many other deals of the world. The most skilful earthlorer, if his mindlook had been outshutly benarrowened to these michel landdoms, would never have underlooked that during the timedeals which were blank and barren in his own landred, great piles of siltstuff, throughfilled with new and odd forms of life, had elsewhere been upheaped. And if in each totweemed landdom, hardly any thinkling can be ashaped of the length of time which has forstroked between the afollowsome shapennesses, we may offlead that this could nowhere be foriwised. The loom O [bookleaf] 290 unfullcomeliness of the chap. Ix. And great awends in the mineralogical setness of afollowsome shapennesses, allmeanly infolding great awends in the landlay of the imbholding lands, whence the siltstuff has been offstreamed, accords with the belief of vast timestretchs of time having forstroked between each beshaping. But we can, i think, see why the earthlorely shapennesses of each ard are almost everywhen betwixtstelling; that is, have not followed each other in close followth. Hardly any deedsake struck me more when underseeking many hundred miles of the south american coasts, which have been upraised manysome hundred feet within the short-ago timedeal, than the unandwardness of any short-ago offstells enoughsomely outstretchly to last for even a short earthlorely timedeal. Along the whole west coast, which is inwoned by a odd sealy wightmaith, thirdsome beds are so scantily andwound, that no edferth of manysome afterfollowly and odd sealy wightmaiths will likely be aspared to a farfast eldth. A little imbthank will aclear why along the rising coast of the western side of south america, no outstretchly shapennesses with short-ago or thirdsome lefthscan anywhere be found, though the bestock of siltstuff must for eldths have been great, from the aldermichel netherrotting of the coast-rocks and from muddy streams entering the sea. The aclearing, no twight, is, that the shorely and under-shorely offstells are throughstandingly worn away, as soon as they are brought up by the slow and stepmeal rising of the land within the grinding deedship of the coast-waves. We may, i think, safely ashut that siltstuff must be upheaped in outestly thick, solid, or outstretchly masses, in order to withstand the unblinning deedship of the waves, when first upraised and during underfollowing besways of level. Such thick and outstretchly upheapings of siltstuff may be ashaped in two ways; either, [bookleaf] 291 chap. Ix. Earthlorely edferth. In deep depths of the sea, in which happenlay, deeming from the researches of e. Forbes, we may ashut that the bottom will be inwoned by outestly few wights, and the mass when upraised will give a most unfullcome edferth of the forms of life which then wesened; or, siltstuff may be upheaped to any thickness and scope over a shallow bottom, if it continue slowly to nethersettle. In this latter happenlay, as long as the rimespeed of nethersettling and bestock of siltstuff nearly evenweight each other, the sea will belive shallow and rithbere for life, and thus a stonewight-making beshaping thick enough, when upraised, to withset any muchth of netherrotting, may be ashaped. I am overtold that all our alderold shapennesses, which are rich in stonewights, have thus been ashaped during nethersettling. Since publishing my onsights on this underthrow in 1845, i have watched the forthstride of earthlore, and have been overnome to ontoken how writmaker after writmaker, in treating of this or that great beshaping, has come to the ashut that it was upheaped during nethersettling. I may ateak, that the only alderold thirdsome beshaping on the west coast of south america, which has been bulky enough to withset such netherrotting as it has as yet thrawed, but which will hardly last to a farfast earthlorely eldth, was iwis offstelled during a downward besway of level, and thus gained hidgebere thickness. All earthlorely deedsakes tell us plainly that each area has undergone rimeful slow besways of level, and opensightly these besways have onworked wide roomhoods. Infollowingly shapennesses rich in stonewights and enoughsomely thick and outstretchly to withset underfollowing netherrotting, may have been ashaped over wide roomhoods during timedeals of nethersettling, but only where the bestock of siltstuff was enoughsome to keep the sea shallow and to inbed and O 2 [bookleaf] 292 unfullcomeliness of the chap. Ix. Aspare the lefthsbefore they had time to decay. On the other hand, as long as the bed of the sea belived unaquetchsome, thick offstells could not have been upheaped in the shallow deals, which are the most rithbere to life. Still less could this have happened during the offwrixlesome timedeals of alifting; or, to speak more targeockfastly, the beds which were then upheaped will have been fordone by being upraised and brought within the underties of the coast-deedship. Thus the earthlorely edferth will almost needbehovely be made betwixtstelling. I feel much belieffastness in the truth of these onsights, for they are in strict accordance with the allmeanly thoughsetlays instamped by sir c. Lyell; and e. Forbes unoffhangingly arrived at a alike ashut. One edmark is here worth a passing bemark. During timedeals of alifting the area of the land and of the afaying shoal deals of the sea will be eaked, and new standsteads will often be ashaped;—all imbstands most rithbere, as beforely acleared, for the beshaping of new isunders and wightkin; but during such timedeals there will allmeanly be a blank in the earthlorely edferth. On the other hand, during nethersettling, the inwoned area and rime of inwoners will decrease (nimth the tidderings on the shores of a earthdeal when first broken up into an islandmaith), and infollowingly during nethersettling, though there will be much fornaughting, fewer new isunders or wightkin will be ashaped; and it is during these very timedeals of nethersettling, that our great offstells rich in stonewights have been upheaped. Ikind may almost be said to have guarded against the loom anddeck of her overgangly or linking forms. From the foregoing hidgings it cannot be twighted that the earthlorely edferth, onsighted as a whole, is outestly unfullcome; but if we benarrowen our mindlook to any one beshaping, it becomes more arvethfast to under- [bookleaf] 293 chap. Ix. Earthlorely edferth. Stand, why we do not therein find closely bestepped isunders between the alinked wightkin which lived at its beginning and at its close. Some happenlays are on edferth of the same wightkin andwarding toshed isunders in the upper and lower deals of the same beshaping, but, as they are seldly, they may be here passed over. Although each beshaping has unfliteberely tharfed a vast rime of years for its offstell, i can see manysome thinkcrafts why each should not imbhave a bestepped followth of links between the wightkin which then lived; but i can by no means belike to atoken due ondealy weight to the following hidgings. Although each beshaping may mark a very long whilestitch of years, each forhaps is short withmeted with the timedeal needed to awend one wightkin into another. I am aware that two alderoldbeinglorers, whose onthinks are worthy of much deference, namely bronn and woodward, have ashut that the throughsnithe whilehood of each beshaping is twice or thrice as long as the throughsnithe whilehood of insunderly forms. But unovercomebere arveths, as it seems to me, forecome us coming to any just ashut on this head. When we see a wightkin first showing up in the middle of any beshaping, it would be rash in the outest to offlead that it had not elsewhere beforely wesened. So again when we find a wightkin swinding before the uppermost layers have been offstelled, it would be evenworthly rash to understell that it then became wholly fornaughted. We forget how small the area of europe is withmeted with the rest of the world; nor have the manysome stepocks of the same beshaping throughout europe been togetherakinned with fullcome targeockfastness. With sealy wights of all kinds, we may safely offlead a michel muchth of yondshrithing during loftlayly and other awends; and when we see a wightkin first showing up in any beshaping, the likelihood is that it [bookleaf] 294 unfullcomeliness of the chap. Ix. Only then first inyondshrothe into that area. It is well known, for bisen, that manysome wightkin showed up somewhat earlier in the alderoldlifelingly beds of north america than in those of europe; time having opensightly been tharfed for their yondshrithing from the american to the european seas. In underseeking the latest offstells of sundry fourths of the world, it has everywhere been ontokened, that some few still wesening wightkin are imean in the offstell, but have become fornaughted in the forthwith imbholding sea; or, otherwayly, that some are now fullsome in the neighbouring sea, but are seldly or unandward in this dealocksome offstell. It is an highmood lesson to imbthink on the foriwised muchth of yondshrithing of the inwoners of europe during the icelayly timedeal, which forms only a deal of one whole earthlorely timedeal; and likewise to imbthink on the great awends of level, on the overmichel great awend of loftlay, on the highmichel whilestitch of time, all imbhaved within this same icelayly timedeal. Yet it may be twighted whether in any fourth of the world, siltstuffly offstells, imbhaving stonewight lefths, have gone on beheaping within the same area during the whole of this timedeal. It is not, for bisen, likely that siltstuff was offstelled during the whole of the icelayly timedeal near the mouth of the mississippi, within that undertie of depth at which sealy wights can flourish; for we know what vast earthlorely awends betided in other deals of america during this roomhood of time. When such beds as were offstelled in shallow water near the mouth of the mississippi during some deal of the icelayly timedeal shall have been upraised, lifesome lefthswill likely first show up and swind at undershedsome levels, owing to the yondshrithing of wightkin and to earthlorely awends. And in the farfast to-come, a earthlorer underseeking these beds, might be costened to ashut that the throughsnithe whilehood of life [bookleaf] 295 chap. Ix. Earthlorely edferth. Of the inbedded stonewights had been less than that of the icelayly timedeal, instead of having been really far greater, that is outstretching from before the icelayly yoretimelaystart to the andward day. In order to get a fullcome stepling between two forms in the upper and lower deals of the same beshaping, the offstell must have gone on beheaping for a very long timedeal, in order to have given enoughsome time for the slow forthhappen of sundriness; hence the offstell will allmeanly have to be a very thick one; and the wightkin undergoing awending will have had to live on the same area throughout this whole time. But we have seen that a thick stonewight-making beshaping can only be upheaped during a timedeal of nethersettling; and to keep the depth benearsomely the same, which is needbehovely in order to bemayen the same wightkin to live on the same roomhood, the bestock of siltstuff must nearly have withevenweighted the muchth of nethersettling. But this same feeth of nethersettling will often nige to sink the area whence the siltstuff is offstreamed, and thus aquine the bestock whilst the downward feeth throughstands. In deedsake, this nearly weetil evenweighing between the bestock of siltstuff and the muchth of nethersettling is likely a seldly offhanginess; for it has been behowed by more than one alderoldbeinglorer, that very thick offstells are wonely barren of lifesome lefths, nimth near their upper or lower underties. It would seem that each totweemed beshaping, like the whole pile of shapennesses in any landred, has allmeanly been betwixtstelling in its upheaping. When we see, as is so often the happenlay, a beshaping composed of beds of undershedsome mineralogical setness, we may thinkcraftly underlook that the forthhappen of offstell has been much underbroken, as a awend in the currents of the sea and a bestock of siltstuff of an undershedsome ikind will [bookleaf] 296 unfullcomeliness of the chap. Ix. Allmeanly have been due to earthlorely awends tharfing much time. Nor will the closest inlooking of a beshaping give any thinkling of the time which its offstell has dretted. Many bisens could be given of beds only a few feet in thickness, edandwarding shapennesses, elsewhere thousands of feet in thickness, and which must have tharfed an aldermichel timedeal for their upheaping; yet no one unwittle of this deedsake would have underlooked the vast whilestitch of time aspelled by the thinner beshaping. Many happenlays could be given of the lower beds of a beshaping having been upraised, astripped, underdipped, and then re-betielded by the upper beds of the same beshaping,—deedsakes, showing what wide, yet easily overlooked, timestretchs have betided in its upheaping. In other happenlays we have the plainest outshow in great stonewightised trees, still standing upright as they grew, of many long timestretchs of time and awends of level during the forthhappen of offstell, which would never even have been underlooked, had not the trees whated to have been aspared: thus, messrs. Lyell and dawson found coalstuffly beds 1400 feet thick in nbudlings scotia, with alderold root-bearing flatwiselayers, one above the other, at no less than sixty-eight undershedsome levels. Hence, when the same wightkin betide at the bottom, middle, and top of a beshaping, the likelihood is that they have not lived on the same spot during the whole timedeal of offstell, but have swund and edupshown, forhaps many times, during the same earthlorely timedeal. So that if such wightkin were to undergo a hidgebere muchth of awending during any one earthlorely timedeal, a offdeal would not likely imbhave all the fine betweenly steplings which must on my thoughtlay have wesened between them, but inbreakly, though forhaps very slight, awends of form. It is all-weighty to mun that ikindlorers have [bookleaf] 297 chap. Ix. Earthlorely edferth. No golden rule by which to toshed wightkin and isunders; they grant some little sundriness to each wightkin, but when they meet with a somewhat greater muchth of undershed between any two forms, they rank both as wightkin, unless they are bemayened to belink them together by close betweenly steplings. And this from the thinkcrafts just atokened we can seldom hope to onwork in any one earthlorely offdeal. Understelling b and c to be two wightkin, and a third, a, to be found in an underlying bed; even if a were strictly betweenly between b and c, it would sinfold be ranked as a third and toshed wightkin, unless at the same time it could be most closely belinked with either one or both forms by betweenly isunders. Nor should it be forgotten, as before acleared, that a might be the soothly akennend of b and c, and yet might not at all needbehovely be strictly betweenly between them in all ords of upbuild. So that we might fang the akennend-wightkin and its manysome awended netherastiends from the lower and upper beds of a beshaping, and unless we fanged rimeful overgangly steplings, we should not edknow their maithred, and should infollowingly be thraffed to rank them all as toshed wightkin. It is couthfast on what overmuchly slight undersheds many alderoldbeinglorers have founded their wightkin; and they do this the more readily if the neeslings come from undershedsome under-stepocks of the same beshaping. Some outfanded conchologists are now sinking many of the very fine wightkin of d'orbigny and others into the rank of isunders; and on this onsight we do find the kind of outshow of awend which on my thoughtlay we ought to find. Moreover, if we look to rather wider timestretchs, namely, to toshed but afollowsome stepocks of the same great beshaping, we find that the inbedded stonewights, though almost allhomely ranked as insunderly undershedsome, O 3 [bookleaf] 298 unfullcomeliness of the chap. Ix. Yet are far more closely alinked to each other than are the wightkin found in more widely totweemed shapennesses; but to this underthrow i shall have to edwhirft in the following bookdeal. One other hidging is worth bemark: with wights and plants that can forspread quickly and are not highly aquetchfull, there is thinkcraft to underlook, as we have formerly seen, that their isunders are allmeanly at first stowly; and that such stowly isunders do not spread widely and undersole their akennend-forms until they have been awended and fullfremmed in some hidgebere andstep. According to this onsight, the whate of anddecking in a beshaping in any one landred all the early stepocks of overgang between any two forms, is small, for the afterfollowly awends are understelled to have been stowly or benarrowened to some one spot. Most sealy wights have a wide scope; and we have seen that with plants it is those which have the widest scope, that oftenest andward isunders; so that with shells and other sealy wights, it is likely those which have had the widest scope, far outgoing the underties of the known earthlorely shapennesses of europe, which have oftenest given rise, first to stowly isunders and endfastly to new wightkin; and this again would greatly lessen the whate of our being able to trace the stepocks of overgang in any one earthlorely beshaping. It should not be forgotten, that at the andward day, with fullcome neeslings for underseeking, two forms can seldom be belinked by betweenly isunders and thus afanded to be the same wightkin, until many neeslings have been gathered from manysteads; and in the happenlay of stonewight wightkin this could seldom be onworked by alderoldbeinglorers. We shall, forhaps, best onget the unacomingliness of our being bemayened to belink wightkin by rimeful, fine, betweenly, stonewight links, by asking [bookleaf] 299 chap. Ix. Earthlorely edferth. Ourselves whether, for bisen, earthlorers at some to-come timedeal will be able to afand, that our undershedsome breeds of orf, sheep, horses, and dogs have netherastien from a onele stock or from manysome fromthfast stocks; or, again, whether somel sea-shells inwoning the shores of north america, which are ranked by some conchologists as toshed wightkin from their european aspellings, and by other conchologists as only isunders, are really isunders or are, as it is called, insunderly toshed. This could be onworked only by the to-come earthlorer anddecking in a stonewight onlay rimeful betweenly steplings; and such success seems to me imlikely in the highest andstep. Earthlorely research, though it has ateaked rimeful wightkin to wesening and fornaughted wightkinds, and has made the timestretchs between some few maiths less wide than they otherwise would have been, yet has done hardly anything in breaking down the ished between wightkin, by belinking them together by rimeful, fine, betweenly isunders; and this not having been onworked, is likely the gravest and most opensightly of all the many withthrowings which may be thraffed against my onsights. Hence it will be worth while to sum up the foregoing edmarks, under an hyeshowsome onlight. The malay islandmaith is of about the size of europe from the north cape to the mediterranean, and from britain to russia; and therefore equals all the earthlorely shapennesses which have been undersought with any targeockfastness, nimth those of the beoned onlays of america. I fully agree with Mr. Godwin-austen, that the andward hode of the malay islandmaith, with its rimeful michel islands totweemed by wide and shallow seas, likely aspells the former onlay of europe, when most of our shapennesses were beheaping. The malay islandmaith is one of the richest ards of the [bookleaf] 300 unfullcomeliness of the chap. Ix. Whole world in lifesome beings; yet if all the wightkin were to be gathered which have ever lived there, how unfullcomely would they aspell the ikindsome yorelore of the world! But we have every thinkcraft to believe that the earthly tidderings of the islandmaith would be aspared in an overmuchly unfullcome way in the shapennesses which we understell to be there beheaping. I underlook that not many of the strictly shorely wights, or of those which lived on naked subsealy rocks, would be inbedded; and those inbedded in gravel or sand, would not thole to a farfast yoretimelaystart. Wherever siltstuff did not upheap on the bed of the sea, or where it did not upheap at a enoughsome rimespeed to barrow lifesome bodies from decay, no lefthscould be aspared. In our islandmaith, i believe that stonewight-making shapennesses could be ashaped of enoughsome thickness to last to an eldth, as farfast in to-comeness as the twothsome shapennesses lie in the eretide, only during timedeals of nethersettling. These timedeals of nethersettling would be totweemed from each other by aldermichel timestretchs, during which the area would be either unaquetchsome or rising; whilst rising, each stonewight-making beshaping would be fordone, almost as soon as upheaped, by the unblinning coast-deedship, as we now see on the shores of South America. During the timedeals of nethersettling there would likely be much fornaughting of life; during the timedeals of alifting, there would be much sundriness, but the earthlorely edferth would then be least fullcome. It may be twighted whether the whilehood of any one great timedeal of nethersettling over the whole or deal of the islandmaith, together with a evenoldsome upheaping of siltstuff, would outgo the throughsnithe whilehood of the same insunderly forms; and these offhanginesses are [bookleaf] 301 chap. Ix. Earthlorely edferth. Indispensable for the asparing of all the overgangly steplings between any two or more wightkin. If such steplings were not fully aspared, overgangly isunders would merely thench as so many toshed wightkin. It is, also, likely that each great timedeal of nethersettling would be underbroken by besways of level, and that slight loftlayly awends would betwixtcome during such lengthy timedeals; and in these happenlays the inwoners of the islandmaith would have to yondshrithe, and no closely afollowsome edferth of their awendings could be aspared in any one beshaping. Very many of the sealy inwoners of the islandmaith now scope thousands of miles beyond its benarrowens; and samerun leads me to believe that it would be chiefly these far-ranging wightkin which would oftenest tidder new isunders; and the isunders would at first allmeanly be stowly or benarrowened to onestead, but if besat of any becut foredeal, or when further awended and bettered, they would slowly spread and undersole their akennend-forms. When such isunders againchared to their alderold homes, as they would andsame from their former onlay, in a nearly oneshaped, though forhaps outestly slight andstep, they would, according to the thoughsetlays followed by many alderoldbeinglorers, be ranked as new and toshed wightkin. If then, there be some andstep of truth in these edmarks, we have no right to bewait to find in our earthlorely shapennesses, an boundless rime of those fine overgangly forms, which on my thoughtlay assuredly have belinked all the eretide and andward wightkin of the same maith into one long and branching chain of life. We ought only to look for a few links, some more closely, some more farfastly akinned to each other; and these links, let them be ever so close, if found in undershedsome stepocks of the same beshaping, would, by most alderoldbeinglorers [bookleaf] 302 unfullcomeliness of the chap. Ix. Be ranked as toshed wightkin. But i do not belike that i should ever have underlooked how arm a edferth of the awendings of life, the best aspared earthlorely offdeal andwarded, had not the arveth of our not anddecking unarimebere overgangly links between the wightkin which showed up at the beginning and close of each beshaping, pressed so hardly on my thoughtlay. On the sudden upshowing of whole maiths of alinked wightkin.—the inbreakly way in which whole maiths of wightkin suddenly show up in somel shapennesses, has been thraffed by manysome alderoldbeinglorers, for bisen, by agassiz, pictet, and by none more strengthfully than by lorefather sedgwick, as a deathfast withthrowing to the belief in the transawending of wightkin. If rimeful wightkin, belonging to the same wightkinds or huereds, have really started into life all at once, the deedsake would be deathfast to the thoughtlay of netherastieing with slow awending through ikindsome choosing. For the andwinding of a maith of forms, all of which have netherastien from some one akennend, must have been an outestly slow forthhappen; and the akennends must have lived long eldths before their awended netherastiends. But we throughstandingly over-rimespeed the fullcomeliness of the earthlorely edferth, and falsely offlead, forwhysomel wightkinds or huereds have not been found beneath a somel stepock, that they did not wesen before that stepock. We throughstandingly forget how michel the world is, withmeted with the area over which our earthlorely shapennesses have been carefully undersought; we forget that maiths of wightkin may elsewhere have long wesened and have slowly manyened before they onfallen the alderold islandmaithes of europe and of the beoned onlays. We do not hidge enough for the aldermichel timestretchs of time, which have [bookleaf] 303 chap. Ix. Earthlorely edferth. Likely forstroked between our afollowsome shapennesses,—longer forhaps in some happenlays than the time tharfed for the upheaping of each beshaping. These timestretchs will have given time for the manyening of wightkin from some one or some few akennend-forms; and in the aftercoming beshaping such wightkin will show up as if suddenly beshaped. I may here recall a edmark formerly made, namely that it might tharf a long afterfollowingness of eldths to throughfit an lifer to some new and odd line of life, for bisen to fly through the air; but that when this had been onworked, and a few wightkin had thus underfanged a great foredeal over other lifers, a withmetesomely short time would be needbehovely to tidder many towharving forms, which would be able to spread quickly and widely throughout the world. I will now give a few bisens to onlight these edmarks; and to show how atiely we are to dwild in understelling that whole maiths of wightkin have suddenly been tiddered. I may recall the well-known deedsake that in earthlorely writlays, forlaid not many years ago, the great ilk of sucklewights was always spoken of as having inbreakly come in at the beginning of the thirdsome followth. And now one of the richest known upheapings of stonewight sucklewights belongs to the middle of the twothsome followth; and one true sucklewight has been anddecked in the new red sandstone at nearly the beginning of this great followth. Cuvier used to thraf that no monkey betided in any thirdsome flatwiselayer; but now fornaughted wightkin have been anddecked in india, south america, and in europe even as far back as the sucklewighttimedeal stepock. The most striking happenlay, however, is that of the whale huered; as these wights have huge bones, are sealy, and scope over the world, the deedsake of not a onele bone of a whale having been anddecked in [bookleaf] 304 unfullcomeliness of the chap. Ix. Any twothsome beshaping, seemed fully to justify the belief that this great and toshed order had been suddenly tiddered in the timestretch between the latest twothsome and earliest thirdsome beshaping. But now we may read in the underfill to lyell's 'manual,' forlaid in 1858, clear outshow of the wist of whales in the upper greensand, some time before the close of the twothsome timedeal. I may give another bisen, which from having passed under my own eyes has much struck me. In a minwrit on stonewight stemfayed moochshellwights, i have quided that, from the rime of wesening and fornaughted thirdsome wightkin; from the orwoneliness fullsomeness of the untodealels of many wightkin all over the world, from the highnorthards to the samer, inwoning sundry zones of depths from the upper tidal underties to 50 fathoms; from the fullcome way in which neeslings are aspared in the oldest thirdsome beds; from the ease with which even a breakling of a onewayflap can be edknown; from all these imbstands, i offlead that had stemfayed moochshellwights wesened during the twothsome timedeals, they would iwis have been aspared and anddecked; and as not one wightkin had been anddecked in beds of this eldth, i ashut that this great maith had been suddenly andwound at the beginning of the thirdsome followth. This was a sore trouble to me, ateaking as i thought one more bisen of the inbreakly upshowing of a great maith of wightkin. But my work had hardly been forlaid, when a skilful alderoldbeinglorer, m. Bosquet, sent me a drawing of a perfect neesling of an unmistakebere stemfayed moochshellwight, which he had himself extrbedoed from the chalk of belgium. And, as if to make the happenlay as striking as acomingly, this stemfayed moochshellwight was a chthamalus, a very imean, michel, and ubiquitous wightkind, of which not one neesling has as yet been found even in any thirdsome [bookleaf] 305 chap. Ix. Earthlorely edferth. Flatwiselayer. Hence we now positively know that stemfayed moochshellwights wesened during the twothsome timedeal; and these moochshellwights might have been the akennends of our many thirdsome and wesening wightkin. The happenlay most loomly bestood on by alderoldbeinglorers of the opensightly sudden upshowing of a whole maith of wightkin, is that of the teleostean fishes, low down in the chalk timedeal. This maith imbhaves the michel mosthood of wesening wightkin. Lately, lorefather pictet has borne their wist one under-stepock further back; and some alderoldbeinglorers believe that somel much older fishes, of which the sibreds are as yet unfullcomely known, are really teleostean. Foretaking, however, that the whole of them did show up, as agassiz believes, at the beginning of the chalk beshaping, the deedsake would iwis be highly edmarkbere; but i cannot see that it would be an unovercomebere arveth on my thoughtlay, unless it could likewise be shown that the wightkin of this maith showed up suddenly and sametimely throughout the world at this same timedeal. It is almost overmichel to edmark that hardly any stonewight-fish are known from south of the samer; and by running through pictet's alderoldbeinglore it will be seen that very few wightkin are known from manysome shapennesses in europe. Some few huereds of fish now have a benarrowened scope; the teleostean fish might formerly have had a alikely benarrowened scope, and after having been michelly andwound in some one sea, might have spread widely. Nor have we any right to understell that the seas of the world have always been so freely open from south to north as they are at andward. Even at this day, if the malay islandmaith were forwended into land, the tropical deals of the indian ocean would form a michel and fullcomely inshut basin, in which any great maith of sealy wights might be manyened; and [bookleaf] 306 unfullcomeliness of the chap. Ix. Here they would belive benarrowened, until some of the wightkin became throughfit to a cooler loftlay, and were bemayened to double the southern capes of Africa or Australia, and thus reach other and farfast seas. From these and alike hidgings, but chiefly from our unwareship of the earthlore of other landreds beyond the benarrowens of europe and the beoned onlays; and from the imbwhirft in our alderoldbeinglorely thinklings on many ords, which the anddecks of even the last dozen years have onworked, it seems to me to be about as rash in us to dogmatize on the afterfollowingness of lifesome beings throughout the world, as it would be for an ikindlorer to land for five littleocks on some one barren ord in australia, and then to imbspeak the rime and scope of its tidderings. On the sudden upshowing of maiths of alinked wightkin in the lowest known stonewight-making flatwiselayers.—there is another and alinked arveth, which is much graver. I atpull to the way in which rimes of wightkin of the same maith, suddenly show up in the lowest known stonewight-making rocks. Most of the groundhoods which have overtold me that all the wesening wightkin of the same maith have netherastien from one akennend, belay with nearly evenworth thrake to the earliest known wightkin. For bisen, i cannot twight that all the silurian threelobebugs have netherastien from some one shellbearer, which must have lived long before the silurian eldth, and which likely andsamed greatly from any known wight. Some of the most alderold siluria wights, as the nautilus, tonguelyshellwight, &c., do not andsame much from living wightkin; and it cannot on my thoughtlay be understelled, that these old wightkin were the akennends of all the wightkin of the orders to which they belong, for they do not andward suchnesses in any andstep betweenly between them. [bookleaf] 307 chap. Ix. Earthlorely edferth. If, moreover, they had been the akennends of these orders, they would almost iwis have been long ago undersoled and benothinged by their rimeful and bettered netherastiends. Infollowingly, if my thoughtlay be true, it is unflitebere that before the lowest silurian flatwiselayer was offstelled, long timedeals forstroked, as long as, or likely far longer than, the whole timestretch from the silurian eldth to the andward day; and that during these vast, yet quite unknown, timedeals of time, the world swarmed with living creatures. To the fraign why we do not find edferths of these vast fromthly timedeals, i can give no befrithsome answer. Manysome of the most highoutly earthlorers, with sir r. Murchison at their head, are overtold that we see in the lifesome lefthsof the lowest silurian flatwiselayer the dawn of life on this sunringtungle. Other highly cansome deemends, as lyell and the late e. Forbes, flite this ashut. We should not forget that only a small muchthdeal of the world is known with targeockfastness. M. Barrande has lately ateaked another and lower stepock to the silurian setlay, abounding with new and odd wightkin. Traces of life have been arepped in the longmynd beds beneath barrande's so-called fromthly zone. The andwardness of phosphatic knotlings and oretarly matter in some of the lowest orlife rocks, likely inquids the former wist of life at these timedeals. But the arveth of understanding the unandwardness of vast piles of stonewight-making flatwiselayers, which on my thoughtlay no twight were somewhere upheaped before the silurian yoretimelaystart, is very great. If these most alderold beds had been wholly worn away by astripping, or netherthrutched by overshapingly deedship, we ought to find only small leftocks of the shapennesses next aftercoming them in eldth, and these ought to be very allmeanly in [bookleaf] 308 unfullcomeliness of the chap. Ix. A overshaped hode. But the bewritings which we now besit of the silurian offstells over widemichel landdoms in russia and in north america, do not underbear the onsight, that the older a beshaping is, the more it has thrawed the outestness of astripping and overshaping. The happenlay at andward must belive unaclearbere; and may be truly thraffed as a rightsome groundhood against the onsights here betweenheld. To show that it may hereafter thidge some aclearing, i will give the following fore-thoughtlay. From the ikind of the lifesome lefths, which do not thench to have inwoned deep depths, in the manysome shapennesses of europe and of the beoned onlays; and from the amount of siltstuff, miles in thickness, of which the shapennesses are composed, we may offlead that from first to last michel islands or tracts of land, whence the siltstuff was offstreamed, betided in the neighbourhood of the wesening earthdeals of europe and north america. But we do not know what was the onlay of things in the timestretchs between the afterfollowly shapennesses; whether europe and the beoned onlays during these timestretchs wesened as dry land, or as a subsealy overside near land, on which siltstuff was not offstelled, or again as the bed of an open and unfathomable sea. Looking to the wesening oceans, which are thrice as outstretchly as the land, we see them studded with many islands; but not one oceanic island is as yet known to afford even a leftock of any alderoldlifelingly or twothsome beshaping. Hence we may forhaps offlead, that during the alderoldlifelingly and twothsome timedeals, neither earthdeals nor earthdealsome islands wesened where our oceans now outstretch; for had they wesened there, alderoldlifelingly and twothsome shapennesses would in all likelihood have been upheaped from siltstuff offstreamed from their wear and [bookleaf] 309 chap. Ix. Earthlorely edferth. Tear; and would have been at least ondealy upheaved by the besways of level, which we may fairly ashut must have betwixtcome during these aldermichelly long timedeals. If then we may offlead anything from these deedsakes, we may offlead that where our oceans now outstretch, oceans have stretched out from the far-offst timedeal of which we have any edferth; and on the other hand, that where earthdeals now wesen, michel tract of land have wesened, underthrown no twight to great besways of level, since the earliest silurian timedeal. The coloured map appended to my writheap on coral reefs, led me to ashut that the great oceans are still mainly areas of nethersettling, the great islandmaithes still areas of besways of level, and the earthdeals areas of alifting. But have we any right to foretake that things have thus belived from foreverness? Our earthdeals seem to have been ashaped by a downsinking, during many besways of level, of the thrake of alifting; but may not the areas of downsinking feeth have awended in the whilestitch of eldths? At a timedeal unameteberly beforely to the silurian yoretimelaystart, earthdeals may have wesened where oceans are now spread out; and clear and open oceans may have wesened where our earthdeals now stand. Nor should we be justified in foretaking that if, for bisen, the bed of the pacific ocean were now forwended into a earthdeal, we should there find shapennesses older than the silurian flatwiselayers, understelling such to have been formerly offstelled; for it might well happen that flatwiselayers which had nethersettled some miles nearer to the middlen of the earth, and which had been thrismed on by an aldermichel weight of overlying water, might have undergone far more overshapingly deedship than flatwiselayers which have always belived nearer to the overside. The immense areas in some deals of the world, for bisen in south america, of bare overshapingly rocks, which [bookleaf] 310 unfullcomeliness of the chap. Ix. Must have been heated under great pressure, have always seemed to me to tharf some sunderful aclearing; and we may forhaps believe that we see in these michel areas, the many shapennesses long anterior to the silurian yoretimelaystart in a fullthroughly overshaped hode. The manysome arveths here imbspoken, namely our not finding in the afterfollowly shapennesses boundlessly rimeful overgangly links between the many wightkin which now wesen or have wesened; the sudden way in which whole maiths of wightkin show up in our european shapennesses; the almost whole unandwardness, as at andward known, of stonewight-making shapennesses beneath the silurian flatwiselayers, are all untwightedly of the gravest ikind. We see this in the plainest way by the deedsake that all the most highoutly alderoldbeinglorers, namely cuvier, owen, agassiz, barrande, falconer, e. Forbes, &c., and all our greatest earthlorers, as lyell, murchison, sedgwick, &c., have onesoulsomely, often sprindly, upkept the unawendbereness of wightkin. But i have thinkcraft to believe that one great alderdom, sir charles lyell, from further smaying betweenholds grave twights on this underthrow. I feel how rash it is to andsame from these great alderdoms, to whom, with others, we owe all our knowledge. Those who think the ikindsome earthlorely edferth in any andstep fullcome, and who do not onfasten much weight to the deedsakes and groundhoods of other kinds given in this writheap, will untwightedly at once withset my thoughtlay. For my deal, following out lyell's hueship, i look at the ikindsome earthlorely edferth, as a yorelore of the world unfullcomely kept, and written in an awending underirord; of this yorelore we besit the last writheap alone, akinning only to two or three landreds. Of this writheap, only here and there a short bookdeal has [bookleaf] 311 chap. Ix. Earthlorely edferth. Been aspared; and of each bookleaf, only here and there a few lines. Each word of the slowly-awending irord, in which the yorelore is understelled to be written, being more or less undershedsome in the underbroken afterfollowingness of bookdeals, may aspell the opensightly inbreakly awended forms of life, inlichrested in our afollowsome, but widely totweemed shapennesses. On this onsight, the arveths above imbspoken are greatly aquinen, or even swind. [bookleaf] 312 earthlorely afterfollowingness. Chap. X. Bookdeal x. On the earthlorely afterfollowingness of lifesome beings. On the slow and afterfollowly upshowing of new wightkin — on their undershedsome rimespeeds of awend — wightkin once lost do not edupshow — maiths of wightkin follow the same allmeanly rules in their upshowing and swinding as do onele wightkin — on fornaughting — on sametimely awends in the forms of life throughout the world — on the sibreds of fornaughted wightkin to each other and to living wightkin — on the onlay of andwinding of alderold forms — on the afterfollowingness of the same kinds within the same areas — summary of beforecoming and andward bookdeals. Let us now see whether the manysome deedsakes and rules akinning to the earthlorely afterfollowingness of lifesome beings, better accord with the imean onsight of the unawendbereness of wightkin, or with that of their slow and stepmeal awending, through netherastieing and ikindsome choosing. New wightkin have shown up very slowly, one after another, both on the land and in the waters. Lyell has shown that it is hardly acomingly to withset the outshow on this head in the happenlay of the manysome thirdsome stepocks; and every year tends to fill up the blanks between them, and to make the byhundredship setlay of lost and new forms more stepmeal. In some of the most short-ago beds, though untwightedly of high furnness if ameted by years, only one or two wightkin are lost forms, and only one or two are new forms, having here shown up for the first time, either stowlyly, or, as far as we know, on the face of the earth. If we may trust the behowings of philippi in sicily, the afterfollowly awends in the sealy inwoners of that island have been many and most stepmeal. The twothsome shapennesses are more broken; but, as bronn has edmarked, neither the upshowing [bookleaf] 313 chap. X. Earthlorely afterfollowingness. Nor swinding of their many now fornaughted wightkin has been sametimely in each totweemed beshaping. Wightkin of undershedsome wightkinds and ilks have not awended at the same rimespeed, or in the same andstep. In the oldest thirdsome beds a few living shells may still be found in the midst of a dright of fornaughted forms. Falconer has given a striking bisen of a alike deedsake, in an wesening swampmichelcreepwight onbound with many selcouth and lost sucklewights and creepwights in the under-himalayan offstells. The silurian tonguelyshellwight andsames but little from the living wightkin of this wightkind; whereas most of the other silurian thinshellbearers and all the shellbearers have forothered greatly. The tidderings of the land seem to awend at a quicker rimespeed than those of the sea, of which a striking bisen has lately been behowed in switzerland. There is some thinkcraft to believe that lifers, hidged high in the scale of ikind, forother more quickly than those that are low: though there are outtakes to this rule. The muchth of lifesome awend, as pictet has edmarked, does not strictly togetheranswer with the afterfollowingness of our earthlorely shapennesses; so that between each two afollowsome shapennesses, the forms of life have seldom awended in weetilly the same andstep. Yet if we withmete any but the most closely akinned shapennesses, all the wightkin will be found to have undergone some awend. When a wightkin has once swund from the face of the earth, we have thinkcraft to believe that the same selfsame form never edupshows. The strongest opensightly outtake to this latter rule, is that of the so-called "sidewightdoms" of m. Barrande, which intrude for a timedeal in the midst of an older beshaping, and then allow the fore-wesening wightmaith to edupshow; but lyell's aclearing, namely, that it is a happenlay of whilen yondshrithing from a toshed earthlorely selfwieldlandidole, seems to me befrithsome. P [bookleaf] 314 geological afterfollowingness. Chap. X. These manysome deedsakes accord well with my thoughtlay. I believe in no fixed law of andwinding, bewhying all the inwoners of a landred to awend inbreakly, or sametimely, or to an evenworth andstep. The forthhappen of awending must be outestly slow. The sundriness of each wightkin is quite unoffhanging of that of all others. Whether such sundriness be taken foredeal of by ikindsome choosing, and whether the sundrinesss be upheaped to a greater or lesser muchth, thus bewhying a greater or lesser muchth of awending in the forsundering wightkin, offhangs on many throughtangly offhanginesses,—on the sundriness being of a forthly ikind, on the wold of betwixtrooding, on the rimespeed of breeding, on the slowly awending bodily hodes of the landred, and more besunders on the ikind of the other inwoners with which the forsundering wightkin comes into witherstrive. Hence it is by no means overnimming that one wightkin should bekeep the same identical form much longer than others; or, if awending, that it should forother less. We see the same deedsake in earthlorely brittening; for bisen, in the land-shells and beetley bugs of madeira having come to andsame hidgeberely from their nearest allies on the earthdeal of europe, whereas the sealy shells and birds have belived unawended. We can forhaps understand the opensightly quicker rimespeed of awend in earthly and in more highly dighted tidderings withmeted with sealy and lower tidderings, by the more throughtangly sibreds of the higher beings to their lifesome and inlifefast hodes of life, as acleared in a former bookdeal. When many of the inwoners of a landred have become awended and bettered, we can understand, on the thoughsetlay of witherstrive, and on that of the many all-weighty sibreds of lifer to lifer, that any form which does not become in some andstep awended and bettered, [bookleaf] 315 chap. X. Earthlorely afterfollowingness. Will be atiely to be benothinged. Hence we can see why all the wightkin in the same ard do at last, if we look to wide enough timestretchs of time, become awended; for those which do not forother will become fornaughted. In members of the same ilk the throughsnithe muchth of awend, during long and evenworth timedeals of time, may, forhaps, be nearly the same; but as the upheaping of long-tholing stonewight-making shapennesses offhangs on great masses of siltstuff having been offstelled on areas whilst nethersettling, our shapennesses have been almost needbehovely upheaped at wide and unwoneshapefastnessly betwixtstelling timestretchs; infollowingly the muchth of lifesome awend outstelled by the stonewights inbedded in afollowsome shapennesses is not evenworth. Each beshaping, on this onsight, does not mark a new and fullwork bedo of ishaft, but only an otherwhile scene, taken almost at hazard, in a slowly awending drama. We can clearly understand why a wightkin when once lost should never edupshow, even if the very same hodes of life, lifesome and inlifefast, should recur. For though the offspring of one wightkin might be throughfit (and no twight this has betided in unarimebere bisens) to fill the weetillstead of another wightkin in the setlay of ikind, and thus undersole it; yet the two forms—the old and the new—would not be selfsamely the same; for both would almost iwis inherit undershedsome suchnesses from their toshed akennends. For bisen, it is just acomingly, if our fantail-plumpdoves were all fordone, that fanciers, by striving during long eldths for the same towardsthing, might make a new breed hardly toshedable from our andward fantail; but if the akennend rock-plumpdove were also fordone, and in ikind we have every thinkcraft to believe that the akennend-form will allmeanly be undersoled and P 2 [bookleaf] 316 earthlorely afterfollowingness. Chap. X. Benothinged by its bettered offspring, it is quite unbelievebere that a fantail, selfsame with the wesening breed, could be raised from any other wightkin of plumpdove, or even from the other well-statheled races of the housely plumpdove, for the newly-ashaped fantail would be almost sure to erve from its new akennend some slight suchnessly undersheds. Maiths of wightkin, that is, wightkinds and huereds, follow the same allmeanly rules in their upshowing and swinding as do onele wightkin, awending more or less quickly, and in a greater or lesser andstep. A maith does not edupshow after it has once swund; or its wist, as long as it lasts, is throughstanding. I am aware that there are some opensightly outtakes to this rule, but the outtakes are overnimmingly few, so few, that e. Forbes, pictet, and woodward (though all strongly withlaid to such onsights as i upkeep) throughgive its truth; and the rule strictly accords with my thoughtlay. For as all the wightkin of the same maith have netherastien from some one wightkin, it is clear that as long as any wightkin of the maith have shown up in the long afterfollowingness of eldths, so long must its members have throughstandly wesened, in order to have wightkindsted either new and awended or the same old and unawended forms. Wightkin of the wightkind tonguelyshellwight, for bisen, must have throughstandingly wesened by an unbroken afterfollowingness of strinds, from the lowest silurian flatwiselayer to the andward day. We have seen in the last bookdeal that the wightkin of a maith sometimes falsely thench to have come in inbreakly; and i have costened to give an aclearing of this deedsake, which if true would have been deathfast to my onsights. But such happenlays are iwis outtakely; the allmeanly rule being a stepmeal eak in rime, till the maith reaches its aldermost, and then, sooner or later, it stepmeally decreases. If the [bookleaf] 317 chap. X. Fornaughting. Rime of the wightkin of a wightkind, or the rime of the wightkinds of a huered, be aspelled by a upright line of forsundering thickness, rooding the afterfollowly earthlorely beshapings in which the wightkin are found, the line will sometimes falsely thench to begin at its lower end, not in a sharp ord, but inbreakly; it then stepmeally thickens upwards, sometimes keeping for a roomhood of evenworth thickness, and endfastly thins out in the upper beds, marking the decrease and endsome fornaughting of the wightkin. This stepmeal eak in rime of the wightkin of a maith is strictly throughshapebere with my thoughtlay; as the wightkin of the same wightkind, and the wightkinds of the same huered, can eak only slowly and forthstridesomely; for the forthhappen of awending and the tiddering of a rime of alinked forms must be slow and stepmeal,—one wightkin giving rise first to two or three isunders, these being slowly forwended into wightkin, which in their turn tidder by evenworthly slow steps other wightkin, and so on, like the branching of a great tree from a onele stem, till the maith becomes michel. On fornaughting.—we have as yet spoken only infallishly of the swinding of wightkin and of maiths of wightkin. On the thoughtlay of ikindsome choosing the fornaughting of old forms and the tiddering of new and bettered forms are intimately belinked together. The old thinkling of all the inwoners of the earth having been swept away at afterfollowly timedeals by catastrophes, is very allmeanly given up, even by those earthlorers, as elie de beaumont, murchison, barrande, &c., whose allmeanly onsights would quithenly lead them to this ashut. On the againstwise, we have every thinkcraft to believe, from the throughlore of the thirdsome shapennesses, that wightkin and maiths of wightkin stepmeally swind, one after another, first from one spot, then from another, and [bookleaf] 318 earthlorely afterfollowingness. Chap. X. Endly from the world. Both onele wightkin and whole maiths of wightkin last for very unevenworthly timedeals; some maiths, as we have seen, having tholed from the earliest known dawn of life to the andward day; some having swund before the close of the alderoldlifelingly timedeal. No fixed law seems to toend the length of time during which any onele wightkin or any onele wightkind tholes. There is thinkcraft to believe that the fullwork fornaughting of the wightkin of a maith is allmeanly a slower forthhappen than their tiddering: if the upshowing and swinding of a maith of wightkin be aspelled, as before, by a upright line of forsundering thickness, the line is found to taper more stepmeally at its upper end, which marks the forthstride of benothinging, than at its lower end, which marks the first upshowing and eak in rimes of the wightkin. In some cases, however, the benothinging of whole maiths of beings, as of ammonites towards the close of the twothsome timedeal, has been wonderfully sudden. The whole underthrow of the fornaughting of wightkin has been forwound in the most gratuitous rownship. Some writmakers have even understelled that as the untodealel has a bindfast length of life, so have wightkin a bindfast whilehood. No one i think can have awondered more at the fornaughting of wightkin, than i have done. When i found in la plata the tooth of a horse inbedded with the lefthsof breasttoothwight, michelgroundsloth, toxodon, and other fornaughted owleechs, which all together-wesened with still living shells at a very late earthlorely timedeal, i was filled with awedness; for seeing that the horse, since its inlead by the spaniards into south america, has run wild over the whole landred and has eaked in rimes at an unevenlonged rimespeed, i asked myself what could so short-agoly have benothinged the former horse under hodes of life opensightly so rithbere. But [bookleaf] 319 chap. X. Fornaughting. How utterly groundless was my awedness! Lorefather owen soon ongot that the tooth, though so like that of the wesening horse, belonged to an fornaughted wightkin. Had this horse been still living, but in some andstep seldly, no ikindlorer would have felt the least overnim at its seldomness; for seldomness is the suchness of a vast rime of wightkin of all ilks, in all landreds. If we ask ourselves why this or that wightkin is seldly, we answer that something is unrithbere in its hodes of life; but what that something is, we can hardly ever tell. On the beguessing of the stonewight horse still wesening as a seldly wightkin, we might have feltsomel from the samerun of all other sucklewights, even of the slow-breeding trunkwight, and from the yorelore of the ikindsomeing of the housely horse in south america, that under more rithbere hodes it would in a very few years have stocked the whole earthdeal. But we could not have told what the unrithbere hodes were which checked its eak, whether some one or manysome offhanginesses, and at what timedeal of the horse's life, and in what andstep, they manysomely bedoed. If the hodes had gone on, however slowly, becoming less and less rithbere, we assuredly should not have ongot the deedsake, yet the stonewight horse would iwis have become seldlyer and seldlyer, and endly fornaughted;—itsstead being fanged on by some more successful witherstrive. It is most arvethfast always to mun that the eak of every living being is standily being checked by unongot demsome deedships; and that these same unongot deedships are amply enoughsome to bewhy seldomness, and endly fornaughting. We see in many happenlays in the more short-ago thirdsome shapennesses, that seldomness comes before fornaughting; and we know that this has been the forthstride of events with those wights which have [bookleaf] 320 earthlorely afterfollowingness. Chap. X. Been benothinged, either stowlyly or wholly, through man's deedcraft. I may edledge what i forlaid in 1845, namely, that to throughgive that wightkin allmeanly become seldly before they become fornaughted—to feel no overnim at the seldomness of a wightkin, and yet to awonder greatly when it blins to wesen, is much the same as to throughgive that sickness in the untodealel is the forerunner of death—to feel no overnim at sickness, but when the sick man dies, to wonder and to underlook that he died by some unknown deed of hittleness. The thoughtlay of ikindsome choosing is grounded on the belief that each new isunder, and endfastly each new wightkin, is tiddered and upkept by having some foredeal over those with which it comes into witherstrive; and the followly fornaughting of less-rithed forms almost unforecomeberely follows. It is the same with our housely tidderings: when a new and slightly bettered isunder has been raised, it at first undersoles the less bettered isunders in the same neighbourhood; when much bettered it is yondborne far and near, like our short-horn orf, and takes thestead of other breeds in other landreds. Thus the upshowing of new forms and the swinding of old forms, both ikindsome and saremadely, are bound together. In somel beblooming maiths, the rime of new insunderly forms which have been tiddered within a given time is likely greater than that of the old forms which have been benothinged; but we know that the rime of wightkin has not gone on unbindfastly eaking, at least during the later earthlorely timedeals, so that looking to later times we may believe that the tiddering of new forms has bewhyed the fornaughting of about the same rime of old forms. The witherstrive will allmeanly be most highernst, as formerly acleared and onlit by bisens, between the forms which are most like each other in all edsights. F[bookleaf] 321 chap. X. Fornaughting. Hence the bettered and awended netherastiends of a wightkin will allmeanly bewhy the benothinging of the akennend-wightkin; and if many new forms have been andwound from any one wightkin, the nearest allies of that wightkin, i.e. The wightkin of the same wightkind, will be the most atiely to benothinging. Thus, as i believe, a rime of new wightkin netherastoe from one wightkin, that is a new wightkind, comes to undersole an old wightkind, belonging to the same huered. But it must often have happened that a new wightkin belonging to some one maith will have fanged on thestead forbusied by a wightkin belonging to a toshed maith, and thus bewhyed its benothinging; and if many alinked forms be andwound from the successful intruder, many will have to yield their steads; and it will allmeanly be alinked forms, which will thraw from some erved undersomeness in imean. But whether it be wightkin belonging to the same or to a toshed ilk, which yield their steads to other wightkin which have been awended and bettered, a few of the thrawers may often long be aspared, from being fitted to some odd line of life, or from inwoning some farfast and offonlyed standstead, where they have withfaren highernst witherstrive. For bisen, a onele wightkin of trigonia, a great wightkind of shells in the twothsome shapennesses, overlives in the australian seas; and a few members of the great and almost fornaughted maith of ganoid fishes still inwone our fresh waters. Therefore the utter fornaughting of a maith is allmeanly, as we have seen, a slower forthhappen than its tiddering. With edsight to the opensightly sudden benothinging of whole huereds or orders, as of threelobebugs at the close of the alderoldlifelingly timedeal and of ammonites at the close of the twothsome timedeal, we must mun what has been already said on the likely wide timestretchs of time P 3 [bookleaf] 322 earthlorely afterfollowingness, chap. X. Between our afollowsome shapennesses; and in these timestretchs there may have been much slow benothinging. Moreover, when by sudden inyondshrithing or by unwonely quick andwinding, many wightkin of a new maith have taken besitting of a new area, they will have benothinged in a togetheransweringly quick way many of the old inwoners; and the forms which thus yield their steads will imeanly be alinked, for they will take deal of some undersomeness in imean. Thus, as it seems to me, the way in which onele wightkin and whole maiths of wightkin become fornaughted, accords well with the thoughtlay of ikindsome choosing. We need not awonder at fornaughting; if we must awonder, let it be at our foretaking in hyeshowing for a timeling that we understand the many throughtangly offhanginesses, on which the wist of each wightkin offhangs. If we forget for an timeord, that each wightkin tends to eak overmichel, and that some check is always in deedship, yet seldom ongot by us, the whole setlay of ikind will be utterly mistyened. Whenever we can targeockfastly say why this wightkin is more fullsome in untodealels than that; why this wightkin and not another can be ikindened in a given landred; then, and not till then, we may rightly feel overnim why we cannot rake for the fornaughting of this dealocksome wightkin or maith of wightkin. On the forms of life awending almost sametimely throughout the world.—hardly any alderoldbeinglorely anddeck is more striking than the deedsake, that the forms of life awend almost sametimely throughout the world. Thus our european chalk beshaping can be edknown in many farfast deals of the world, under the most undershedsome loftlays, where not a breakling of the mineral chalk itself can be found; namely, in north [bookleaf] 323 chap. X. Throughout the world. America, in samerly south america, in tierra del fuego, at the cape of good hope, and in the almostisland of india. For at these farfast ords, the lifesome lefths in somel beds andward an unmistakebere andstep of look-alikeness to those of the chalk. It is not that the same wightkin are met with; for in some happenlays not one wightkin is selfsamely the same, but they belong to the same huereds, wightkinds, and offdeals of wightkinds, and sometimes are alikely suchnessised in such trifling ords as mere superficial sculpture. Moreover other forms, which are not found in the chalk of europe, but which betide in the shapennesses either above or below, are alikely unandward at these farfast ords of the world. In the manysome afterfollowly alderoldlifelingly shapennesses of russia, western europe and north america, a alike evenlongdom in the forms of life has been behowed by manysome writmakers: so it is, according to lyell, with the manysome european and north american thirdsome offstells. Even if the few stonewight wightkin which are imean to the old and new worlds be kept wholly out of onsight, the allmeanly evenlongdom in the afterfollowly forms of life, in the stepocks of the widely totweemed alderoldlifelingly and thirdsome periods, would still be manifest, and the manysome beshapings could be easily togetherakinned. These behowings, however, relate to the sealy inwoners of farfast deals of the world: we have not enoughsome data to deemend whether the tidderings of the land and of fresh water awend at farfast ords in the same evenlong way. We may twight whether they have thus forothered: if the michelgroundsloth, mylodon, macrauchenia, and toxodon had been brought to europe from la plata, without any kenstuff in sight to their earthlorely howstand, no one would have underlooked that they had togetherwesened with still living sea-shells; but as these oddshipsome owleechs togetherwesened with the breasttoothwight [bookleaf] 324 earthlorely afterfollowingness, chap. X.

and horse, it might at least have been offlead that they had lived during one of the latter thirdsome stepocks.

When the sealy forms of life are spoken of as having awended sametimely throughout the world, it must not be understelled that this outthring relates to the same thousandth or hundred-thousandth year, or even that it has a very strict earthlorely spoor; for if all the sealy wights which live at the andward day in europe, and all those that lived in europe during the firsticelaytimedeal timedeal (an aldermichelly far-off timedeal as ameted by years, imbhaving the whole icelayly yoretimelaystart), were to be withmeted with those now living in south america or in australia, the most skilful ikindlorer would hardly be able to say whether the wesening or the firsticelaytimedeal inwoners of europe resembled most closely those of the southern earthhalf. So, again, manysome highly cansome behowers believe that the wesening tidderings of the beoned onlays are more closely akinned to those which lived in europe duringsomel later thirdsome stepocks, than to those which now live here; and if this be so, it is opensightly that stonewight-making beds offstelled at the andward day on the shores of north america would hereafter be atiely to be isunderened with somewhat older european beds. Nevertheless, looking to a far-offly to-come yoretimelaystart, there can, i think, be little twight that all the more now-time sealy shapennesses, namely, the upper pliocene, the firsticelaytimedeal and strictly now-time beds, of europe, north and south america, and australia, from inholding stonewight lefths in some andstep alinked, and from not imbhaving those forms which are only found in the older underlying offstells, would be rightsomely ranked as sametimely in a earthlorely spoor. The deedsake of the forms of life awending sametimely, in the above michel spoor, at farfast deals of the world, has greatly struck those bewonderbere behowers, mm. [bookleaf] 325 chap. X. Throughout the world. De verneuil and d'archiac. After bepulling to the evenlongdom of the alderoldlifelingly forms of life in sundry deals of europe, they ateak, "if struck by this selcouth followth, we turn our mindlook to north america, and there anddeck a followth of samerunsome highhaps, it will thench iwis that all these awendings of wightkin, their fornaughting, and the inlead of new ones, cannot be owing to mere awends in sealy currents or other bring-abouts more or less stowly and whilen, but offhang on allmeanly laws which awield the whole wight kingdom." m. Barrande has made strengthful edmarks to targeockfastly the same onworking. It is, indeed, quite ornote to look to awends of currents, loftlay, or other bodily hodes, as the bring-about of these great awendings in the forms of life throughout the world, under the most undershedsome loftlays. We must, as barrande has edmarked, look to some sunderful law. We shall see this more clearly when we treat of the andward brittening of lifesome beings, and find how slight is the maithred between the bodily hodes of sundry landreds, and the ikind of their inwoners. This great deedsake of the evenlong afterfollowingness of the forms of life throughout the world, is aclearbere on the thoughtlay of ikindsome choosing. New wightkin are ashaped by new isunders arising, which have some foredeal over older forms; and those forms, which are already overweighing, or have some foredeal over the other forms in their own landred, would quithenly oftenest give rise to new isunders or beginsome wightkin; for these latter must be sigorfast in a still higher andstep in order to be aspared and to overlive. We have toshed outshow on this head, in the plants which are overweighing, that is, which are imeanest in their own homes, and are most widely tospread, having tiddered the greatest rime of new isunders. It is also ikindsome that the overweighing, [bookleaf] 326 earthlorely afterfollowingness, chap. X. Forsundering, and far-spreading wightkin, which already have onfallen to a somel scope the landdoms of other wightkin, should be those which would have the best whate of spreading still further, and of giving rise in new landreds to new isunders and wightkin. The forthhappen of tospreading may often be very slow, being offhangy on loftlayly and earthlorely awends, or on selcouth misfalls, but in the long run the overweighing forms will allmeanly spow in spreading. The tospreading would, it is likely, be slower with the earthly inwoners of toshed earthdeals than with the sealy inwoners of the throughstanding sea. We might therefore bewait to find, as we opensightly do find, a less strict andstep of evenlong afterfollowingness in the tidderings of the land than of the sea. Overweighing wightkin spreading from any ard might end with still more overweighing wightkin, and then their winfast foor, or even their wist, would ablin. We know not at all targeockfastly what are all the hodes most rithbere for the manyening of new and overweighing wightkin; but we can, i think, clearly see that a rime of untodealels, from giving a better whate of the upshowing of rithbere sundrinesss, and that highernst witherstrive with many already wesening forms, would be highly rithbere, as would be the wold of spreading into new landdoms. A somel muchth of onlyed-offness, edhappening at long timestretchs of time, would likely be also rithbere, as before acleared. One fourth of the world may have been most rithbere for the tiddering of new and overweighing wightkin on the land, and another for those in the waters of the sea. If two great ards had been for a long timedeal rithberely imbstandd in an evenworth andstep, whenever their inwoners met, the hild would be forlonged and highernst; and some from one birthstead and some from the other might be sigorfast. But in the foor of time, the [bookleaf] 327 chap. X. Throughout the world. Forms overweighing in the highest andstep, wherever tiddered, would nige everywhere to swither. As they swithered, they would bewhy the fornaughting of other and undersome forms; and as these undersome forms would be alinked in maiths by erve, whole maiths would nige slowly to swind; though here and there a onele member might long be bemayened to overlive. Thus, as it seems to me, the evenlong, and, taken in a michel spoor, sametimely, afterfollowingness of the same forms of life throughout the world, accords well with the thoughsetlay of new wightkin having been ashaped by overweighing wightkin spreading widely and forsundering; the new wightkin thus tiddered being themselves overweighing owing to erve, and to having already had some foredeal over their akennends or over other wightkin; these again spreading, forsundering, and tiddering new wightkin. The forms which are beaten and which yield their steads to the new and sigorfast forms, will allmeanly be alinked in maiths, from erving some undersomeness in imean; and therefore as new and bettered maiths spread throughout the world, old maiths will swind from the world; and the afterfollowingness of forms in both ways will everywhere nige to togetheranswer. There is one other edmark belinked with this underthrow worth making. I have given my thinkcrafts for believing that all our greater stonewight-making shapennesses were offstelled during timedeals of nethersettling; and that blank timestretchs of vast whilehood betided during the timedeals when the bed of the sea was either unaquetchsome or rising, and likewise when siltstuff was not thrown down quickly enough to inbed and aspare lifesome lefths. During these long and blank timestretchs i understell that the inwoners of each ard underwent a hidgebere muchth of awending and fornaughting, and that there was much yondshrithing from [bookleaf] 328 earthlorely afterfollowingness. Chap. X. Other deals of the world. As we have thinkcraft to believe that michel areas are onworked by the same feeth, it is likely that strictly evenoldsome shapennesses have often been upheaped over very wide roomhoods in the same fourth of the world; but we are far from having any right to ashut that this has everywhen been the happenlay, and that michel areas have everywhen been onworked by the same feeths. When two shapennesses have been offstelled in two ards during nearly, but not weetilly the same timedeal, we should find in both, from the bring-abouts acleared in the foregoing paragraphs, the same allmeanly afterfollowingness in the forms of life; but the wightkin would not weetilly togetheranswer; for there will have been a little more time in the one ard than in the other for awending, fornaughting, and inyondshrithing. I underlook that happenlays of this ikind have betided in europe. Mr. Prestwich, in his bewonderbere minwrits on the sucklewighttimedeal offstells of england and france, is able to draw a close allmeanly evenlongdom between the afterfollowly stepocks in the two landreds; but when he withmetessomel stepocks in england with those in france, although he finds in both a frimdy accordance in the rimes of the wightkin belonging to the same wightkinds, yet the wightkin themselves andsame in a way very arvethfast to rake for, hidging the proximity of the two areas,—unless, indeed, it be foretaken that an isthmus totweemed two seas inwoned by toshed, but evenoldsome, wightmaiths. Lyell has made alike behowings on some of the later thirdsome shapennesses. Barrande, also, shows that there is a striking allmeanly evenlongdom in the afterfollowly silurian offstells of bohemia and scandinavia; nevertheless he finds a overnimming muchth of undershed in the wightkin. If the manysome shapennesses in these ards have not been offstelled during the same weetil [bookleaf] 329 chap. X. Sibreds of extinct wightkin. Timedeals,—a beshaping in one ard often togetheranswering with a blank timestretch in the other,—and if in both ards the wightkin have gone on slowly awending during the upheaping of the manysome shapennesses and during the long timestretchs of time between them; in this happenlay, the manysome shapennesses in the two ards could be dighted in the same order, in accordance with the allmeanly afterfollowingness of the form of life, and the order would falsely thench to be strictly evenlong; nevertheless the wightkin would not all be the same in the opensightly togetheranswering stepocks in the two ards. On the sibreds of fornaughted wightkin to each other, and to living forms.—let us now look to the two-way sibreds of fornaughted and living wightkin. They all fall into one michel ikindsome setlay; and this deedsake is at once acleared on the thoughsetlay of netherastieing. The more alderold any form is, the more, as a allmeanly rule, it andsames from living forms. But, as buckland long ago edmarked, all stonewights can be isunderened either in still wesening maiths, or between them. That the fornaughted forms of life help to fill up the wide timestretchs between wesening wightkinds, huereds, and orders, cannot be flitten. For if we benarrowen our mindlook either to the living or to the fornaughted alone, the followth is far less fullcome than if we togetherstell both into one allmeanly setlay. With edsight to the backbonewight, whole bookleafs could be filled with striking onlights from our great alderoldbeinglorer, owen, showing how fornaughted wights fall in between wesening maiths. Cuvier ranked the cudchewingwights and thickskinhoofwights, as the two most toshed orders of sucklewights; but owen has anddecked so many stonewight links, that he has had to awend the whole isunderening of these two orders; and has stelledsomel thickskinhoofwights in the same under-order with cudchewingwights: for bisen, he toleeses by fine steplings the opensightly [bookleaf] 330 earthlorely afterfollowingness. Chap. X. Wide undershed between the pig and the olfend. In sight to the inbackbonewight, barrande, and a higher alderdom could not be named, forthstomps that he is every day taught that alderoldlifelingly wights, though belonging to the same orders, huereds, or wightkinds with those living at the andward day, were not at this early yoretimelaystart narrowened in such toshed maiths as they now are. Some writers have withthrown to any fornaughted wightkin or maith of wightkin being hidged as betweenly between living wightkin or maiths. If by this term it is meant that an fornaughted form is wissly betweenly in all its suchnesses between two living forms, the withthrowing is likely rightsome. But i apprehend that in a fullcomely ikindsome isunderening many stonewight wightkin would have to stand between living wightkin, and some fornaughted wightkinds between living wightkinds, even between wightkinds belonging to toshed huereds. The most imean happenlay, besunders with edsight to very toshed maiths, such as fish and creepwights, seems to be, that understelling them to be toshed at the andward day from each other by a dozen suchnesses, the alderold members of the same two maiths would be toshed by a somewhat lesser rime of suchnesses, so that the two maiths, though formerly quite toshed, at that timedeal made some small nighledge to each other. It is a imean belief that the more alderold a form is, by so much the more it tends to belink by some of its suchnesses maiths now widely totweemed from each other. This edmark no twight must be intightened to those maiths which have undergone much awend in the foor of earthlorely eldths; and it would be arvethfast to afand the truth of the forthput, for every now and then even a living wight, as the swamplungfish, is anddecked having sibreds wissed towards very toshed maiths. Yet if we withmete the older creepwights and [bookleaf] 331 chap. X. Sibreds of extinct wightkin. Taillessfrogs, the older fish, the older headunbackbonedshellwights, and the sucklewighttimedeal sucklewights, with the more short-ago members of the same ilks, we must throughgive that there is some truth in the edmark. Let us see how far these manysome deedsakes and offleadings accord with the thoughtlay of netherastieing with awending. As the underthrow is somewhat throughtangly, i must request the reader to turn to the ifay in the fourth bookdeal. We may understell that the rimed letters aspell wightkinds, and the dotted lines towharving from them the wightkin in each wightkind. The ifay is much too onelay, too few wightkinds and too few wightkin being given, but this is unweighty for us. The skylinewise lines may aspell afterfollowly earthlorely shapennesses, and all the forms beneath the uppermost line may be hidged as fornaughted. The three wesening wightkinds, a14, q14, p14, will form a small huered; b14 and f14 a closely alinked huered or under-huered; and o14, e14, m14, a third huered. These three huereds, together with the many fornaughted wightkinds on the manysome lines of netherastieing towharving from the akennend-form a, will form an order; for all will have erved something in imean from their alderold and imean akennend. On the thoughsetlay of the throughstood niging to towhirft of suchness, which was formerly onlit by this ifay, the more short-ago any form is, the more it will allmeanly andsame from its alderold akennend. Hence we can understand the rule that the most alderold stonewights andsame most from wesening forms. We must not, however, foretake that towhirft of suchness is a needbehovely offhanginess; it offhangs solely on the netherastiendsfrom a wightkin being thus bemayened to fang on many and undershedsomesteads in the setlay of ikind. Therefore it is quite acomingly, as we have seen in the happenlay of some silurian forms, that a wightkin might go on being slightly [bookleaf] 332 earthlorely afterfollowingness. Chap. X. Awended in maithred to its slightly awended hodes of life, and yet bekeep throughout a vast timedeal the same allmeanly ownships. This is aspelled in the ifay by the letter f14. All the many forms, fornaughted and short-ago, netherastoe from a, make, as before edmarked, one order; and this order, from the throughstood onworkings of fornaughting and towhirft of suchness, has become todealt into manysome under-huereds and huereds, some of which are understelled to have swoltened at undershedsome timedeals, and some to have tholed to the andward day. By looking at the ifay we can see that if many of the fornaughted forms, understelled to be inbedded in the afterfollowly shapennesses, were anddecked at manysome ords low down in the followth, the three wesening huereds on the uppermost line would be made less toshed from each other. If, for bisen, the wightkinds a1, a5, a10, f8, m3, m6, m9, were disinterred, these three huereds would be so closely linked together that they likely would have to be beoned into one great huered, in nearly the same way as has betided with cudchewingwights and thickskinhoofwights. Yet he who withthrew to call the fornaughted wightkinds, which thus linked the living wightkinds of three huereds together, betweenly in suchness, would be justified, as they are betweenly, not wissly, but only by a long and imbabout foor through many widely undershedsome forms. If many fornaughted forms were to be anddecked above one of the middle skylinewise lines or earthlorely shapennesses—for bisen, above no. Vi.—but none from beneath this line, then only the two huereds on the left hand (namely, a14, &c., and b14, &c.) Would have to be beoned into one huered; and the two other huereds (namely, a14 to f14 now imbhaving five wightkinds, and o14 to m14) would yet belive toshed. These two huereds, however, would be less toshed from each other than they were before the [bookleaf] 333 chap. X. Sibreds of extinct wightkin. Anddeck of the stonewights. If, for bisen, we understell the wesening wightkinds of the two huereds to andsame from each other by a dozen suchnesses, in this happenlay the wightkinds, at the early timedeal marked vi., would andsame by a lesser rime of suchnesses; for at this early stepock of netherastieing they have not towhorven in suchness from the imean akennend of the order, nearly so much as they underfollowingly towhorven. Thus it comes that alderold and fornaughted wightkinds are often in some slight andstep betweenly in suchness between their awended netherastiends, or between their sidely sibreds. In ikind the happenlay will be far more complicated than is aspelled in the ifay; for the maiths will have been more rimeful, they will have tholed for outestly unevenworthly lengths of time, and will have been awended in sundry andsteps. As we besit only the last writheap of the earthlorely edferth, and that in a very broken hode, we have no right to bewait, nimth in very seldly happenlays, to fill up wide timestretchs in the ikindsome setlay, and thus beone toshed huereds or orders. All that we have a right to bewait, is that those maiths, which have within known earthlorely timedeals undergone much awending, should in the older shapennesses make some slight nighledge to each other; so that the older members should andsame less from each other in some of their suchnesses than do the wesening members of the same maiths; and this by the samewhiley outshow of our best alderoldbeinglorers seems loomly to be the happenlay. Thus, on the thoughtlay of netherastieing with awending, the main deedsakes with edsight to the two-way sibreds of the fornaughted forms of life to each other and to living forms, seem to me acleared in a befrithsome way. And they are wholly unaclearbere on any other onsight. On this same thoughtlay, it is opensightly that the wightmaith of any great timedeal in the earth's yorelore will be betweenly [bookleaf] 334 earthlorely afterfollowingness. Chap. X. In allmeanly suchness between that which beforecame and that which aftercame it. Thus, the wightkin which lived at the sixth great stepock of netherastieing in the ifay are the awended offspring of those which lived at the fifth stepock, and are the akennends of those which became still more awended at the seventh stepock; hence they could hardly fail to be nearly betweenly in suchness between the forms of life above and below. We must, however, allow for the whole fornaughting of some beforecoming forms, and for the coming in of quite new forms by inyondshrithing, and for a michel muchth of awending, during the long and blank timestretchs between the afterfollowly shapennesses. Underthrown to these hidgings, the wightmaith of each earthlorely timedeal untwightedly is betweenly in charbedoer, between the beforecoming and aftercoming wightmaiths. I need give only one bisen, namely, the way in which the stonewights of the devonian setlay, when this setlay was first anddecked, were at once edknown by alderoldbeinglorers as betweenly in suchness between those of the overlying coalstuffly, and underlying silurian setlay. But each wightmaith is not needbehovely weetilly betweenly, as unevenworthly timestretchs of time have forstroked between afollowsome shapennesses. It is no real withthrowing to the truth of the quid, that the wightmaith of each timedeal as a whole is nearly betweenly in suchness between the beforecoming and aftercoming wightmaiths, that somel wightkinds offer outtakes to the rule. For bisen, breasttoothwights and trunkwights, when dighted by dr. Falconer in two followth, first according to their two-way sibreds and then according to their timedeals of wist, do not accord in dighting. The wightkin outest in suchness are not the oldest, or the most short-ago; nor are those which are betweenly in suchness, betweenly in eldth. But [bookleaf] 335 chap. X. Sibreds of extinct wightkin. Understelling for an timeord, in this and other such happenlays, that the edferth of the first upshowing and swinding of the wightkin was fullcome, we have no thinkcraft to believe that forms afterfollowlyly tiddered needbehovely thole for togetheranswering lengths of time: a very alderold form might otherwhile last much longer than a form elsewhere underfollowingly tiddered, besunders in the happenlay of earthly tidderings inwoning totweemed andlays. To withmete small things with great: if the douthkingsome living and fornaughted races of the housely plumpdove were dighted as well as they could be in followly sibred, this dighting would not closely accord with the order in time of their tiddering, and still less with the order of their swinding; for the akennend rock-plumpdove now lives; and many isunders between the rock-plumpdove and the bearer have become fornaughted; and bearers which are outest in the weighty suchness of length of beak outstemmed earlier than short-beaked tumblers, which are at the witherrights end of the followth in this same edsight. Closely belinked with the quid, that the lifesome lefthsfrom an betweenly beshaping are in some andstep betweenly in suchness, is the deedsake, bestood on by all alderoldbeinglorers, that stonewights from two afollowsome shapennesses are far more closely akinned to each other, than are the stonewights from two far-off shapennesses. Pictet gives as a well-known bisen, the allmeanly look-alikeness of the lifesome lefthsfrom the manysome stepocks of the chalk beshaping, though the wightkin are toshed in each stepock. This deedsake alone, from its allmeanlyness, seems to have shaken lorefather pictet in his firm belief in the unawendbereness of wightkin. He who is acquainted with the brittening of wesening wightkin over the globe, will not costen to rake for the close look-alikeness of the toshed wightkin in closely afollowsome [bookleaf] 336 earthlorely afterfollowingness. Chap. X. Shapennesses, by the bodily hodes of the alderold areas having belived nearly the same. Let it be muned that the forms of life, at least those inwoning the sea, have awended almost sametimely throughout the world, and therefore under the most undershedsome loftlays and hodes. Hidge the highmichel wenddeedles of loftlay during the firsticelaytimedeal timedeal, which imbhaves the whole icelayly timedeal, and ontoken how little the insunderly forms of the inwoners of the sea have been onworked. On the thoughtlay of netherastieing, the full meaning of the deedsake of stonewight lefthsfrom closely afollowsome shapennesses, though ranked as toshed wightkin, being closely akinned, is opensightly. As the upheaping of each beshaping has often been underbroken, and as long blank timestretchs have betwixtcome between afterfollowly shapennesses, we ought not to bewait to find, as i costened to show in the last bookdeal, in any one or two shapennesses all the betweenly isunders between the wightkin which showed up at the beginning and close of these timedeals; but we ought to find after timestretchs, very long as ameted by years, but only meathly long as ameted earthlorely, closely alinked forms, or, as they have been called by some writmakers, aspelling wightkin; and these we assuredly do find. We find, in short, such outshow of the slow and hardly spoorbere awending of insunderly forms, as we have a just right to bewait to find. On the onlay of andwinding of alderold forms.—there has been much imbspeech whether short-ago forms are more highly andwound than alderold. I will not here enter on this underthrow, for ikindlorers have not as yet bebound to each other's befrithedness what is meant by high and low forms. But in one dealocksome spoor the [bookleaf] 337 chap. X. Onlay of andwinding. More short-ago forms must, on my thoughtlay, be higher than the more alderold; for each new wightkin is ashaped by having had some foredeal in the struggle for life over other and beforecoming forms. If under a nearly alike loftlay, the sucklewighttimedeal inwoners of one fourth of the world were put into witherstrive with the wesening inwoners of the same or some other fourth, the sucklewighttimedeal wightmaith or wortmaith would iwis be beaten and benothinged; as would a twothsome wightmaith by an sucklewighttimedeal, and a alderoldlifelingly wightmaith by a twothsome wightmaith. I do not twight that this forthhappen of bettering has onworked in a marked and spoorbere way the dight of the more short-ago and sigorfast forms of life, in withmeting with the alderold and beaten forms; but i can see no way of testing this sort of forthstride. Shellbearers, for bisen, not the highest in their own ilk, may have beaten the highest thinshellbearers. From the orwoneliness way in which european tidderings have short-agoly spread over new zealand, and have fanged onsteads which must have been beforely forbusied, we may believe, if all the wights and plants of great britain were set free in new zealand, that in the foor of time a dright of british forms would become thoroughly ikindsomeized there, and would benothing many of the inhomeishes. On the other hand, from what we see now betiding in new zealand, and from hardly a onele inwoner of the southern earthhalf having become wild in any deal of europe, we may twight, if all the tidderings of new zealand were set free in great britain, whether any hidgebere rime would be bemayened to fang onsteads now forbusied by our inhomeish plants and wights. Under this ord of onsight, the tidderings of great britain may be said to be higher than those of new zealand. Yet the most skilful ikindlorer from an underseeking of the Q [bookleaf] 338 earthlorely afterfollowingness. Chap. X. Wightkin of the two landreds could not have foreseen this outfollow. Agassiz bestands that alderold wights onlike to a somel scope the forebirthlings of short-ago wights of the same ilks; or that the earthlorely afterfollowingness of fornaughted forms is in some andstep evenlong to the forebirthlinglorely andwinding of short-ago forms. I must follow pictet and huxley in thinking that the truth of this alderbeliefword is very far from afanded. Yet i fully bewait to see it hereafter atrumed, at least in sight to underrowfollowsome maiths, which have branched off from each other within withmetesomely short-ago times. For this alderbeliefword of agassiz accords well with the thoughtlay of ikindsome choosing. In a to-come bookdeal i shall costen to show that the adult andsames from its forebirthling, owing to sundrinesss supervening at a not early eldth, and being erved at a togetheranswering eldth. This forthhappen, whilst it leaves the forebirthling almost unawended, throughstandingly adds, in the foor of afterfollowly strinds, more and more undershed to the adult. Thus the forebirthling comes to be left as a sort of meteshow, aspared by ikind, of the alderold and less awended hode of each wight. This onsight may be true, and yet it may never be canfast of full afand. Seeing, for bisen, that the oldest known sucklewights, creepwights, and fish strictly belong to their own davenly ilks, though some of these old forms are in a slight andstep less toshed from each other than are the typical members of the same maiths at the andward day, it would be ordless to look for wights having the imean forebirthlinglorely suchness of the backbonewight, until beds far beneath the lowest silurian flatwiselayers are anddecked—a anddeck of which the whate is very small. On the afterfollowingness of the same types within the same [bookleaf] 339 chap. X. Same types in same areas. Areas, during the later thirdsome timedeals.—mr. Clift many years ago showed that the stonewight sucklewights from the australian caves were closely alinked to the living bellybagwights of that earthdeal. In south america, a alike maithred is manifest, even to an unbelored eye, in the entish pieces of armour like those of the bodyshieldwight, found in manysome deals of la plata; and lorefather owen has shown in the most striking way that most of the stonewight sucklewights, buried there in such rimes, are akinned to south american types. This maithred is even more clearly seen in the wonderful gathership of stonewight bones made by mm. Lund and clausen in the caves of brazil. I was so much inthrung with these deedsakes that i strongly bestood, in 1839 and 1845, on this "law of the afterfollowingness of types,"—on "this wonderful maithred in the same earthdeal between the dead and the living." lorefather owen has underfollowingly stretched out the same allmeanlying to the sucklewights of the old world. We see the same law in this writmaker's edstathelings of the fornaughted and entish birds of new zealand. We see it also in the birds of the caves of brazil. Mr. Woodward has shown that the same law holds good with sea-shells, but from the wide brittening of most wightkinds of thinshellbearers, it is not well ewed by them. Other happenlays could be ateaked, as the maithred between the fornaughted and living land-shells of madeira; and between the fornaughted and living brackish-water shells of the aralo-caspian sea. Now what does this edmarkbere law of the afterfollowingness of the same types within the same areas mean? He would be a bold man, who after withmeteing the andward loftlay of australia and of deals of south america under the same imbworldiside, would costen to rake, on the one hand, by disalike bodily hodes for the unalikeship of the inwoners of these two earthdeals, Q 2 [bookleaf] 340 earthlorely afterfollowingness. Chap. X. And, on the other hand, by alikeship of hodes, for the oneshapedity of the same types in each during the later thirdsome timedeals. Nor can it be beliked that it is an unawendbere law that bellybagwights should have been chiefly or solely tiddered in australia; or that teethlesswights and other american types should have been solely tiddered in south america. For we know that europe in alderold times was befolked by rimeful bellybagwights; and i have shown in the forlayings above atpulled to, that in america the law of brittening of earthly sucklewights was formerly undershedsome from what it now is. North america formerly took deal strongly of the andward suchness of the southern half of the earthdeal; and the southern half was formerly more closely alinked, than it is at andward, to the northern half. In a alike way we know from falconer and cautley's anddecks, that northern india was formerly more closely akinned in its sucklewights to africa than it is at the andward time. Samerunsome deedsakes could be given in maithred to the brittening of sealy wights. On the thoughtlay of netherastieing with awending, the great law of the long tholing, but not unawendbere, afterfollowingness of the same types within the same areas, is at once acleared; for the inwoners of each fourth of the world will opensightlyly nige to leave in that fourth, during the next aftercoming timedeal of time, closely alinked though in some andstep awended netherastiends. If the inwoners of one earthdeal formerly andsamed greatly from those of another earthdeal, so will their awended netherastiends still andsame in nearly the same way and andstep. But after very long timestretchs of time and after great earthlorely awends, thaving much inter-yondshrithing, the trumlessr will yield to the more overweighing forms, and there will be nothing unawendbere in the laws of eretide and andward brittening. [bookleaf] 341 chap. X. Same types in same areas. It may be asked in ridicule, whether i understell that the michelgroundsloth and other alinked huge owleechs have left behind them in south america the sloth, bodyshieldwight, and anteater, as their dewightkindstenetherastiends. This cannot for an timeord be throughgiven. These huge wights have become wholly fornaughted, and have left no afterkin. But in the caves of brazil, there are many fornaughted wightkin which are closely alinked in size and in other suchnesses to the wightkin still living in south america; and some of these stonewights may be the soothly akennends of living wightkin. It must not be forgotten that, on my thoughtlay, all the wightkin of the same wightkind have netherastien from some one wightkin; so that if six wightkinds, each having eight wightkin, be found in one earthlorely beshaping, and in the next aftercoming beshaping there be six other alinked or aspelling wightkinds with the same rime of wightkin, then we may ashut that only one wightkin of each of the six older wightkinds has left awended netherastiends, making up the six new wightkinds. The other seven wightkin of the old wightkinds have all died out and have left no afterkin. Or, which would likely be a far imeaner happenlay, two or three wightkin of two or three alone of the six older wightkinds will have been the akennends of the six new wightkinds; the other old wightkin and the other whole wightkinds having become utterly fornaughted. In failing orders, with the wightkinds and wightkin andgrowing in rimes, as opensightly is the happenlay of the teethlesswights of south america, still fewer wightkinds and wightkin will have left awended blood-netherastiends. Summary of the beforecoming and andward bookdeals.—i have costened to show that the earthlorely edferth is outestly unfullcome; that only a small muchthdeal of the globe has been earthlorely rossed with care; that [bookleaf] 342 earthlorely afterfollowingness. Chap. X. Only somel ilks of lifesome beings have been michelly aspared in a stonewight onlay; that the rime both of neeslings and of wightkin, aspared in our sarehouses, is fullthroughly as nothing withmeted with the unbereckonbere rime of strinds which must have passed away even during a onele beshaping; that, owing to nethersettling being needbehovely for the upheaping of stonewight-making offstells thick enough to withset to-come netherrotting, aldermichel timestretchs of time have forstroked between the afterfollowly shapennesses; that there has likely been more fornaughting during the timedeals of nethersettling, and more sundriness during the timedeals of alifting, and during the latter the edferth will have been least fullcomely kept; that each onele beshaping has not been throughstandingly offstelled; that the whilehood of each beshaping is, forhaps, short withmeted with the throughsnithe whilehood of insunderly forms; that yondshrithing has played a weighty deal in the first upshowing of new forms in any one area and beshaping; that widely ranging wightkin are those which have besundered most, and have oftenest given rise to new wightkin; and that isunders have at first often been stowly. All these bring-abouts taken afayly, must have nigen to make the earthlorely edferth outestly unfullcome, and will to a michel scope aclear why we do not find interminable isunders, belinking together all the fornaughted and wesening forms of life by the finest bestepped steps. He who withsets these onsights on the ikind of the earthlorely edferth, will rightly withset my whole thoughtlay. For he may ask in ordless where are the rimeless overgangly links which must formerly have belinked the closely alinked or aspelling wightkin, found in the manysome stepocks of the same great beshaping. He may disbelieve in the aldermichel timestretchs of time which have forstroked between our afollowsome shapennesses; he [bookleaf] 343 chap. X. Summary. May overlook how weighty a deal yondshrithing must have played, when the shapennesses of any one great ard alone, as that of europe, are hidged; he may thraf the opensightly, but often falsely opensightly, sudden coming in of whole maiths of wightkin. He may ask where are the lefthsof those boundlessly rimeful lifers which must have wesened long before the first bed of the silurian setlay was offstelled: i can answer this latter fraign only fore-thoughtlaylly, by saying that as far as we can see, where our oceans now stretch out they have for an aldermichel timedeal stretched out, and where our oscillating earthdeals now stand they have stood ever since the silurian yoretimelaystart; but that long before that timedeal, the world may have andwarded a wholly undershedsome aspect; and that the older earthdeals, ashaped of shapennesses older than any known to us, may now all be in a overshaped hode, or may lie buried under the ocean. Passing from these arveths, all the other great leading deedsakes in alderoldbeinglore seem to me sinfold to follow on the thoughtlay of netherastieing with awending through ikindsome choosing. We can thus understand how it is that new wightkin come in slowly and afterfollowlyly; how wightkin of undershedsome ilks do not needbehovely awend together, or at the same rimespeed, or in the same andstep; yet in the long run that all undergo awending to some scope. The fornaughting of old forms is the almost unmithebere afterfollow of the tiddering of new forms. We can understand why when a wightkin has once swund it never edupshows. Maiths of wightkin eak in rimes slowly, and thole for unevenworthly timedeals of time; for the forthhappen of awending is needbehovely slow, and offhangs on many throughtangly offhanginesses. The overweighing wightkin of the michelr overweighing maiths nige to leave many awended [bookleaf] 344 earthlorely afterfollowingness. Chap. X. Netherastiends, and thus new under-maiths and maiths are ashaped. As these are ashaped, the wightkin of the less lifethrithsome maiths, from their undersomeness erved from a imean akennend, nige to become fornaughted together, and to leave no awended offspring on the face of the earth. But the utter fornaughting of a whole maith of wightkin may often be a very slow forthhappen, from the overliving of a fewnetherastiends, lingering in barrowed and offonlyed tostands. When a maith has once wholly swund, it does not edupshow; for the link of strind has been broken. We can understand how the spreading of the overweighing forms of life, which are those that oftenest forsunder, will in the long run nige to befolk the world with alinked, but awended,netherastiends; and these will allmeanly spow in taking thesteads of those maiths of wightkin which are their undersomes in the struggle for wist. Hence, after long timestretchs of time, the tidderings of the world will thench to have forothered sametimely. We can understand how it is that all the forms of life, alderold and short-ago, make together one michel setlay; for all are belinked by strind. We can understand, from the throughstood niging to towhirft of suchness, why the more alderold a form is, the more it allmeanly andsames from those now living. Why alderold and fornaughted forms often nige to fill up gaps between wesening forms, sometimes blending two maiths beforely isunderened as toshed into one; but more imeanly only bringing them a little closer together. The more alderold a form is, the more often, opensightly, it ewes suchnesses in some andstep betweenly between maiths now toshed; for the more alderold a form is, the more nearly it will be akinned to, and infollowingly onlike, the imean akennend of maiths, since become [bookleaf] 345 chap. X. Summary. widely towharving. Extinct forms are seldom wissly betweenly between wesening forms; but are betweenly only by a long and imbabout foor through many fornaughted and very undershedsome forms. We can clearly see why the lifesome lefths of closely afollowsome shapennesses are more closely alinked to each other, than are those of far-off shapennesses; for the forms are more closely linked together by strind: we can clearly see why the lefthsof an betweenly beshaping are betweenly in suchness. The inwoners of each afterfollowly timedeal in the world's yorelore have beaten their beforcomers in the race for life, and are, in so far, higher in the scale of ikind; and this may rake for that cloudfast yet ill-bebound feeling, felt by many alderoldbeinglorers, that dight on the whole has forthstrideed. If it should hereafter be afanded that alderold wights onlike to a somel scope the forebirthlings of more short-ago wights of the same ilk, the deedsake will be understandbere. The afterfollowingness of the same types of upbuild within the same areas during the later earthlorely timedeals blins to be rownfast, and is sinfold acleared by erve. If then the earthlorely edferth be as unfullcome as i believe it to be, and it may at least be forthstomped that the edferth cannot be afanded to be much more fullcome, the main withthrowings to the thoughtlay of ikindsome choosing are greatly aquinen or swind. On the other hand, all the chief laws of alderoldbeinglore plainly abaned, as it seems to me, that wightkin have been tiddered by wonely akenning: old forms having been undersoled by new and bettered forms of life, tiddered by the laws of sundriness still bedoing round us, and aspared by ikindly choosing. Q 3 [bookleaf] 346 earthlorely brittening. Chap. Xi. Bookdeal xi. Earthlorely brittening. Present brittening cannot be arimed for by undersheds in bodily hodes — importance of barriers — sibred of the tidderings of the same earthdeal — middlens of ishaft — means of scattering, by awends of loftlay and of the level of the land, and by otherwhile means — scattering during the icelayly timedeal together-outstretchly with the world. In hidging the brittening of lifesome beings over the face of the globe, the first great deedsake which strikes us is, that neither the alikeship nor the unalikeship of the inwoners of sundry ards can be arimed for by their loftlayly and other bodily hodes. Of late, almost every writmaker who has throughlored the underthrow has come to this ashut. The happenlay of america alone would almost enoughen to afand its truth: for if we exclude the northern deals where the imbtrindleendsome land is almost throughstanding, all writmakers agree that one of the most groundsetly idoles in earthlorely brittening is that between the new and old worlds; yet if we outfare over the vast american earthdeal, from the imbmid deals of the beoned onlays to its outest southern ord, we meet with the most sunderlyened hodes; the most loftwaterful andlays, throughdry alderdrystows, lofty barrows, grassy plains, woddss, marshes, lakes, and great eas, under almost every warmthworth. There is hardly a loftlay or hode in the old world which cannot be evenlonged in the new—at least as closely as the same wightkin allmeanly tharf; for it is a most seldly happenlay to find a maith of lifers benarrowened to any small spot, having hodes odd in only a slight [bookleaf] 347 chap. Xi. Earthlorely brittening. Andstep; for bisen, small areas in the old world could be orded out hotter than any in the new world, yet these are not inwoned by a odd wightmaith or wortmaith. Notwithstanding this evenlongdom in the hodes of the old and new worlds, how widely undershedsome are their living tidderings! In the southern earthhalf, if we withmete michel tract of land in australia, south africa, and western south america, between imbworldisides 25º and 35º, we shall find deals outestly alike in all their hodes, yet it would not be acomingly to ord out three wightmaiths and wortmaiths more utterly disalike. Or again we may withmete the tidderings of south america south of lat. 35º with those north of 25º, which infollowingly inwone a hidgeberely undershedsome loftlay, and they will be found withmeteberely more closely akinned to each other, than they are to the tidderings of australia or africa under nearly the same loftlay. Samerunsome deedsakes could be given with edsight to the inwoners of the sea. A twoth great deedsake which strikes us in our allmeanly edlook is, that barriers of any kind, or obstacles to free yondshrithing, are akinned in a close and weighty way to the undersheds between the tidderings of sundry ards. We see this in the great undershed of nearly all the foldsome tidderings of the new and old worlds, nimth in the northern deals, where the land almost fays, and where, under a slightly undershedsome loftlay, there might have been free yondshrithing for the northern medweatherfast forms, as there now is for the strictly highnorthtidderings. We see the same deedsake in the great undershed between the inwoners of australia, africa, and south america under the same imbworldiside: for these landreds are almost as much offonlyed from each other as is acomingly. On each earthdeal, also, we see the same deedsake; for on the witherrights sides of [bookleaf] 348 earthlorely brittening. Chap. Xi. Lofty and throughstanding barrow-scopes, and of great alderdrystows, and sometimes even of michel eas, we find undershedsome tidderings; though as barrow-chains, alderdrystows, &c., are not as impassable, or likely to have tholed so long as the oceans totweeming earthdeals, the undersheds are very undersome in andstep to those suchnessly of toshed earthdeals. Turning to the sea, we find the same law. No two sealy wightmaiths are more toshed, with hardly a fish, shell, or crab in imean, than those of the eastern and western shores of south and imbmid america; yet these great wightmaiths are totweemed only by the narrow, but impassable, isthmus of panama. Westward of the shores of america, a wide roomhood of open ocean outstretchs, with not an island as a halting-stead for emigrants; here we have a barrier of another kind, and as soon as this is passed we meet in the eastern islands of the pacific, with another and totally toshed wightmaith. So that here three sealy wightmaiths scope far northward and southward, in evenlong lines not far from each other, under togetheranswering loftlays; but from being toshedd from each other by unthroughfarebere forditters, either of land or open sea, they are wholly toshed. On the other hand, going on still further westward from the eastern islands of the tropical deals of the pacific, we enwith no unthroughfarebere forditters, and we have unarimebere islands as halting-steads, until after outfaring over a earthhalf we come to the shores of africa; and over this vast roomhood we meet with no well-bebound and toshed sealy wightmaiths. Although hardly one shell, crab or fish is imean to the above-named three benearsome wightmaiths of eastern and western america and the eastern pacific islands, yet many fish scope from the pacific into the indian ocean, and many shells are imean to the eastern islands of the pacific [bookleaf] 349 chap. Xi. Earthlorely brittening. And the eastern shores of africa, on almost weetilly witherrights meridians of lengthship. A third great deedsake, deally imbhad in the foregoing quids, is the sibred of the tidderings of the same earthdeal or sea, though the wightkin themselves are toshed at undershedsome ords and standsteads. It is a law of the widest allmeanlyness, and every earthdeal offers unarimebere bisens. Nevertheless the ikindlorer in outfaring, for bisen, from north to south never fails to be struck by the way in which afterfollowly maiths of beings, insunderly toshed, yet clearly akinned, edstead each other. He hears from closely alinked, yet toshed kinds of birds, ontokens nearly alike, and sees their nests alikely abuilt, but not quite alike, with eggs coloured in nearly the same way. The plains near the straits of magellan are inwoned by one wightkin of rhea (american thrithbird), and northward the plains of la plata by another wightkin of the same wightkind; and not by a true thrithbird or emeu, like those found in africa and australia under the same imbworldiside. On these same plains of la plata, we see the agouti and bizcacha, wights having nearly the same wones as our hares and rabbits and belonging to the same order of rodents, but they plainly ewe an american type of upbuild. We astie the lofty peaks of the cordillera and we find an alpine wightkin of bizcacha; we look to the waters, and we do not find the beaver or musk-rat, but the coypu and capybara, rodents of the american type. Unarimebere other bisens could be given. If we look to the islands off the american shore, however much they may andsame in earthlorely upbuild, the inwoners, though they may be all odd wightkin, are isshiply american. We may look back to eretide eldths, as shown in the last bookdeal, and we find american types then swithersome on [bookleaf] 350 earthlorely brittening. Chap. Xi. The american earthdeal and in the american seas. We see in these deedsakes some deep lifesome bond, swithering throughout roomhood and time, over the same areas of land and water, and unoffhanging of their bodily hodes. The ikindlorer must feel little curiosity, who is not led to inquire what this bond is. This bond, on my thoughtlay, is sinfold erve, that bring-about which alone, as far as we positively know, tidders lifers quite like, or, as we see in the happenlay of isunders nearly like each other. The disalikeship of the inwoners of undershedsome ards may be knoded to awending through ikindsome choosing, and in a quite underrowfollowsome andstep to the straightfast inflowmayen of undershedsome bodily hodes. The andstep of unalikeship will offhang on the yondshrithing of the more overweighing forms of life from one ard into another having been onworked with more or less ease, at timedeals more or less far-off;—on the ikind and rime of the former inyondshrithers;—and on their deedship and redeedship, in their two-way struggles for life;—the maithred of lifer to lifer being, as i have already often edmarked, the most weighty of all sibreds. Thus the high weightiness of barriers comes into play by checking yondshrithing; as does time for the slow forthhappen of awending through ikindsome choosing. Widely-ranging wightkin, abounding in untodealels, which have already triumphed over many witherstrives in their own widely-outstretched homes will have the best whate of fanging on newsteads, when they spread into new landreds. In their new homes they will be outset to new hodes, and will loomly undergo further awending and bettering; and thus they will become still further sigorfast, and will tidder maiths of awended netherastiends. On this thoughsetlay of erve with awending, we can understand how it is that offdeals of wightkinds, whole wightkinds, [bookleaf] 351 chap. Xi. Single middlens of ishaft. And even huereds are benarrowened to the same areas, as is so imeanly and couthfastly the happenlay. I believe, as was edmarked in the last bookdeal, in no law of needbehovely andwinding. As the sundriness of each wightkin is an unoffhanging davenlyty, and will be taken foredeal of by ikindsome choosing, only so far as it beforths the untodealel in its throughtangly struggle for life, so the andstep of awending in undershedsome wightkin will be no oneshaped muchth. If, for bisen, a rime of wightkin, which stand in straightfast witherstrive with each other, yondshrithe in a body into a new and afterwards offonlyed landred, they will be little atiely to awending; for neither yondshrithing nor onlyed-offness in themselves can do anything. These thoughsetlays come into play only by bringing lifers into new sibreds with each other, and in a lesser andstep with the imbholding bodily hodes. As we have seen in the last bookdeal that some forms have bekept nearly the same suchness from an aldermichelly far-off earthlorely timedeal, so somel wightkin have yondshrithen over vast roomhoods, and have not become greatly awended. On these onsights, it is opensightly, that the manysome wightkin of the same wightkind, though inwoning the most farfast fourths of the world, must fromly have come from the same outspring, as they have netherastien from the same akennend. In the happenlay of those wightkin, which have undergone during whole earthlorely timedeals but little awending, there is not much arveth in believing that they may have yondshrithen from the same ard; for during the vast earthlorely and loftlayly awends which will have come up since alderold times, almost any muchth of yondshrithing is acomingly. But in many other happenlays, in which we have thinkcraft to believe that the wightkin of a wightkind have been tiddered within withmetesomely short-ago times, there is great arveth on this head. It [bookleaf] 352 earthlorely brittening. Chap. Xi. Is also opensightly that the untodealels of the same wightkin, though now inwoning farfast and offonlyed ards, must have come from one spot, where their akennends were first tidderd: for, as acleared in the last bookdeal, it is unbelievebere that untodealels selfsamely the same should ever have been tiddered through ikindsome choosing from akennends insunderly toshed. We are thus brought to the fraign which has been michelly imbspoken by ikindlorers, namely, whether wightkin have been beshaped at one or more ords of the earth's overside. Untwightedly there are very many happenlays of outest arveth, in understanding how the same wightkin could acomingly have yondshrithen from some one ord to the manysome farfast and offonlyed ords, where now found. Nevertheless the sinfoldishy of the onsight that each wightkin was first tiddered within a onele ard captivates the mind. He who withsets it, withsets the real whyth of wonely akenning with underfollowing yondshrithing, and calls in the deedcraft of a miracle. It is allhomely throughgiven, that in most happenlays the area inwoned by a wightkin is throughstanding; and when a plant or wight inwones two ords so farfast from each other, or with an timestretch of such a ikind, that the roomhood could not be easily passed over by yondshrithing, the deedsake is given as something edmarkbere and outtakely. The canmayen of yondshrithing arood the sea is more toshedly narrowened in earthly sucklewights, than forhaps in any other lifesome beings; and, accordingly, we find no unaclearbere happenlays of the same sucklewight inwoning farfast ords of the world. No earthlorer will feel any arveth in such happenlays as great britain having been formerly beoned to europe, and infollowingly besitting the same fourfooters. But if the same wightkin can be tiddered at two totweemed ords, why do we not find a onele sucklewight imean to europe and australia or south america? The hodes of life are [bookleaf] 353 chap. Xi. Single middlens of ishaft. Nearly the same, so that a dright of europea wights and plants have become ikindened in america and australia; and some of the fromthfast plants are selfsamely the same at these farfast ords of the northern and southern earthhalves? The answer, as i believe, is, that sucklewights have not been able to yondshrithe, whereas some plants, from their besundered means of scattering, have yondshrithen arood the vast and broken interroomhood. The great and striking inflowmayen which barriers of every kind have had on brittening, is understandbere only on the onsight that the great mosthood of wightkin have been tiddered on one side alone, and have not been able to yondshrithe to the other side. Some few huereds, many under-huereds, very many wightkinds, and a still greater rime of offdeals of wightkinds are benarrowened to a onele ard; and it has been behowed by manysome ikindlorers, that the most ikindsome wightkinds, or those wightkinds in which the wightkin are most closely akinned to each other, are allmeanly stowly, or benarrowened to one area. What a selcouth oddship it would be, if, when coming one step lower in the followth, to the untodealels of the same wightkin, a wissly witherrights rule swithered; and wightkin were not stowly, but had been tiddered in two or more toshed areas! Hence it seems to me, as it has to many other ikindlorers, that the onsight of each wightkin having been tiddered in one area alone, and having underfollowingly yondshrithen from that area as far as its wolds of yondshrithing and onlive under eretide and andward hodes thaved, is the most likely. Untwightedly many happenlays betide, in which we cannot aclear how the same wightkin could have passed from one ord to the other. But the earthlorely and loftlayly awends, which have iwis betided within short-ago earthlorely times, must have underbroken or made disthroughstanding the formerly throughstanding scope of many wightkin. So that we are lowered to hidge whether the outtakes to [bookleaf] 354 earthlorely brittening. Chap. Xi. Throughstandingness of scope are so rimeful and of so grave a ikind, that we ought to give up the belief, made likely by allmeanly hidgings, that each wightkin has been tiddered within one area, and has yondshrithen thence as far as it could. It would be hopelessly longsome to imbspeak all the outtakely happenlays of the same wightkin, now living at farfast and totweemed ords; nor do i for a timeling belike that any aclearing could be offered of many such happenlays. But after some foreish edmarks, i will imbspeak a few of the most striking ilks of deedsakes; namely, the wist of the same wightkin on the knaps of farfast barrow-scopes, and at farfast ords in the highnorthand lowsouth ards; and twothly (in the following bookdeal), the wide brittening of fresh-water tidderings; and thirdly, the betidings of the same earthly wightkin on islands and on the mainland, though totweemed by hundreds of miles of open sea. If the wist of the same wightkin at farfast and offonlyed ords of the earth's overside, can in many bisens be acleared on the onsight of each wightkin having yondshrithen from a onele birthstead; then, hidging our unwareship with edsight to former loftlayly and earthlorely awends and sundry otherwhile means of yondbearing, the belief that this has been the allhomely law, seems to me withmeteberely the safest. In imbspeaking this underthrow, we shall be bemayened at the same time to hidge a ord evenworthly weighty for us, namely, whether the manysome toshed wightkin of a wightkind, which on my thoughtlay have allnetherastien from a imean akennend, can have yondshrithen (undergoing awending during some deal of their yondshrithing) from the area inwoned by their akennend. If it can be shown to be almost everywhen the happenlay, that a ard, of which most of its inwoners are closely akinned to, or belong to the same wightkinds with the wightkin of a twoth ard, [bookleaf] 355 chap. Xi. Single middlens of ishaft. Has likely thidged at some former timedeal inyondshrithers from this other ard, my thoughtlay will be strengthened; for we can clearly understand, on the thoughsetlay of awending, why the inwoners of a ard should be akinned to those of another ard, whence it has been stocked. A firebarrowly island, for bisen, upheaved and ashaped at the farth of a few hundreds of miles from a earthdeal, would likely thidge from it in the foor of time a few firstwoners, and their netherastiends, though awended, would still be plainly related by erve to the inwoners of the earthdeal. Happenlays of this ikind are imean, and are, as we shall hereafter more fully see, unaclearbere on the thoughtlay of unoffhanging ishaft. This onsight of the maithred of wightkin in one ard to those in another, does not andsame much (by substituting the word isunder for wightkin) from that lately advanced in an hyequick paper by mr. Wallace, in which he ashuts, that "every wightkin has come into wist coincident both in roomhood and time with a fore-wesening closely alinked wightkin." and i now know from togetheranswering, that this togetherfall he knodes to akenning with awending. The previous edmarks on "onele and manyfast centres of ishaft" do not wissly bear on another alinked fraign,—namely whether all the untodealels of the same wightkin have netherastien from a onele pair, or onele weaponedwifester, or whether, as some writmakers understell, from many untodealels sametimely beshaped. With those lifesome beings which never betwixtrood (if such wesen), the wightkin, on my thoughtlay, must have netherastien from a afterfollowingness of bettered isunders, which will never have blended with other untodealels or isunders, but will have undersoled each other; so that, at each afterfollowly stepock of awending and bettering, all the untodealels of each isunder will have netherastien from [bookleaf] 356 earthlorely brittening. Chap. Xi. A onele akennend. But in the mosthood of happenlays, namely, with all lifers which wonely beone for each birth, or which often betwixtrood, i believe that during the slow forthhappen of awending the untodealels of the wightkin will have been kept nearly oneshaped by betwixtrooding; so that many untodealels will have gone on sametimely awending, and the whole muchth of awending will not have been due, at each stepock, to netherastieing from a onele akennend. To onlight what i mean: our english racehorses andsame slightly from the horses of every other breed; but they do not owe their undershed and oversomeness to netherastieing from any onele pair, but to throughstood care in choosing and training many untodealels during many strinds. Before imbspeaking the three ilks of deedsakes, which i have chosen as andwarding the greatest muchth of arveth on the thoughtlay of "onele middlens of ishaft," i must say a few words on the means of scattering. Means of scattering.—sir c. Lyell and other writmakers have ably treated this underthrow. I can give here only the briefest oryolster of the more weighty deedsakes. Awend of loftlay must have had a woldful inflowmayen on yondshrithing: a ard when its loftlay was undershedsome may have been a high road for yondshrithing, but now be impassable; i shall, however, andwardly have to imbspeak this branch of the underthrow in some atcut. Awends of level in the land must also have been highly influential: a narrow isthmus now tosheds two sealy wightmaiths; underdip it, or let it formerly have been underdipped, and the two wightmaiths will now blend or may formerly have blended: where the sea now outstretchs, land may at a former timedeal have belinked islands or acomingly even earthdeals together, and thus have allowed earthly tidderings to pass from one to the other. [bookleaf] 357 chap. Xi. Means of scattering. No earthlorer will flite that great awendings of level, have betided within the timedeal of wesening lifers. Edward forbes bestood that all the islands in the atlantic must short-agoly have been belinked with europe or africa, and europe likewise with america. Other writmakers have thus fore-thoughtlaylly bridged over every ocean, and have beoned almost every island to some mainland. If indeed the groundhoods used by forbes are to be trusted, it must be throughgiven that hardly a onele island wesens which has not short-agoly been beoned to some earthdeal. This onsight cuts the gordian knot of the scattering of the same wightkin to the most farfast ords, and removes many a arveth: but to the best of my deeming we are not writmakerized in throughgiving such aldermichel earthlorely awends within the timedeal of wesening wightkin. It seems to me that we have fullsome outshow of great besways of level in our earthdeals; but not of such vast awends in their howstand and outstretching, as to have beoned them within the short-ago timedeal to each other and to the manysome betwixtcoming oceanic islands. I freely throughgive the former wist of many islands, now buried beneath the sea, which may have served as haltingsteads for plants and for many wights during their yondshrithing. In the coral-tiddering oceans such sunken islands are now marked, as i believe, by rings of coral or atolls standing over them. Whenever it is fully throughgiven, as i believe it will some day be, that each wightkin has come from a onele birthstead, and when in the foor of time we know something bindfast about the means of brittening, we shall be bemayened to belook with holdfastness on the former outstretching of the land. But i do not believe that it will ever be afanded that within the short-ago timedeal earthdeals which are now quite totweemed, have been throughstandingly, or almost throughstandingly, beoned [bookleaf] 358 earthlorely brittening. Chap. Xi. With each other, and with the many wesening oceanic islands. Manysome deedsakes in brittening,—such as the great undershed in the sealy wightmaiths on the witherrights sides of almost every earthdeal,—the close maithred of the thirdsome inwoners of manysome lands and even seas to their andward inwoners,—a somel andstep of maithred (as we shall hereafter see) between the brittening of sucklewights and the depth of the sea,—these and other such deedsakes seem to me withlaid to the throughgiving of such highmichel earthlorely imbwhirfts within the short-ago timedeal, as are tharflyened on the onsight advanced by forbes and throughgiven by his many followers. The ikind and akinsome ondeals of the inwoners of oceanic islands likewise seem to me withlaid to the belief of their former throughstandingness with earthdeals. Nor does their almost allhomely firebarrowly setness rith the throughgiving that they are the wrecks of sunken earthdeals;—if they had fromly wesened as barrow-scopes on the land, some at least of the islands would have been ashaped, like other barrow-knaps, of granite, overshapingly schists, old stonewight-making or other such rocks, instead of consisting of mere piles of firebarrowly matter. I must now say a few words on what are called misfallsome means, but which more davenly might be called otherwhile means of brittening. I shall here benarrowen myself to plants. In wortlorely works, this or that plant is quided to be ill throughfit for wide yondseeding; but for yondbearing arood the sea, the greater or less facilities may be said to be almost wholly unknown. Until i tried, with mr. Berkeley's ferk, a few fands, it was not even known how far seeds could withset the demsome deedship of sea-water. To my overnim i found that out of 87 kinds, 64 sprouted after an indipping of 28 days, and a few overlived an indipping of 137 days. [bookleaf] 359 chap. Xi. Means of scattering. For limpfulness sake i chiefly tried small seeds, without the inholdock or ovet; and as all of these sank in a few days, they could not be floated arood wide roomhoods of the sea, whether or not they were teened by the salt-water. Afterwards i tried some michelr ovets, inholdocks, &c., and some of these floated for a long time. It is well known what an undershed there is in the floatmayen of green and yeartideed timber; and it betided to me that floods might wash down plants or branches, and that these might be dried on the banks, and then by a fresh rise in the stream be washed into the sea. Hence i was led to dry stems and branches of 94 plants with ripe ovet, and to stell them on sea water. The mosthood sank quickly, but some which whilst green floated for a very short time, when dried floated much longer; for bisen, ripe hazel-nuts sank forthwith, but when dried, they floated for 90 days and afterwards when planted they sprouted; an asparagus plant with ripe berries floated for 23 days, when dried it floated for 85 days, and the seeds afterwards sprouted: the ripe seeds of helosciadium sank in two days, when dried they floated for above 90 days, and afterwards sprouted. Altogether out of the 94 dried plants, 18 floated for above 28 days, and some of the 18 floated for a very much longer timedeal. So that as 64/87 seeds sprouted after an indipping of 28 days; and as 18/94 plants with ripe ovet (but not all the same wightkin as in the foregoing fand) floated, after being dried, for above 28 days, as far as we may offlead anything from these scanty deedsakes, we may ashut that the seeds of 14/100 plants of any landred might be floated by sea-currents during 28 days, and would bekeep their power of sprouting. In johnston's body atlas, the throughsnithe rimespeed of the manysome atlantic currents is 33 miles per diem (some currents running at the rimespeed of 60 miles [bookleaf] 360 earthlorely brittening. Chap. Xi. Per diem); on this throughsnithe, the seeds of 14/100 plants belonging to one landred might be floated arood 924 miles of sea to another landred; and when stranded, if blown to a rithbere spot by an inland gale, they would sprout. Underfollowly to my fands, m. Martens tried alike ones, but in a much better way, for he stelled the seeds in a box in the soothly sea, so that they were offwrixlely wet and outset to the air like really floating plants. He tried 98 seeds, mostly undershedsome from mine; but he chose many michel ovets and likewise seeds from plants which live near the sea; and this would have rithed the throughsnithe length of their floating and of their withsetting to the demsome deedship of the salt-water. On the other hand he did not beforely dry the plants or branches with the ovet; and this, as we have seen, would have bewhyed some of them to have floated much longer. The outfollow was that 18/98 of his seeds floated for 42 days, and were then canfast of sprouting. But i do not twight that plants outset to the waves would float for a less time than those barrowed from hittle feeth as in our fands. Therefore it would forhaps be safer to foretake that the seeds of about 10/100 plants of a wortmaith, after having been dried, could be floated arood a roomhood of sea 900 miles in width, and would then sprout. The deedsake of the michelr ovets often floating longer than the small, is interesting; as plants with michel seeds or ovet could hardly be yondborne by any other means; and alph. De candolle has shown that such plants allmeanly have intightened scopes. But seeds may be otherwhile yondborne in another way. Drift timber is thrown up on most islands, even on those in the midst of the widest oceans; and the inhomeishes of the coral-islands in the pacific, infang [bookleaf] 361 chap. Xi. Means of scattering. Stones for their tools, solely from the roots of drifted trees, these stones being a worthsome royal tax. I find on underseeking, that when unwoneshapefastnessly shaped stones are inbedded in the roots of trees, small parcels of earth are very loomly inshut in their interstices and behind them,—so fullcomely that not a dealock could be washed away in the longest yondtransport: out of one small muchthdeal of earth thus fullthroughly inshut by wood in an oak about 50 years old, three twifirstleafsome plants sprouted: i am fullknown of the targeockfastness of this behowing. Again, i can show that the liches of birds, when floating on the sea, sometimes withfare being forthwith forglendered; and seeds of many kinds in the crops of floating birds long bekeep their lifefullness: peas and leafyclimbwortes, for bisen, are killed by even a few days' indipping in sea-water; but some taken out of the crop of a plumpdove, which had floated on saremadely salt-water for 30 days, to my overnim nearly all sprouted. Living birds can hardly fail to be highly onworkingive agents in the yondbearing of seeds. I could give many deedsakes showing how loomly birds of many kinds are blown by gales to vast distances arood the ocean. We may i think safely foretake that under such imbstands their rimespeed of flight would often be 35 miles an hour; and some writmakers have given a far higher forereckon. I have never seen a bisen of feedleful seeds passing through the tharms of a bird; but hard seeds of ovet will pass unteened through even the digestive bodyworkths of a turkey. In the foor of two months, i picked up in my garden 12 kinds of seeds, out of the foroutle of small birds, and these seemed fullcome, and some of them, which i tried, sprouted. But the following deedsake is more weighty: the crops of birds do not secrete mawly sew, and do not in the R [bookleaf] 362 earthlorely brittening. Chap. Xi. Least teene, as i know by trial, the sprouting of seeds; now after a bird has found and forglendered a michel bestock of food, it is positively forthstomped that all the grains do not pass into the gizzard for 12 or even 18 hours. A bird in this timestretch might easily be blown to the farth of 500 miles, and hawks are known to look out for tired birds, and the contents of their torn crops might thus readily get scattered. Mr. Brent inkens me that a friend of his had to give up flying bearer-plumpdoves from france to england, as the hawks on the english coast fordid so many on their tocoming. Some hawks and owls bolt their prey whole, and after an timestretch of from twelve to twenty hours, disgorge thotherocks, which, as i know from fands made in the zoological gardens, imbhave seeds canfast of sprouting. Some seeds of the oat, wheat, millet, yellowfinch, hemp, clover, and beet sprouted after having been from twelve to twenty-one hours in the maws of undershedsome birds of prey; and two seeds of beet grew after having been thus bekept for two days and fourteen hours. Freshwater fish, i find, eat seeds of many land and water plants: fish are loomly forglendered by birds, and thus the seeds might be yondborne fromstead tostead. I thracked many kinds of seeds into the maws of dead fish, and then gave their bodies to fishing-erns, storks, and beakbagbirds; these birds after an timestretch of many hours, either withset the seeds in thotherocks or passed them in their foroutle; and manysome of these seeds bekept their wold of sprouting.somel seeds, however, were always killed by this forthhappen. Although the beaks and feet of birds are allmeanly quite clean, i can show that earth sometimes adheres to them: in one bisen i removed twenty-two grains of dry clayly earth from one foot of a whirquail, and in this earth there was a pebble quite as michel as [bookleaf] 363 chap. Xi. Means of scattering. The seed of a leafyclimbwort. Thus seeds might otherwhile be yondborne to great farths; for many deedsakes could be given showing that soil almost everywhere is throughfilled with seeds. Bethink for a timeling on the tenfoldhundthousands of quails which yearly rood the mediterranean; and can we twight that the earth adhering to their feet would sometimes imbhave a few littleock seeds? But i shall andwardly have to edhappen to this underthrow. As icebergs are known to be sometimes loaded with earth and stones, and have even borne brushwood, bones, and the nest of a land-bird, i can hardly twight that they must otherwhile have yondborne seeds from one deal to another of the highnorthand lowsouth ards, as behinted by lyell; and during the icelayly timedeal from one deal of the now medweatherfast ards to another. In the azores, from the michel rime of the wightkin of plants imean to europe, in withmeting with the plants of other oceanic islands nearer to the mainland, and (as edmarked by mr. H. C. Watson) from the somewhat northern suchness of the wortmaith in withmeting with the imbworldiside, i underlooked that these islands had been deally stocked by ice-borne seeds, during the icelayly yoretimelaystart. At my request sir c. Lyell wrote to m. Hartung to inquire whether he had behowed erratic boulders on these islands, and he answered that he had found michel breaklings of granite and other rocks, which do not betide in the islandmaith. Hence we may safely offlead that icebergs formerly landed their rocky burthens on the shores of these mid-ocean islands, and it is at least acomingly that they may have brought thither the seeds of northern plants. Hidging that the manysome above means of yondbearing, and that manysome other means, which without twight belive to be anddecked, have been in deedship year after year, for yearhundreds and tens of thousands of R 2 [bookleaf] 364 earthlorely brittening, chap. Xi. Years, it would i think be a wonderful deedsake if many plants had not thus become widely yondborne. These means of yondbearing are sometimes called misfallsome, but this is not strictly rightsome: the currents of the sea are not misfallsome, nor is the stighting of swithersome gales of wind. It should be behowed that hardly any means of yondbearing would bear seeds for very great farths; for seeds do not bekeep their lifefullness when outset for a great length of time to the deedship of sea-water; nor could they be long borne in the crops or tharms of birds. These means, however, would enoughen for otherwhile yondbearing arood tract of sea some hundred miles in breadth, or from island to island, or from a earthdeal to a neighbouring island, but not from one farfast earthdeal to another. The wortmaiths of farfast earthdeals would not by such means become mingled in any great andstep; but would belive as toshed as we now see them to be. The currents, from their foor, would never bring seeds from north america to britain, though they might and do bring seeds from the west indies to our western shores, where, if not killed by so long an indipping in salt-water, they could not thole our loftlay. Almost every year, one or two land-birds are blown arood the whole atlantic ocean, from north america to the western shores of ireland and england; but seeds could be yondborne by these wanderers only by one means, namely, in dirt sticking to their feet, which is in itself a seldly misfall. Even in this happenlay, how small would the whate be of a seed falling on rithbere soil, and coming to full-grownness! But it would be a great dwild to outground that forwhy a well-stocked island, like great britain, has not, as far as is known (and it would be very arvethfast to afand this), thidged within the last few yearhundreds, through otherwhile means [bookleaf] 365 chap. Xi. During the icelayly timedeal. Of yondbearing, inyondshrithers from europe or any other earthdeal, that an armly-stocked island, though standing more far-off from the mainland, would not thidge firstwoners by alike means. I do not twight that out of twenty seeds or wights yondborne to an island, even if far less well-stocked than britain, hardly more than one would be so well fitted to its new home, as to become ikindened. But this, as it seems to me, is no rightsome groundhood against what would be onworked by otherwhile means of yondbearing, during the long whilestitch of earthlorely time, whilst an island was being upheaved and ashaped, and before it had become fully stocked with inwoners. On almost bare land, with few or no destructive bugs or birds living there, nearly every seed, which whated to arrive, would be sure to sprout and overlive. Scattering during the icelayly timedeal.—the selfhood of many plants and wights, on barrow-knaps, totweemed from each other by hundreds of miles of lowlands, where the alpine wightkin could not acomingly wesen, is one of the most striking happenlays known of the same wightkin living at farfast ords, without the opensightly acomingliness of their having yondshrithen from one to the other. It is indeed a edmarkbere deedsake to see so many of the same plants living on the snowy ards of the alps or pyrenees, and in the outest northern deals of europe; but it is far more edmarkbere, that the plants on the white barrows, in the beoned onlays of america, are all the same with those of labrador, and nearly all the same, as we hear from asa gray, with those on the loftiest barrows of europe. Even as long ago as 1747, such deedsakes led gmelin to ashut that the same wightkin must have been unoffhangingly beshaped at manysome toshed ords; and we might have belived [bookleaf] 366 earthlorely brittening, chap. Xi. In this same belief, had not agassiz and others called vivid mindlook to the icelayly timedeal, which, as we shall forthwith see, affords a onelay aclearing of these deedsakes. We have outshow of almost every kenbere kind, lifesome and inlifefast, that within a very short-ago earthlorely timedeal, imbmid europe and north america thrawed under an highnorthloftlay. The ruins of a house burnt by fire do not tell their tale more plainly, than do the barrows of scotland and wales, with their scored flanks, polished oversides, and perched boulders, of the icy streams with which their deans were lately filled. So greatly has the loftlay of europe awended, that in northern italy, entish icelaysideloams, left by old icelays, are now clothed by the vine and maize. Throughout a michel deal of the beoned onlays, erratic boulders, and rocks scored by drifted icebergs and coast-ice, plainly swettle a former cold timedeal. The former inflowmayen of the icelayly loftlay on the brittening of the inwoners of europe, as acleared with edmarkbere clearness by edward forbes, is heftily as follows. But we shall follow the awends more readily, by understelling a new icelayly timedeal to come slowly on, and then pass away, as formerly betided. As the cold came on, and as each more southern zone became fitted for highnorthbeings and ill-fitted for their former more medweatherfast inwoners, the latter would be undersoled and arctic tidderings would take their steads. The inwoners of the more medweatherfast ards would at the same time outfare southward, unless they were stopped by barriers, in which happenlay they would swelt. The barrows would become betielded with snow and ice, and their former alpine inwoners would netherastie to the plains. By the time that the cold had reached its aldermost, we should have a oneshaped highnorthwightmaith and wortmaith, betielding the imbmid deals of europe, as far [bookleaf] 367 chap. Xi. During the icelayly timedeal. South as the alps and pyrenees, and even stretching into spain. The now medweatherfast ards of the beoned onlays would likewise be betielded by highnorthplants and wights, and these would be nearly the same with those of europe; for the andward imbtrindleendsome inwoners, which we understell to have everywhere outfaren southward, are edmarkberely oneshaped round the world. We may understell that the icelayly timedeal came on a little earlier or later in north america than in europe, so will the southern yondshrithing there have been a little earlier or later; but this will make no undershed in the endsome outfollow. As the warmth edwended, the highnorthforms would withertread northward, closely followed up in their withertrode by the tidderings of the more medweatherfast ards. And as the snow melted from the bottomlays of the barrows, the highnorthforms would fang on the cleared and thawed ground, always astieing higher and higher, as the warmth eaked, whilst their brethren were pursuing their northern journey. Hence, when the warmth had fully edwended, the same highnorthwightkin, which had lately lived in a body together on the lowlands of the old and new worlds, would be left offonlyed on farfast barrow-knaps (having been benothinged on all lesser heights) and in the highnorthards of both earthhalves. Thus we can understand the selfhood of many plants at ords so widemichelly far-off as on the barrows of the beoned onlays and of europe. We can thus also understand the deedsake that the alpine plants of each barrow-scope are more besunders akinned to the highnorthforms living due north or nearly due north of them: for the yondshrithing as the cold came on, and the ed-yondshrithing on the edwhirfting warmth, will allmeanly have been due south and north. The alpine plants, for bisen, of scotland, as edmarked by mr. H. C. Watson, [bookleaf] 368 earthlorely brittening, chap. Xi. And those of the pyrenees, as remarked by ramond, are more besunders alinked to the plants of northern scandinavia; those of the beoned onlays to labrador; those of the barrows of siberia to the arctic ards of that landred. These onsights, grounded as they are on the fullcomely well-foriwised betidings of a former icelayly timedeal, seem to me to aclear in so befrithsome a way the andward brittening of the alpine and highnorthtidderings of europe and america, that when in other ards we find the same wightkin on farfast barrow-knaps, we may almost ashut without other outshow, that a colder loftlay thaved their former yondshrithing arood the low betwixtcoming tract, since become too warm for their wist. If the loftlay, since the icelayly timedeal, has ever been in any andstep warmer than at andward (as some geologists in the beoned onlays believe to have been the case, chiefly from the brittening of the stonewight gnathodon), then the highnorthand medweatherfast tidderings will at a very late timedeal have marched a little further north, and underfollowingly have withertrodden to their andward homes; but i have met with no befrithsome outshow with edsight to this intercalated slightly warmer timedeal, since the icelayly timedeal. The highnorthforms, during their long southern yondshrithing and ed-yondshrithing northward, will have been outset to nearly the same loftlay, and, as is besunders to be bemarked, they will have kept in a body together; infollowingly their two-way sibreds will not have been much dreeved, and, in accordance with the thoughsetlays instamped in this writheap, they will not have been atiely to much awending. But with our alpine tidderings, left offonlyed from the timeling of the edwhirfting warmth, first at the bottomlays and endfastly on the knaps of the barrows, the happenlay will have been somewhat dif- [bookleaf] 369 chap. Xi. During the icelayly timedeal. Ferent; for it is not likely that all the same highnorthwightkin will have been left on barrow scopes farfast from each other, and have overlived there ever since; they will, also, in all likelihood have become mingled with alderold alpine wightkin, which must have wesened on the barrows before the beginning of the icelayly yoretimelaystart, and which during its coldest timedeal will have been whilenly driven down to the plains; they will, also, have been outset to somewhat undershedsome loftlayly inflowmayens. Their two-way sibreds will thus have been in some andstep dreeved; infollowingly they will have been atiely to awending; and this we find has been the happenlay; for if we withmete the andward alpine plants and wights of the manysome great european barrow-scopes, though very many of the wightkin are selfsamely the same, some andward isunders, some are ranked as twightful forms, and some few are toshed yet closely alinked or aspelling wightkin. In onlighting what, as i believe, soothly tookstead during the icelayly timedeal, i foretook that at its beginning the highnorthtidderings were as oneshaped round the trindleendsome ards as they are at the andward day. But the foregoing edmarks on brittening belay not only to strictly highnorthforms, but also to many under-highnorthand to some few northern medweatherfast forms, for some of these are the same on the lower barrows and on the plains of north america and europe; and it may be thinkcraftly asked how i rake for the needbehovely andstep of oneshapedness of the under-highnorthand northern medweatherfast forms round the world, at the beginning of the icelayly timedeal. At the andward day, the under-highnorthand northern medweatherfast tidderings of the old and new worlds are totweemed from each other by the atlantic ocean and by the outest northern deal of the pacific. During the icelayly timedeal, when the in- R 3 [bookleaf] 370 earthlorely brittening, chap. Xi. Woneants of the old and new worlds lived further southwards than at andward, they must have been still more fullthroughly totweemed by wider roomhoods of ocean. I believe the above arveth may be surmounted by looking to still earlier awends of loftlay of an witherrights ikind. We have good thinkcraft to believe that during the newer pliocene timedeal, before the icelayly yoretimelaystart, and whilst the mosthood of the inwoners of the world were insunderly the same as now, the loftlay was warmer than at the andward day. Hence we may understell that the lifers now living under the loftlay of imbworldiside 60º, during the pliocene timedeal lived further north under the trindleendsome circle, in imbworldiside 66º-67º; and that the strictly highnorthtidderings then lived on the broken land still nearer to the pole. Now if we look at a globe, we shall see that under the trindleendsome circle there is almost throughstanding land from western europe, through siberia, to eastern america. And to this throughstandingness of the imbtrindleendsome land, and to the consequent freedom for betweenyondshrithing under a more rithbere loftlay, i knode the needbehovely muchth of oneshapedness in the under-highnorthand northern medweatherfast tidderings of the old and new worlds, at a timedeal fore to the icelayly yoretimelaystart. Believing, from thinkcrafts before atpulled to, that our earthdeals have long belived in nearly the same akinsome howstand, though underthrown to michel, but ondealy besways of level, i am strongly bighfast to outstretch the above onsight, and to offlead that during some earlier and still warmer timedeal, such as the older pliocene timedeal, a michel rime of the same plants and wights inwoned the almost throughstanding imbtrindleendsome land; and that these plants and wights, both in the old and new worlds, began slowly to yondshrithe southwards as the loftlay became less warm, long before the outset [bookleaf] 371 chap. Xi. During the icelayly timedeal. Of the icelayly timedeal. We now see, as i believe, theirnetherastiends, mostly in a awended hode, in the imbmid deals of europe and the beoned onlays. On this onsight we can understand the maithred, with very little selfhood, between the tidderings of north america and europe,—a maithred which is most edmarkbere, hidging the farth of the two areas, and their totweeming by the atlantic ocean. We can further understand the sunderfast deedsake remarked on by manysome behowers, that the tidderings of europe and america during the later thirdsome stepocks were more closely akinned to each other than they are at the andward time; for during these warmer timedeals the northern deals of the old and new worlds will have been almost throughstandingly beoned by land, serving as a bridge, since made unthroughfarebere by cold, for the inter-yondshrithing of their inwoners. During the slowly andgrowing warmth of the pliocene timedeal, as soon as the wightkin in imean, which inwoned the new and old worlds, yondshrothe south of the trindleendsome circle, they must have been fullthroughly cut off from each other. This totweeming, as far as the more medweatherfast tidderings are bemet, tookstead long eldths ago. And as the plants and wights yondshrothe southward, they will have become mingled in the one great ard with the inhomeish american tidderings, and have had to witherstrive with them; and in the other great ard, with those of the old world. Infollowingly we have here everything rithbere for much awending,—for far more awending than with the alpine tidderings, left offonlyed, within a much more short-ago timedeal, on the manysome barrow-scopes and on the highnorthlands of the two worlds. Hence it has come, that when we withmete the now living tidderings of the medweatherfast ards of the new and old worlds, we find very few selfsame [bookleaf] 372 earthlorely brittening, chap. Xi. Wightkin (though asa gray has lately shown that more plants are selfsame than was formerly understelled), but we find in every great ilk many forms, which some ikindlorers rank as earthlorely races, and others as toshed wightkin; and a host of closely alinked or aspelling forms which are ranked by all ikindlorers as insunderly toshed. As on the land, so in the waters of the sea, a slow southern yondshrithing of a sealy wightmaith, which during the pliocene or even a somewhat earlier timedeal, was nearly oneshaped along the throughstanding shores of the polar circle, will rake, on the thoughtlay of awending, for many closely alinked forms now living in areas fullthroughly sundered. Thus, i think, we can understand the andwardness of many wesening and thirdsome aspelling forms on the eastern and western shores of medweatherfast north america; and the still more striking happenlay of many closely alinked shellbearers (as bewritten in dana's bewonderbere work), of some fish and other sealy wights, in the mediterranean and in the seas of japan,—areas now totweemed by a earthdeal and by nearly a earthhalf of samerly ocean. These happenlays of maithred, without selfhood, of the inwoners of seas now disjoined, and likewise of the eretide and andward inwoners of the medweatherfast lands of north america and europe, are unaclearbere on the thoughtlay of ishaft. We cannot say that they have been beshaped alike, in togetheranswering with the nearly alike bodily hodes of the areas; for if we withmete, for bisen,somel deals of south america with the southern earthdeals of the old world, we see landreds closely togetheranswering in all their bodily hodes, but with their inwoners utterly disalike. But we must edwhirft to our more forthwith underthrow, the icelayly timedeal. I am overtold that forbes's onsight [bookleaf] 373 chap. Xi. During the icelayly timedeal. May be michelly stretched out. In europe we have the plainest outshow of the cold timedeal, from the western shores of britain to the oural scope, and southward to the pyrenees. We may offlead, from the frozen sucklewights and ikind of the barrow greenth, that siberia was alikely onworked. Along the himalaya, at ords 900 miles adeal, icelays have left the marks of their former low netherastieing; and in sikkim, dr. Hooker saw maize growing on entish alderold icelaysideloams. South of the samer, we have some straightfast outshow of former icelayly deedship in new zealand; and the same plants, found on widely totweemed barrows in this island, tell the same story. If one rake which has been forlaid can be trusted, we have straightfast outshow of icelayly deedship in the south-eastern corner of australia. Looking to america; in the northern half, ice-borne breaklings of rock have been behowed on the eastern side as far south as lat. 36º-37º, and on the shores of the pacific, where the loftlay is now so undershedsome, as far south as lat. 46º; erratic boulders have, also, been bemarked on the rocky barrows. In the cordillera of samerly south america, icelays once stretched out far below their andward level. In imbmid chile i was awed at the upbuild of a vast mound of netherrotstuff, about 800 feet in height, rooding a dean of the andes; and this i now feel overtold was a entish icelaysideloam, left far below any wesening icelay. Further south on both sides of the earthdeal, from lat. 41º to the southernmost enddeal, we have the clearest outshow of former icelayly deedship, in huge boulders yondborne far from their akennend outspring. We do not know that the icelayly yoretimelaystart was strictly sametimely at these manysome far farfast ords on witherrights sides of the world. But we have good outshow in almost every happenlay, that the yoretimelaystart was imbhad within [bookleaf] 374 earthlorely brittening, chap. Xi. The latest earthlorely timedeal. We have, also, highmood outshow, that it tholed for an aldermichel time, as ameted by years, at each ord. The cold may have come on, or have blun, earlier at one ord of the globe than at another, but seeing that it tholed for long at each, and that it was evenoldsome in a earthlorely spoor, it seems to me likely that it was, during a deal at least of the timedeal, soothly sametimely throughout the world. Without some toshed outshow to the againstwise, we may at least throughgive as likely that the icelayly deedship was sametimely on the eastern and western sides of north america, in the cordillera under the samer and under the warmer medweatherfast zones, and on both sides of the southern outestness of the earthdeal. If this be throughgiven, it is arvethfast to forbow believing that the warmthworth of the whole world was at this timedeal sametimely cooler. But it would enoughen for my sake, if the warmthworth was at the same time lower alongsomel broad belts of lengthship. On this onsight of the whole world, or at least of broad longitudinal belts, having been sametimely colder from pole to pole, much light can be thrown on the andward brittening of selfsame and alinked wightkin. In america, dr. Hooker has shown that between forty and fifty of the bloomworting plants of tierra del fuego, forming no inhidgebere deal of its scanty wortmaith, are imean to europe, aldermichelly far-off as these two ords are; and there are many closely alinked wightkin. On the lofty barrows of samerly america a host of odd wightkin belonging to european wightkinds betide. On the highest barrows of brazil, some few european wightkinds were found by gardner, which do not wesen in the wide betwixtcoming hot landreds. So on the silla of caraccas the wonderfast humboldt long ago found wightkin belong- [bookleaf] 375 chap. Xi. During the icelayly timedeal. Ing to wightkinds suchnessly of the cordillera. On the barrows of abyssinia, manysome european forms and some few aspellings of the odd wortmaith of the cape of good hope betide. At the cape of good hope a very few europea wightkin, believed not to have been inlead by man, and on the barrows, some few aspelling european forms are found, which have not been anddecked in the intertropical deals of africa. On the himalaya, and on the offonlyed barrow-scopes of the almostisland of india, on the heights of ceylon, and on the firebarrowly cones of java, many plants betide, either selfsamely the same or edandwarding each other, and at the same time edandwarding plants of europe, not found in the betwixtcoming hot lowlands. A list of the wightkinds gathered on the loftier peaks of java raises a meteshow of a gathership made on a hill in europe! Still more striking is the deedsake that southern australian forms are clearly aspelled by plants growing on the knaps of the barrows of borneo. Some of these australian forms, as i hear from dr. Hooker, outstretch along the heights of the almostisland of malacca, and are thinly scattered, on the one hand over india and on the other as far north as japan. On the southern barrows of australia, dr. F. Müller has anddecked manysome europea wightkin; other wightkin, not inlead by man, betide on the lowlands; and a long list can be given, as i am inkenned by dr. Hooker, of european wightkinds, found in australia, but not in the betweenly torrid ards. In the bewonderbere 'inleading to the wortmaith of new zealand,' by dr. Hooker, samerunsome and striking deedsakes are given in sight to the plants of that michel island. Hence we see that throughout the world, the plants growing on the more lofty barrows, and on the medweatherfast lowlands of the northern and southern earthhalves, are sometimes [bookleaf] 376 earthlorely brittening, chap. Xi. Selfsamely the same; but they are much oftener insunderly toshed, though akinned to each other in a most edmarkbere way. This brief oryolster belays to plants alone: some strictly samerunsome deedsakes could be given on the brittening of earthly wights. In sealy tidderings, alike happenlays betide; as an bisen, i may quote a edmark by the highest alderdom, prof. Dana, that "it is iwis a wonderful deedsake that new zealand should have a closer look-alikeness in its shellbearers to great britain, its antipode, than to any other deal of the world." sir j. Richardson, also, speaks of the edupshowing on the shores of new zealand, tasmania, &c., of northern forms of fish. Dr. Hooker inkens me that twenty-five wightkin of algæ are imean to new zealand and to europe, but have not been found in the betweenly tropical seas. It should be behowed that the northern wightkin and forms found in the southern deals of the southern earthhalf, and on the barrow-scopes of the intertropical ards, are not arctic, but belong to the northern medweatherfast zones. As mr. H. C. Watson has short-agoly edmarked, "in receding from trindleendsome towards samerly imbworldisides, the alpine or barrow wortmaiths really become less and less arctic." many of the forms living on the barrows of the warmer ards of the earth and in the southern earthhalf are of twightful worthhood, being ranked by some ikindlorers as insunderly toshed, by others as isunders; but some are iwis selfsame, and many, though closely akinned to northern forms, must be ranked as toshed wightkin. Now let us see what light can be thrown on the foregoing deedsakes, on the belief, underborne as it is by a michel body of earthlorely outshow, that the whole world, or a michel deal of it, was during the icelayly timedeal sametimely [bookleaf] 377 chap. Xi. During the icelayly timedeal. much colder than at andward. The icelayly timedeal, as ameted by years, must have been very long; and when we mun over what vast roomhoods some ikindened plants and wights have spread within a few yearhundreds, this timedeal will have been michel for any muchth of yondshrithing. As the cold came slowly on, all the tropical plants and other tidderings will have withertrodden from both sides towards the samer, followed in the rear by the medweatherfast tidderings, and these by the arctic; but with the latter we are not now bemet. The tropical plants likely thrawed much fornaughting; how much no one can say; forhaps formerly the tropics underbore as many wightkin as we see at the andward day crowded together at the cape of good hope, and in deals of medweatherfast australia. As we know that many tropical plants and wights can withstand a hidgebere muchth of cold, many might have withfaren benothinging during a meathly fall of warmthworth, more besunders by withfaring into the warmest spots. But the great deedsake to bear in mind is, that all tropical tidderings will have thrawed to a somel scope. On the other hand, the medweatherfast tidderings, after yondshrithing nearer to the samer, though they will have been stelled under somewhat new hodes, will have thrawed less. And it is fullknown that many medweatherfast plants, if barrowed from the inroads of witherstrives, can withstand a much warmer loftlay than their own. Hence, it seems to me acomingly, bearing in mind that the tropical tidderings were in a thrawing onlay and could not have andwarded a firm front against intruders, that a somel rime of the more lifethrithsome and overweighing medweatherfast forms might have throughthrung the inhomeish ranks and have reached or even rooded the samer. The onfall would, iwis, have been greatly rithed by high land, and forhaps [bookleaf] 378 earthlorely brittening, chap. Xi. By a dry loftlay; for dr. Falconer inkens me that it is the damp with the heat of the tropics which is so destructive to perennial plants from a medweatherfast loftlay. On the other hand, the most loftwaterful and hottest andlays will have afforded an asylum to the tropical inhomeishes. The barrow-scopes north-west of the himalaya, and the long line of the cordillera, seem to have afforded two great lines of onfall: and it is a striking deedsake, lately betwixtrorded to me by dr. Hooker, that all the bloomworting plants, about forty-six in rime, imean to tierra del fuego and to europe still wesen in north america, which must have lain on the line of march. But i do not twight that some medweatherfast tidderings entered and rooded even the lowlands of the tropics at the timedeal when the cold was most swithly,—when highnorthforms had yondshrithen some twenty-five andsteps of imbworldiside from their inhomeish landred and betielded the land at the foot of the pyrenees. At this timedeal of outest cold, i believe that the loftlay under the samer at the level of the sea was about the same with that now felt there at the height of six or seven thousand feet. During this the coldest timedeal, i understell that michel roomhoods of the tropical lowlands were clothed with a mingled tropical and medweatherfast greenth, like that now growing with selcouth luxuriance at the bottomlay of the himalaya, as drawframely bewritten by hooker. Thus, as i believe, a hidgebere rime of plants, a few earthly wights, and some sealy tidderings, yondshrothe during the icelayly timedeal from the northern and southern medweatherfast zones into the intertropical ards, and some even rooded the samer. As the warmth eftcame, these medweatherfast forms would quithenly astie the higher barrows, being benothinged on the lowlands; those which had not reached the samer, would ed-yondshrithe northward or southward towards their former [bookleaf] 379 chap. Xi. During the icelayly timedeal. Homes; but the forms, chiefly northern, which had rooded the samer, would outfare still further from their homes into the more medweatherfast imbworldisides of the witherrights earthhalf. Although we have thinkcraft to believe from earthlorely outshow that the whole body of highnorthshells underwent hardly any awending during their long southern yondshrithing and ed-yondshrithing northward, the happenlay may have been wholly undershedsome with those intruding forms which settled themselves on the intertropical barrows, and in the southern earthhalf. These being imbheld by selcouthrs will have had to witherstrive with many new forms of life; and it is likely that chosen awendings in their upbuild, wones, and setnesss will have beforthed them. Thus many of these wanderers, though still plainly akinned by erve to their brethren of the northern or southern earthhalves, now wesen in their new homes as well-marked isunders or as toshed wightkin. It is a edmarkbere deedsake, strongly bestood on by hooker in sight to america, and by alph. De candolle in sight to australia, that many more selfsame plants and alinked forms have opensightly yondshrithen from the north to the south, than in a edwhorven stighting. We see, however, a few southern vegetable forms on the barrows of borneo and abyssinia. I underlook that this preponderant yondshrithing from north to south is due to the greater scope of land in the north, and to the northern forms having wesened in their own homes in greater rimes, and having infollowingly been advanced through ikindsome choosing and witherstrive to a higher stepock of fullcomeliness or dominating wold, than the southern forms. And thus, when they became togethermingled during the icelayly timedeal, the northern forms were bemayened to beat the less woldful southern forms. Just in the same way as we see at the andward day, [bookleaf] 380 earthlorely brittening, chap. Xi. That very many european tidderings betield the ground in la plata, and in a lesser andstep in australia, and have to a somel scope beaten the inhomeishes; whereas outestly few southern forms have become ikindened in any deal of europe, though hides, wool, and other towardsthings likely to bear seeds have been michelly imported into europe during the last two or three yearhundreds from la plata, and during the last thirty or forty years from australia. Something of the same kind must have betided on the intertropical barrows: no twight before the icelayly timedeal they were stocked with landfromfast alpine forms; but these have almost everywhere michelly yielded to the more overweighing forms, wightkindsted in the michelr areas and more onworkful workshops of the north. In many islands the inhomeish tidderings are nearly equalled or even outrimed by the ikindened; and if the inhomeishes have not been soothly benothinged, their rimes have been greatly lessened, and this is the first stepock towards fornaughting. A barrow is an island on the land; and the intertropical barrows before the icelayly timedeal must have been fullthroughly offonlyed; and i believe that the tidderings of these islands on the land yielded to those tiddered within the michelr areas of the north, just in the same way as the tidderings of real islands have everywhere lately yielded to earthdealsome forms, ikindened by man's deedcraft. I am far from understelling that all arveths are removed on the onsight here given in sight to the scope and sibreds of the alinked wightkin which live in the northern and southern medweatherfast zones and on the barrows of the intertropical ards. Very many arveths belive to be solved. I do not belike to inquid the weetil lines and means of yondshrithing, or the thinkcraft whysomel wightkin and not others have yondshrithen; [bookleaf] 381 chap. Xi. During the icelayly timedeal. Whysomel wightkin have been awended and have given rise to new maiths of forms, and others have belived unawended. We cannot hope to aclear such deedsakes, until we can say why one wightkin and not another becomes ikindend by man's deedcraft in a ellandish land; why one scopes twice or thrice as far, and is twice or thrice as imean, as another wightkin within their own homes. I have said that many arveths belive to be solved: some of the most edmarkbere are quided with bewonderbere clearness by dr. Hooker in his wortlorely works on the lowsouth ards. These cannot be here imbspoken. I will only say that as far as besees the betidings of selfsame wightkin at ords so aldermichelly far-off as kerguelen land, new zealand, and fuegia, i believe that towards the close of the icelayly timedeal, icebergs, as behinted by lyell, have been michelly bemet in their scattering. But the wist of manysome quite toshed wightkin, belonging to wightkinds outshutly benarrowened to the south, at these and other farfast ords of the southern earthhalf, is, on my thoughtlay of netherastieing with awending, a far more edmarkbere happenlay of arveth. For some of these wightkin are so toshed, that we cannot understell that there has been time since the beginning of the icelayly timedeal for their yondshrithing, and for their underfollowing awending to the needbehovely andstep. The deedsakes seem to me to inquid that odd and very toshed wightkin have yondshrithen in outstreaming lines from some imean middlen; and i am bighfast to look in the southern, as in the northern earthhalf, to a former and warmer timedeal, before the beginning of the icelayly timedeal, when the anthighnorthlands, now betielded with ice, underborne a highly odd and offonlyed wortmaith. I underlook that before this wortmaith was benothinged by the icelayly yoretimelaystart, a few forms were [bookleaf] 382 earthlorely brittening. Chap. Xi. Widely scattered to sundry ords of the southern earthhalf by otherwhile means of yondbearing, and by the ferk, as halting-steads, of wesening and now sunken islands, and forhaps at the beginning of the icelayly timedeal, by icebergs. By these means, as i believe, the southern shores of america, australia, new zealand have become slightly tinted by the same odd forms of vegetable life. Sir c. Lyell in a striking throughfare has belooked, in irord almost selfsame with mine, on the onworkings of great awendings of loftlay on earthlorely brittening. I believe that the world has short-agoly felt one of his great cycles of awend; and that on this onsight, togetherstelled with awending through ikindsome choosing, a dright of deedsakes in the andward brittening both of the same and of alinked forms of life can be acleared. The living waters may be said to have flowed during one short timedeal from the north and from the south, and to have rooded at the samer; but to have flowed with greater thrake from the north so as to have freely flooded the south. As the tide leaves its drift in skylinewise lines, though rising higher on the shores where the tide rises highest, so have the living waters left their living drift on our barrow-knaps, in a line weethly rising from the highnorthlowlands to a great height under the samer. The sundry beings thus left stranded may be withmeted with wild races of man, driven up and overliving in the barrow-fastnesses of almost every land, which serve as a record, full of interest to us, of the former inwoners of the imbholding lowlands. [bookleaf] 383 chap. Xii. Fresh-water tidderings. Bookdeal xii. Earthlorely brittening—throughstood. Brittening of fresh-water tidderings — on the inwoners of oceanic islands — unatbeenness of taillessfrogs and of earthly sucklewights — on the maithred of the inwoners of islands to those of the nearest mainland — on firstwoning from the nearest outspring with underfollowing awending — summary of the last and andward bookdeals. As lakes and ea-setlays are totweemed from each other by barriers of land, it might have been thought that fresh-water tidderings would not have scoped widely within the same landred, and as the sea is opensightly a still more unthroughfarebere forditter, that they never would have stretched out to farfast landreds. But the happenlay is weetilly the edwharve. Not only have many fresh-water wightkin, belonging to quite undershedsome ilks, an aldermichel scope, but alinked wightkin swither in a edmarkbere way throughout the world. I well mun, when first gathering in the fresh waters of brazil, feeling much overnim at the alikeship of the fresh-water bugs, shells, &c., and at the unalikeship of the imbholding earthly beings, withmeted with those of britain. But this wold in fresh-water tidderings of ranging widely, though so unbewaited, can, i think, in most happenlays be acleared by their having become fitted, in a way highly nitworth to them, for short and loom yondshrithings from pond to pond, or from stream to stream; and atielyness to wide scattering would follow from this canmayen as an almost needbehovely afterfollow. We can here hidge only a few happenlays. In sight to [bookleaf] 384 earthlorely brittening. Chap. Xii. Fish, i believe that the same wightkin never betide in the fresh waters of farfast earthdeals. But on the same earthdeal the wightkin often scope widely and almost finickily; for two ea-setlays will have some fish in imean and some undershedsome. A few deedsakes seem to rith the acomingliness of their otherwhile yondbearing by misfallsome means; like that of the live fish not seldom dropped by whirlwinds in india, and the lifefullness of their budlings when removed from the water. But i am bighfast to knode the scattering of fresh-water fish mainly to slight awends within the short-ago timedeal in the level of the land, having bewhyed eas to flow into each other. Bisens, also, could be given of this having betided during floods, without any awend of level. We have outshow in the loess of the rhine of hidgebere awends of level in the land within a very short-ago earthlorely timedeal, and when the overside was befolked by wesening land and fresh-water shells. The wide undershed of the fish on witherrights sides of throughstanding barrow-scopes, which from an early timedeal must have toshed ea-setlays and fullworkly forecome their betwixttwining, seems to lead to this same ashut. With edsight to alinked fresh-water fish betiding at very farfast ords of the world, no twight there are many happenlays which cannot at andward be acleared: but some fresh-water fish belong to very alderold forms, and in such happenlays there will have been michel time for great earthlorely awends, and infollowingly time and means for much yondshrithing. In the twothstead, salt-water fish can with care be slowly asidded to live in fresh water; and, according to valenciennes, there is hardly a onele maith of fishes benarrowened outshutly to fresh water, so that we may hyeshow that a sealy member of a fresh-water maith might outfare far along the shores of the sea, and underfollowly [bookleaf] 385 chap. Xii. Fresh-water tidderings. Become awended and throughfit to the fresh waters of a farfast land. Some wightkin of fresh-water shells have a very wide scope, and alinked wightkin, which, on my thoughtlay, are netherastien from a imean akennend and must have ced from a onele outspring, swither throughout the world. Their brittening at first throughtwined me much, as their budlings are not likely to be yondborne by birds, and they are forthwith killed by sea water, as are the adults. I could not even understand how some ikindened wightkin have quickly spread throughout the same landred. But two deedsakes, which i have behowed—and no twight many others belive to be behowed—throw some light on this underthrow. When a duck suddenly betreads up from a pond betielded with duck-weed, i have twice seen these little plants asticking to its back; and it has happened to me, in removing a little duck-weed from one watertank to another, that i have quite uninwhelvely stocked the one with fresh-water shells from the other. But another deedcraft is forhaps more onworkingly: i underhung a duck's feet, which might aspell those of a bird sleeping in a ikindsome pond, in an watertank, where many budlings of fresh-water shells were hatching; and i found that rimes of the outestly littleock and just hatched shells crawled on the feet, and clung to them so trumly that when taken out of the water they could not be jarred off, though at a somewhat more advanced eldth they would willfully drop off. These just hatched thinshellbearers, though waterly in their ikind, overlived on the duck's feet, in damp air, from twelve to twenty hours; and in this length of time a duck or heron might fly at least six or seven hundred miles, and would be sure to alight on a pool or brook, if blown arood sea to an oceanic island or to any other farfast ord. Sir charles lyell also S [bookleaf] 386 earthlorely brittening. Chap. Xii. Inkens me that a dyticus has been fanged with an ancylus (a fresh-water shell like a limpet) trumly asticking to it; and a water-beetle of the same huered, a colymbetes, once flew on board the 'beagle,' when forty-five miles farfast from the nearest land: how much farther it might have flown with a rithing gale no one can tell. With edsight to plants, it has long been known what aldermichel scopes many fresh-water and even marsh-wightkin have, both over earthdeals and to the most far-off oceanic islands. This is strikingly shown, as edmarked by alph. De candolle, in michel maiths of earthly plants, which have only a very few waterly members; for these latter seem forthwith to underfang, as if in afterfollow, a very wide scope. I think rithbere means of scattering aclear this deedsake. I have before quided that earth otherwhile, though seldom, adheres in some muchth to the feet and beaks of birds. Wading birds, which loom the muddy edges of ponds, if suddenly flushed, would be the most likely to have muddy feet. Birds of this order i can show are the greatest wanderers, and are otherwhile found on the most far-off and barren islands in the open ocean; they would not be likely to alight on the overside of the sea, so that the dirt would not be washed off their feet; when making land, they would be sure to fly to their ikindsome fresh-water haunts. I do not believe that wortlorers are aware how full the mud of ponds is with seeds: i have tried manysome little fands, but will here give only the most striking happenlay: i took in february three table-spoonfuls of mud from three undershedsome ords, beneath water, on the edge of a little pond; this mud when dry weighed only 6¾ ounces; i kept it betielded up in my throughlore for six months, pulling up and counting each plant as it grew; the plants were [bookleaf] 387 chap. Xii. Fresh-water tidderings. Of many kinds, and were altogether 537 in rime; and yet the sticky-thick mud was all inheld in a breakfast cup! Hidging these deedsakes, i think it would be an unaclearbere imbstand if water-birds did not yondbear the seeds of fresh-water plants to vast farths, and if infollowingly the scope of these plants was not very great. The same deedcraft may have come into play with the eggs of some of the smaller fresh-water wights. Other and unknown deedships likely have also played a deal. I have quided that fresh-water fish eat some kinds of seeds, though they withset many other kinds after having swallowed them; even small fish swallow seeds of meathly size, as of the yellow water-lily and potamogeton. Herons and other birds, yearhundred after yearhundred, have gone on daily forglendering fish; they then take flight and go to other waters, or are blown arood the sea; and we have seen that seeds bekeep their wold of sprouting, when withset in thotherocks or in foroutle, many hours afterwards. When i saw the great size of the seeds of that fine water-lily, the dishleafwaterlily, and muned alph. De candolle's edmarks on this plant, i thought that its brittening must belive quite unaclearbere; but audubon onlays that he found the seeds of the great southern water-lily (likely, according to dr. Hooker, the dishleafwaterlily luteum) in a heron's maw; although i do not know the deedsake, yet samerun makes me believe that a heron flying to another pond and getting a hearty meal of fish, would likely withset from its maw a thotherock inholding the seeds of the dishleafwaterlily undigested; or the seeds might be dropped by the bird whilst feeding its young, in the same way as fish are known sometimes to be dropped. In hidging these manysome means of brittening, S 2 [bookleaf] 388 earthlorely brittening. Chap. Xii. It should be muned that when a pond or stream is first ashaped, for bisen, on a rising islet, it will be unforbusied; and a onele seed or egg will have a good whate of aftercoming. Although there will always be a struggle for life between the untodealels of the wightkin, however few, already forbusying any pond, yet as the rime of kinds is small, withmeted with those on the land, the witherstrive will likely be less highernst between waterly than between earthly wightkin; infollowingly an intruder from the waters of a ellandish landred, would have a better whate of fanging on astead, than in the happenlay of earthly firstwoners. We should, also, mun that some, forhaps many, fresh-water tidderings are low in the scale of ikind, and that we have thinkcraft to believe that such low beings awend or become awended less quickly than the high; and this will give longer time than the throughsnithe for the yondshrithing of the same waterly wightkin. We should not forget the likelihood of many wightkin having formerly scoped as throughstandingly as fresh-water tidderings ever can scope, over widemichel areas, and having underfollowingly become fornaughted in betweenly ards. But the wide brittening of fresh-water plants and of the lower wights, whether bekeeping the same selfsame form or in some andstep awended, i believe mainly offhangs on the wide scattering of their seeds and eggs by wights, more besunders by fresh-water birds, which have michel wolds of flight, and quithenly outfare from one to another and often farfast piece of water. Ikind, like a careful gardener, thus takes her seeds from a bed of a dealocksome ikind, and drops them in another evenworthly well fitted for them. On the inwoneants of oceanic islands.—we now come to the last of the three ilks of deedsakes, which i [bookleaf] 389 chap. Xii. Oceanic islands. Have chosen as andwarding the greatest muchth of arveth, on the onsight that all the untodealels both of the same and of alinked wightkin have netherastien from a onele akennend; and therefore have all come from a imean birthstead, notwithstanding that in the foor of time they have come to inwone farfast ords of the globe. I have already quided that i cannot fertly throughgive forbes's onsight on earthdealsome outstretchings, which, if rightsomely followed out, would lead to the belief that within the short-ago timedeal all wesening islands have been nearly or quite fayed to some earthdeal. This onsight would remove many arveths, but it would not, i think, aclear all the deedsakes in sight to islandly tidderings. In the following edmarks i shall not benarrowen myself to the mere fraign of scattering; but shall hidge some other deedsakes, which bear on the truth of the two theories of unoffhanging ishaft and of netherastieing with awending. The wightkin of all kinds which inwone oceanic islands are few in rime withmeted with those on evenworth earthdealsome areas: alph. De candolle throughgives this for plants, and wollaston for bugs. If we look to the michel size and besundered standsteads of new zealand, outstretching over 780 miles of imbworldiside, and withmete its bloomworting plants, only 750 in rime, with those on an evenworth area at the cape of good hope or in australia, we must, i think, admit that something quite unoffhangingly of any undershed in bodily hodes has bewhyed so great an undershed in rime. Even the oneshaped county of cambridge has 847 plants, and the little island of hurnsea 764, but a few ferns and a few inlead plants are imbhad in these rimes, and the withmeting in some other edsights is not quite fair. We have outshow that the barren island of ascension fromthfast besat under half-a-dozen bloomworting [bookleaf] 390 earthlorely brittening. Chap. Xii. Plants; yet many have become ikindened on it, as they have on new zealand and on every other oceanic island which can be named. In st. Helena there is thinkcraft to believe that the ikindened plants and wights have nearly or quite benothinged many inhomeish tidderings. He who throughgives the alderbeliefword of the ishaft of each totweemed wightkin, will have to throughgive, that a enoughsome rime of the best throughfit plants and wights have not been beshaped on oceanic islands; for man has uninwhelvely stocked them from sundry outsprings far more fully and fullcomely than has ikind. Although in oceanic islands the rime of kinds of inwoners is scanty, the ondeal of landfromfast wightkin (i.e. Those found nowhere else in the world) is often outestly michel. If we withmete, for bisen, the rime of the landfromfast land-shells in madeira, or of the landfromfast birds in the galapagos islandmaith, with the rime found on any earthdeal, and then withmete the area of the islands with that of the earthdeal, we shall see that this is true. This deedsake might have been bewaited on my thoughtlay, for, as already acleared, wightkin otherwhile arriving after long timestretchs in a new and offonlyed andlay, and having to witherstrive with new onbinds, will be highoutlyly atiely to awending, and will often tidder maiths of awended netherastiends. But it by no means follows, that, forwhy in an island nearly all the wightkin of one ilk are odd, those of another ilk, or of another offdeal of the same ilk, are odd; and this undershed seems to offhang on the wightkin which do not become awended having inyondshrithen with eathyness and in a body, so that their two-way sibreds have not been much dreeved. Thus in the galapagos islands nearly every land-bird, but only two out of the eleven sealy birds, are odd; and it is opensightly that [bookleaf] 391 chap. Xii. Oceanic islands. Sealy birds could arrive at these islands more easily than land-birds. Bermuda, on the other hand, which lies at about the same farth from north america as the galapagos islands do from south america, and which has a very odd soil, does not besit one landfromfast land bird; and we know from mr. J. M. Jones's bewonderbere rake of bermuda, that very many north american birds, during their great yearly yondshrithings, nease either timedealsomely or otherwhile this island. Madeira does not besit one odd bird, and many european and african birds are almost every year blown there, as i am inkenned by mr. E. V. Harcourt. So that these two islands of bermuda and madeira have been stocked by birds, which for long eldths have struggled together in their former homes, and have become mutually throughfit to each other; and when settled in their new homes, each kind will have been kept by the others to their davenlysteads and wones, and will infollowingly have been little atiely to awending. Madeira, again, is inwoned by a wonderful rime of odd land-shells, whereas not one wightkin of sea-shell is benarrowened to its shores: now, though we do not know how sea-shells are scattered, yet we can see that their eggs or forebugs, forhaps onfastened to seaweed or floating timber, or to the feet of wading-birds, might be yondborne far more easily than land-shells, arood three or four hundred miles of open sea. The undershedsome orders of bugs in madeira opensightly andward samerunsome deedsakes. Oceanic islands are sometimes unenoughsome in somel ilks, and their steads are opensightly forbusied by the other inwoners; in the galapagos islands creepwights, and in new zealand entish wingless birds, take thestead of sucklewights. In the plants of the galapagos islands, dr. Hooker has shown that the ondealy rimes of the undershedsome orders are very undershedsome from [bookleaf] 392 earthlorely brittening. Chap. Xii. What they are elsewhere. Such happenlays are allmeanly arimed for by the bodily hodes of the islands; but this aclearing seems to me not a little twightful. Eathyness of inyondshrithing, i believe, has been at least as weighty as the ikind of the hodes. Many edmarkbere little deedsakes could be given with edsight to the inwoners of far-off islands. For bisen, in somel islands not tenanted by sucklewights, some of the landfromfast plants have littily hooked seeds; yet few sibreds are more striking than the throughfitting of hooked seeds for transportal by the wool and fur of fourfooters. This happenlay andwards no arveth on my onsight, for a hooked seed might be yondborne to an island by some other means; and the plant then becoming slightly awended, but still bekeeping its hooked seeds, would form an landfromfast wightkin, having as unnitworth an appendage as any leftlingish bodyworkth,—for bisen, as the shrivelled wings under the soldered elytra of many islandly beetles. Again, islands often besit trees or bushes belonging to orders which elsewhere imbhave only herbsome wightkin; now trees, as alph. De candolle has shown, allmeanly have, whatever the bewhy may be, benarrowened scopes. Hence trees would be little likely to reach farfast oceanic islands; and an herbsome plant, though it would have no whate of successfully witherstriving in stature with a fully andwound tree, when statheled on an island and having to witherstrive with herbsome plants alone, might readily gain an foredeal by growing taller and taller and overtopping the other plants. If so, ikindsome choosing would often nige to ateak to the stature of herbsome plants when growing on an island, to whatever order they belonged, and thus forwend them first into bushes and endfastly into trees. With edsight to the unandwardness of whole orders on [bookleaf] 393 chap. Xii. Oceanic islands. Oceanic islands, bory st. Vincent long ago edmarked that taillessfrogs (frogs, toads, newts) have never been found on any of the many islands with which the great oceans are studded. I have taken pains to verify this forthstomping, and i have found it strictly true. I have, however, been assured that a frog wesens on the barrows of the great island of new zealand; but i underlook that this outtake (if the kenstuff be rightsome) may be acleared through icelayly deedcraft. This allmeanly unandwardness of frogs, toads, and newts on so many oceanic islands cannot be arimed for by their bodily hodes; indeed it seems that islands are oddly well fitted for these wights; for frogs have been inlead into madeira, the azores, and mauritius, and have manyened so as to become a nuisance. But as these wights and their spawn are known to be forthwith killed by sea-water, on my onsight we can see that there would be great arveth in their yondbearing arood the sea, and therefore why they do not wesen on any oceanic island. But why, on the thoughtlay of ishaft, they should not have been beshaped there, it would be very arvethfast to aclear. Sucklewights offer another and alike happenlay. I have carefully searched the oldest siths, but have not finished my search; as yet i have not found a onele bisen, free from twight, of a earthly sucklewight (outshutting housened wights kept by the inhomeishes) inwoning an island onsat above 300 miles from a earthdeal or great earthdealsome island; and many islands onsat at a much less farth are evenworthly barren. The falkland islands, which are inwoned by a wolf-like fox, come nearest to an outtake; but this maith cannot be hidged as oceanic, as it lies on a bank belinked with the mainland; moreover, icebergs formerly brought boulders to its western shores, and they may S 3 [bookleaf] 394 earthlorely brittening. Chap. Xii. Have formerly yondborne foxes, as so loomly now happens in the highnorthards. Yet it cannot be said that small islands will not underbear small sucklewights, for they betide in many deals of the world on very small islands, if close to a earthdeal; and hardly an island can be named on which our smaller fourfooters have not become ikindened and greatly manyened. It cannot be said, on the wonely onsight of ishaft, that there has not been time for the ishaft of sucklewights; many firebarrowly islands are enoughsomely alderold, as shown by the stupendous netherrotting which they have thrawed and by their thirdsome flatwiselayers: there has also been time for the tiddering of landfromfast wightkin belonging to other ilks; and on earthdeals it is thought that sucklewights show up and swind at a quicker rimespeed than other and lower wights. Though earthly sucklewights do not betide on oceanic islands, ethemly sucklewights do betide on almost every island. New zealand besits two bats found nowhere else in the world: norfolk island, the viti islandmaith, the bonin islands, the caroline and marianne islandmaithes, and mauritius, all besit their odd bats. Why, it may be asked, has the understelled creative thrake tiddered bats and no other sucklewights on far-off islands? On my onsight this fraign can easily be answered; for no earthly sucklewight can be yondborne arood a wide roomhood of sea, but bats can fly arood. Bats have been seen wandering by day far over the atlantic ocean; and two north america wightkin either woneshapefastnessly or otherwhile nease bermuda, at the farth of 600 miles from the mainland. I hear from Mr. Tomes, who has asunderfastly throughlored this huered, that many of the same wightkin have aldermichel scopes, and are found on earthdeals and on far farfast islands. Hence we have only to understell that such wandering wightkin have been awended [bookleaf] 395 chap. Xii. Oceanic islands. Through ikindsome choosing in their new homes in sibred to their new howstand, and we can understand the andwardness of landfromfast bats on islands, with the unandwardness of all earthly sucklewights. Besides the unandwardness of earthly sucklewights in maithred to the far-offness of islands from earthdeals, there is also a maithred, to a somel scope unoffhanging of farth, between the depth of the sea totweeming an island from the neighbouring mainland, and the andwardness in both of the same sucklewightly wightkin or of alinked wightkin in a more or less awended hode. Mr. Windsor earl has made some striking behowings on this head in sight to the great malay islandmaith, which is traversed near celebes by a roomhood of deep ocean; and this roomhood tosheds two widely toshed sucklewightly wightmaiths. On either side the islands are onsat on meathly deep subsealy banks, and they are inwoned by closely alinked or selfsame fourfooters. No twight some few anomalies betide in this great islandmaith, and there is much arveth in forming a deeming in some happenlays owing to the likely ikindsomeing of somel sucklewights through man's deedcraft; but we shall soon have much light thrown on the ikindsome yorelore of this islandmaith by the bewonderbere zeal and researches of mr. Wallace. I have not as yet had time to follow up this underthrow in all other fourths of the world; but as far as i have gone, the maithred allmeanly holds good. We see britain totweemed by a shallow channel from europe, and the sucklewights are the same on both sides; we meet with samerunsome deedsakes on many islands totweemed by alike channels from australia. The west indian islands stand on a deeply underdipped bank, nearly 1000 fathoms in depth, and here we find american forms, but the wightkin and even the wightkinds are toshed. As the muchth of awending in all happenlays offhangs to [bookleaf] 396 earthlorely brittening. Chap. Xii. A somel andstep on the whilestitch of time, and as during awends of level it is opensightly that islands totweemed by shallow channels are more likely to have been throughstandingly beoned within a short-ago timedeal to the mainland than islands totweemed by deeper channels, we can understand the loom maithred between the depth of the sea and the andstep of sibred of the sucklewightly inwoners of islands with those of a neighbouring earthdeal,—an unaclearbere maithred on the onsight of unoffhanging bedos of becrafting. All the foregoing edmarks on the inwoners of oceanic islands,—namely, the scarcity of kinds—the richness in landfromfast forms in dealocksome ilks or offdeals of ilks,—the unandwardness of whole maiths, as of taillessfrogs, and of earthly sucklewights notwithstanding the andwardness of ethemly bats,—the sunderfast ondeals of somel orders of plants,—herbsome forms having been andwound into trees, &c.,—seem to me to accord better with the onsight of otherwhile means of yondbearing having been michelly onworkful in the long foor of time, than with the onsight of all our oceanic islands having been formerly belinked by throughstanding land with the nearest earthdeal; for on this latter onsight the yondshrithing would likely have been more fullwork; and if awending be throughgiven, all the forms of life would have been more evenworthly awended, in accordance with the yondmichelweighty weightiness of the maithred of lifer to lifer. I do not deny that there are many and grave arveths in understanding how manysome of the inwoners of the more far-off islands, whether still bekeeping the same insunderly form or awended since their tocoming, could have reached their andward homes. But the likelihood of many islands having wesened as halting-steads, of which not a wreck now belives, must not be overlooke. [bookleaf] 397 chap. Xii. Oceanic islands. I will here give a onele bisen of one of the happenlays of arveth. Almost all oceanic islands, even the most offonlyed and smallest, are inwoned by land-shells, allmeanly by endemic wightkin, but sometimes by wightkin found elsewhere. Dr. Aug. A. Gould has given manysome interesting happenlays in sight to the land-shells of the islands of the pacific. Now it is couthfast that land-shells are very easily killed by salt; their eggs, at least such as i have tried, sink in sea-water and are killed by it. Yet there must be, on my onsight, some unknown, but highly onworkful means for their yondbearing. Would the just-hatched young otherwhile crawl on and adhere to the feet of birds roosting on the ground, and thus get yondborne? It betided to me that land-shells, when wintersleeping and having a skinlingsome diaphragm over the mouth of the shell, might be floated in chinks of drifted timber arood meathly wide arms of the sea. And i found that manysome wightkin did in this onlay withstand unteened an indipping in sea-water during seven days: one of these shells was the helix pomatia, and after it had again winterslept i put it in sea-water for twenty days, and it fullcomely edgotten its strength. As this wightkin has a thick calcareous operculum, i removed it, and when it had ashaped a new skinlingsome one, i indipped it for fourteen days in sea-water, and it edgot its strength and crawled away: but more fands are wanted on this head. The most striking and weighty deedsake for us in sight to the inwoners of islands, is their sibred to those of the nearest mainland, without being soothly the same wightkin. Rimeful bisens could be given of this deedsake. I will give only one, that of the galapagos islandmaith, onsat under the samer, between 500 and 600 miles from the shores of south america. Here [bookleaf] 398 earthlorely brittening. Chap. Xii. Almost every itidder of the land and water bears the unmistakebere stamp of the american earthdeal. There are twenty-six land birds, and twenty-five of these are ranked by mr. Gould as toshed wightkin, understelled to have been beshaped here; yet the close sibred of most of these birds to america wightkin in every suchness, in their wones, gestures, and tones of steven, was manifest. So it is with the other wights, and with nearly all the plants, as shown by dr. Hooker in his bewonderbere minwrit on the wortmaith of this islandmaith. The ikindlorer, looking at the inwoners of these firebarrowly islands in the pacific, farfast manysome hundred miles from the earthdeal, yet feels that he is standing on american land. Why should this be so? Why should the wightkin which are understelled to have been beshaped in the galapagos islandmaith, and nowhere else, bear so plain a stamp of sibred to those beshaped in america? There is nothing in the hodes of life, in the earthlorely ikind of the islands, in their height or loftlay, or in the ondeals in which the manysome ilks are onbindd together, which onlikes closely the hodes of the south american coast: in deedsake there is a hidgebere unalikeship in all these edsights. On the other hand, there is a hidgebere andstep of look-alikeness in the firebarrowly ikind of the soil, in loftlay, height, and size of the islands, between the galapagos and cape de verde islandmaiths: but what an whole and fullthrough undershed in their inwoners! The inwoners of the cape de verde islands are akinned to those of africa, like those of the galapagos to america. I believe this michel deedsake can thidge no sort of aclearing on the wonely onsight of unoffhanging ishaft; whereas on the onsight here upkept, it is opensightly that the galapagos islands would be likely to thidge firstwoners, whether by otherwhile means of yondbearing or [bookleaf] 399 chap. Xii. Oceanic islands. By formerly throughstanding land, from america; and the cape de verde islands from africa; and that such firstwoners would be atiely to awending;—the thoughsetlay of erve still betraying their fromly birthstead. Many samerunsome deedsakes could be given: indeed it is an almost allhomely rule that the landfromfast tidderings of islands are akinned to those of the nearest earthdeal, or of other near islands. The outtakes are few, and most of them can be acleared. Thus the plants of kerguelen land, though standing nearer to africa than to america, are akinned, and that very closely, as we know from dr. Hooker's rake, to those of america: but on the onsight that this island has been mainly stocked by seeds brought with earth and stones on icebergs, drifted by the swithering currents, this oddship swinds. New zealand in its landfromfast plants is much more closely akinned to australia, the nearest mainland, than to any other ard: and this is what might have been bewaited; but it is also plainly akinned to south america, which, although the next nearest earthdeal, is so aldermichelly far-off, that the deedsake becomes an oddship. But this arveth almost swinds on the onsight that both new zealand, south america, and other southern lands were long ago ondealy stocked from a nearly betweenly though farfast ord, namely from the anthighnorthislands, when they were clothed with greenth, before the beginning of the icelayly timedeal. The sibred, which, though trumless, i am assured by dr. Hooker is real, between the wortmaith of the south-western corner of australia and of the cape of good hope, is a far more edmarkbere happenlay, and is at andward unaclearbere: but this sibred is benarrowened to the plants, and will, i do not twight, be some day acleared. The law which bewhys the inwoners of an islandmaith [bookleaf] 400 earthlorely brittening. Chap. Xii. though insunderly toshed, to be closely alinked to those of the nearest earthdeal, we sometimes see ewed on a small scale, yet in a most interesting way, within the underties of the same islandmaith. Thus the manysome islands of the galapagos islandmaith are tenanted, as i have elsewhere shown, in a quite wonderful way, by very closely akinned wightkin; so that the inwoners of each totweemed island, though mostly toshed, are akinned in an withmeteberely closer andstep to each other than to the inwoners of any other deal of the world. And this is just what might have been bewaited on my onsight, for the islands are onsat so near each other that they would almost iwis thidge inyondshrithers from the same fromly outspring, or from each other. But this unalikeship between the landfromfast inwoners of the islands may be used as an groundhood against my onsights; for it may be asked, how has it happened in the manysome islands onsat within sight of each other, having the same earthlorely ikind, the same height, loftlay, &c., that many of the inyondshrithers should have been undershedsomely awended, though only in a small andstep. This long thenced to me a great arveth: but it arises in chief deal from the deeply-seated dwild of hidging the bodily hodes of a landred as the most weighty for its inwoners; whereas it cannot, i think, be flitten that the ikind of the other inwoners, with which each has to witherstrive, is at least as weighty, and allmeanly a far more weighty firststuff of success. Now if we look to those inwoners of the galapagos islandmaith which are found in other deals of the world (laying on one side for the timeling the landfromfast wightkin, which cannot be here fairly imbhad, as we are hidging how they have come to be awended since their tocoming), we find a hidgebere muchth [bookleaf] 401 chap. Xii. Oceanic islands. Of undershed in the manysome islands. This undershed might indeed have been bewaited on the onsight of the islands having been stocked by otherwhile means of yondbearing—a seed, for bisen, of one plant having been brought to one island, and that of another plant to another island. Hence when in former times an inyondshrither settled on any one or more of the islands, or when it underfollowingly spread from one island to another, it would untwightedly be outset to undershedsome hodes of life in the undershedsome islands, for it would have to witherstrive with undershedsome sets of lifers: a plant, for bisen, would find the best-fitted ground more fullcomely forbusied by toshed plants in one island than in another, and it would be outset to the reess of somewhat undershedsome foes. If then it besundered, ikindsome choosing would likely rith undershedsome isunders in the undershedsome islands. Some wightkin, however, might spread and yet bekeep the same suchness throughout the maith, just as we see on earthdeals some wightkin spreading widely and beliving the same. The really overnimming deedsake in this happenlay of the galapagos islandmaith, and in a lesser andstep in some samerunsome bisens, is that the new wightkin ashaped in the totweemed islands have not quickly spread to the other islands. But the islands, though in sight of each other, are totweemed by deep arms of the sea, in most happenlays wider than the british channel, and there is no thinkcraft to understell that they have at any former timedeal been throughstandingly beoned. The currents of the sea are quick and sweep arood the islandmaith, and gales of wind are orwoneliness seldly; so that the islands are far more onworkingsomely totweemed from each other than they thench to be on a map. Nevertheless a good many wightkin, both those found in other deals of the world and those benarrowened to the islandmaith, are imean to [bookleaf] 402 earthlorely brittening. Chap. Xii. The manysome islands, and we may offlead fromsomel deedsakes that these have likely spread from some one island to the others. But we often take, i think, an dwolesome onsight of the likelihood of closely alinked wightkin onfalling each other's landdom, when put into free interbetwixtrord. Untwightedly if one wightkin has any foredeal whatever over another, it will in a very brief time wholly or in deal undersole it; but if both are evenworthly well fitted for their ownsteads in ikind, both likely will hold their ownsteads and keep totweemed for almost any length of time. Being couthly with the deedsake that many wightkin, ikindened through man's deedcraft, have spread with aweing quickity over new landreds, we are apt to offlead that most wightkin would thus spread; but we should mun that the forms which become ikindened in new landreds are not allmeanly closely alinked to the fromthfast inwoners, but are very toshed wightkin, belonging in a michel ondeal of happenlays, as shown by alph. De candolle, to toshed wightkinds. In the galapagos islandmaith, many even of the birds, though so well throughfit for flying from island to island, are toshed on each; thus there are three closely-alinked wightkin of mocking-thrush, each benarrowened to its own island. Now let us understell the mocking-thrush of chatham island to be blown to charles island, which has its own mocking-thrush: why should it spow in statheling itself there? We may safely offlead that charles island is well stocked with its own wightkin, for yearly more eggs are laid there than can acomingly be reared; and we may offlead that the mocking-thrush odd to charles island is at least as well fitted for its home as is the wightkin odd to chatham island. Sir c. Lyell and mr. Wollaston have betwixtrorded to me a edmarkbere deedsake bearing on this underthrow; namely, that madeira and the afaying islet of [bookleaf] 403 chap. Xii. Oceanic islands. Porto santo besit many toshed but aspelling land-shells, some of which live in narrowcracks of stone; and although michel muchths of stone are yearly yondborne from porto santo to madeira, yet this latter island has not become colonised by the porto santo wightkin: nevertheless both islands have been colonised by some european land-shells, which no twight had some foredeal over the inlandish wightkin. From these hidgings i think we need not greatly awonder at the landfromfast and aspelling wightkin, which inwone the manysome islands of the galapagos islandmaith, not having allhomely spread from island to island. In many other bisens, as in the manysome andlays of the same earthdeal, forbusying has likely played a weighty deal in checking the togethermingling of wightkin under the same hodes of life. Thus, the south-east and south-west corners of australia have nearly the same bodily hodes, and are beoned by throughstanding land, yet they are inwoned by a vast rime of toshed sucklewights, birds, and plants. The thoughsetlay which toends the allmeanly suchness of the wightmaith and wortmaith of oceanic islands, namely, that the inwoners, when not selfsamely the same, yet are plainly akinned to the inwoners of that ard whence firstwoners could most readily have been offstreamed,—the firstwoners having been underfollowingly awended and better fitted to their new homes,—is of the widest throughout ikind. We see this on every barrow, in every lake and marsh. For alpine wightkin, nimth in so far as the same forms, chiefly of plants, have spread widely throughout the world during the short-ago icelayly yoretimelaystart, are akinned to those of the imbholding lowlands;—thus we have in south america, alpine humming-birds, alpine rodents, alpine plants, &c., all of strictly american forms, and it is opensightly [bookleaf] 404 earthlorely brittening. Chap. Xii. That a barrow, as it became slowly upheaved, would quithenly be colonised from the imbholding lowlands. So it is with the inwoners of lakes and marshes, nimth in so far as great eathyness of yondbearing has given the same allmeanly forms to the whole world. We see this same thoughsetlay in the blind wights inwoning the caves of america and of europe. Other samerunsome deedsakes could be given. And it will, i believe, be allhomelyly found to be true, that wherever in two ards, let them be ever so farfast, many closely alinked or aspelling wightkin betide, there will likewise be found some selfsame wightkin, showing, in accordance with the foregoing onsight, that at some former timedeal there has been interbetwixtrord or yondshrithing between the two ards. And wherever many closely-alinked wightkin betide, there will be found many forms which some ikindlorers rank as toshed wightkin, and some as isunders; these twightful forms showing us the steps in the forthhappen of awending. This maithred between the wold and scope of yondshrithing of a wightkin, either at the andward time or at some former timedeal under undershedsome bodily hodes, and the wist at far-off ords of the world of other wightkin alinked to it, is shown in another and more allmeanly way. Mr. Gould edmarked to me long ago, that in those wightkinds of birds which scope over the world, many of the wightkin have very wide scopes. I can hardly twight that this rule is allmeanly true, though it would be arvethfast to afand it. Amongst sucklewights, we see it strikingly ewed in bats, and in a lesser andstep in the felidæ and canidæ. We see it, if we withmete the brittening of butterflies and beetles. So it is with most fresh-water tidderings, in which so many wightkinds scope over the world, and many untodealel wightkin have aldermichel scopes. It is not meant that in worldscoping [bookleaf] 405 chap. Xii. Oceanic islands. wightkinds all the wightkin have a wide scope, or even that they have on an throughsnithe a wide scope; but only that some of the wightkin scope very widely; for the eathyness with which widely-ranging wightkin forsunder and give rise to new forms will michelly toend their throughsnithe scope. For bisen, two isunders of the same wightkin inwone america and europe, and the wightkin thus has an widemichel scope; but, if the sundriness had been a little greater, the two isunders would have been ranked as toshed wightkin, and the imean scope would have been greatly lowered. Still less is it meant, that a wightkin which opensightly has the canmayen of rooding barriers and ranging widely, as in the happenlay of somel woldfully-winged birds, will needbehovely scope widely; for we should never forget that to scope widely infolds not only the wold of rooding barriers, but the more weighty wold of being sigorfast in farfast lands in the struggle for life with ellandish onbinds. But on the onsight of all the wightkin of a wightkind having netherastien from a onele akennend, though now brittened to the most far-off ords of the world, we ought to find, and i believe as a allmeanly rule we do find, that some at least of the wightkin scope very widely; for it is needbehovely that the unawended akennend should scope widely, undergoing awending during its tospreading, and should stell itself under sundry hodes rithbere for the overwending of its offspring, firstly into new isunders and endfastly into new wightkin. In hidging the wide brittening of somel wightkinds, we should bear in mind that some are outestly ancient, and must have branched off from a imean akennend at a far-off yoretimelaystart; so that in such happenlays there will have been michel time for great loftlayly and earthlorely awends and for misfalls of yondbearing; and infollowingly for the yondshrithing of some of the wightkin into all [bookleaf] 406 earthlorely brittening. Chap. Xii. Fourths of the world, where they may have become slightly awended in maithred to their new hodes. There is, also, some thinkcraft to believe from earthlorely outshow that lifers low in the scale within each great ilk, allmeanly awend at a slower rimespeed than the higher forms; and infollowingly the lower forms will have had a better whate of ranging widely and of still bekeeping the same insunderly suchness. This deedsake, together with the seeds and eggs of many low forms being very littleock and better fitted for farfast yondbearing, likely berimes for a law which has long been behowed, and which has lately been bewonderberely imbspoken by alph. De candolle in sight to plants, namely, that the lower any maith of lifers is, the more widely it is apt to scope. The sibreds just imbspoken,—namely, low and slowly-awending lifers ranging more widely than the high,—some of the wightkin of widely-ranging wightkinds themselves ranging widely,—such deedsakes, as alpine, lacustrine, and marsh tidderings being akinned (with the outtakes before insundered) to those on the imbholding low lands and dry lands, though these standsteads are so undershedsome—the very close maithred of the toshed wightkin which inwone the islets of the same islandmaith,—and besunders the striking maithred of the inwoners of each whole islandmaith or island to those of the nearest mainland,—are, i think, utterly unaclearbere on the wonely onsight of the unoffhanging ishaft of each wightkin, but are aclearbere on the onsight of firstwoning from the nearest and readiest outspring, together with the underfollowing awending and better throughfitting of the firstwoners to their new homes. Summary of last and andward bookdeals.—in these bookdeals i have bestriven to show, that if we enoughsomely hidge our unwareship of the full onworkings of all [bookleaf] 407 chap. Xii. Summary. The awends of loftlay and of the level of the land, which have iwis betided within the short-ago timedeal, and of other alike awends which may have betided within the same timedeal; if we mun how deeply unwittle we are with edsight to the many and frimdy means of otherwhile yondbearing,—a underthrow which has hardly ever been davenly fanded on; if we bear in mind how often a wightkin may have scoped throughstandingly over a wide area, and then have become fornaughted in the betweenly tract, i think the arveths in believing that all the untodealels of the same wightkin, wherever located, have netherastien from the same akennends, are not unovercomebere. And we are led to this ashut, which has been tocome at by many ikindlorers under the atokening of onele middlens of ishaft, by some allmeanly hidgings, more besunders from the weightiness of barriers and from the samerunsome brittening of under-wightkinds, wightkinds, and huereds. With edsight to the toshed wightkin of the same wightkind, which on my thoughtlay must have spread from one akennend-outspring; if we hidge as before our unwareship, and mun that some forms of life awend most slowly, aldermichel timedeals of time being thus granted for their yondshrithing, i do not think that the arveths are unovercomebere; though they often are in this happenlay, and in that of the untodealels of the same wightkin, outestly grave. As bebisening the onworkings of loftlayly awends on brittening, i have costened to show how weighty has been the inflowmayen of the now-time icelayly timedeal, which i am fully overtelld sametimely onworked the whole world, or at least great meridional belts. As showing how sunderlyened are the means of otherwhile yondbearing, i have imbspoken at some little length the means of scattering of fresh-water tidderings. [bookleaf] 408 earthlorely brittening. Chap. Xii. If the arveths be not unovercomebere in throughgiving that in the long foor of time the untodealels of the same wightkin, and likewise of alinked wightkin, have come from some one outspring; then i think all the michel leading deedsakes of earthlorely brittening are aclearbere on the thoughtlay of yondshrithing (allmeanly of the more overweighing forms of life), together with underfollowing awending and the manyening of new forms. We can thus understand the high weightiness of barriers, whether of land or water, which totweemed our manysome zoological and wortlorely selfwieldlandidoles. We can thus understand the stowlyening of under-wightkinds, wightkinds, and huereds; and how it is that under undershedsome imbworldisides, for bisen in south america, the inwoners of the plains and barrows, of the woddss, marshes, and alderdrystows, are in so rownfast a way linked together by sibred, and are likewise linked to the fornaughted beings which formerly inwoned the same earthdeal. Bearing in mind that the two-way sibreds of lifer to lifer are of the highest weightiness, we can see why two areas having nearly the same bodily hodes should often be inwoned by very undershedsome forms of life; for according to the length of time which has forstroked since new inwoners entered one ard; according to the ikind of the betwixtrord which allowedsomel forms and not others to enter, either in greater or lesser rimes; according or not, as those which entered happened to come in more or less straightfast witherstrive with each other and with the abfromthes; and according as the inyondshrithers were canfast of forsundering more or less quickly, there would befollow in undershedsome ards, unoffhangingly of their bodily hodes, boundlessly sunderlyened hodes of life,—there would be an almost endless muchth of lifesome deedship and redeedship,—and we should find, as we do find, some maiths of beings greatly, and some only slightly awended,—some andwound [bookleaf] 409 chap. Xii. Summary. in great thrake, some wesening in scanty rimes—in the undershedsome great earthlorely selfwieldlandidoles of the world. On these same thoughsetlays, we can understand, as i have bestriven to show, why oceanic islands should have few inwoners, but of these a great rime should be landfromfast or odd; and why, in maithred to the means of yondshrithing, one maith of beings, even within the same ilk, should have all its wightkin landfromfast, and another maith should have all its wightkin imean to other fourths of the world. We can see why whole maiths of lifers, as taillessfrogs and earthly sucklewights, should be unandward from oceanic islands, whilst the most offonlyed islands besit their own odd wightkin of ethemly sucklewights or bats. We can see why there should be some maithred between the andwardness of sucklewights, in a more or less awended hode, and the depth of the sea between an island and the mainland. We can clearly see why all the inwoners of an islandmaith, though insunderly toshed on the manysome islets, should be closely akinned to each other, and likewise be akinned, but less closely, to those of the nearest continent or other outspring whence inyondshrithers were likely offstreamed. We can see why in two areas, however farfast from each other, there should be a togethersibred, in the andwardness of selfsame wightkin, of isunders, of twightful wightkin, and of toshed but aspelling wightkin. As the late edward forbes often bestood, there is a striking evenlongdom in the laws of life throughout time and roomhood: the laws awielding the afterfollowingness of forms in eretide times being nearly the same with those awielding at the andward time the undersheds in undershedsome areas. We see this in many deedsakes. The tholing of each wightkin and maith of wightkin is throughstanding in time; for the outtakes to the rule are so few, that they may T [bookleaf] 410 earthlorely brittening. Chap. Xii. Fairly be knoded to our not having as yet anddecked in an betweenly offstell the forms which are therein unandward, but which betide above and below: so in roomhood, it iwis is the allmeanly rule that the area inwoned by a onele wightkin, or by a maith of wightkin, is throughstanding; and the outtakes, which are not seldly, may, as i have costened to show, be arimed for by yondshrithing at some former timedeal under undershedsome hodes or by otherwhile means of yondbearing, and by the wightkin having become fornaughted in the betweenly tract. Both in time and roomhood, wightkin and maiths of wightkin have their ords of aldermost andwinding. Maiths of wightkin, belonging either to a somel timedeal of time, or to a somel area, are often suchnessised by trifling suchnesses in imean, as of sculpture or colour. In looking to the long afterfollowingness of eldths, as in now looking to farfast selfwieldlandidoles throughout the world, we find that some lifers andsame little, whilst others belonging to an undershedsome ilk, or to an undershedsome order, or even only to an undershedsome huered of the same order, andsame greatly. In both time and roomhood the lower members of each ilk allmeanly awend less than the higher; but there are in both happenlays marked outtakes to the rule. On my thoughtlay these manysome sibreds throughout time and roomhood are understandbere; for whether we look to the forms of life which have forothered during afterfollowly eldths within the same fourth of the world, or to those which have forothered after having yondshrithen into farfast fourths, in both happenlays the forms within each ilk have been belinked by the same bond of wonely akenning; and the more nearly any two forms are akinned in blood, the nearer they will allmeanly stand to each other in time and roomhood; in both happenlays the laws of variation have been the same, and awendings have been upheaped by the same wold of ikindsome choosing. [bookleaf] 411 chap. Xiii. Isunderening. Bookdeal xiii. Two-way sibreds of lifesome beings: shapelore: forebirthlinglore: leftlingish bodyworkths. Isunderening, maiths underrowfollowsome to maiths — ikindsome setlay — rules and arveths in isunderening, acleared on the thoughtlay of netherastieing with awending — isunderening of isunders — netherastieing always used in isunderening — samerunsome or throughfitsome suchnesses — sibreds, allmeanly, throughtangly and tostreaming — fornaughting tosheds and bebinds maiths — shapelore, between members of the same ilk, between deals of the same untodealel — forebirthlinglore, laws of, acleared by sundrinesss not supervening at an early eldth, and being erved at a togetheranswering eldth — leftlingish bodyworkths; their fromth acleared — summary. From the first dawn of life, all lifesome beings are found to onlike each other in netherastieing andsteps, so that they can be isunderened in maiths under maiths. This isunderening is opensightly not arbitrary like the maithing of the stars in constellations. The wist of maiths would have been of onelay meaning, if one maith had been outshutly fitted to inwone the land, and another the water; one to feed on flesh, another on vegetable matter, and so on; but the happenlay is widely undershedsome in ikind; for it is couthfast how imeanly members of even the same under-maith have undershedsome wones. In our twoth and fourth bookdeals, on isunder and on ikindly choosing, i have costened to show that it is the widely ranging, the much tospread and imean, that is the overweighing wightkin belonging to the michelr wightkinds, which forsunder most. The isunders, or beginsome wightkin, thus tiddered endfastly become forwended, as i believe, into new and toshed wightkin; and these, on the thoughsetlay of erve, nige to tidder other new and overweighing T 2 [bookleaf] 412 isunderening. Chap. Xiii. Wightkin. Infollowingly the maiths which are now michel, and which allmeanly imbhave many overweighing wightkin, nige to go on eaking inbindfastly in size. I further costened to show that from the besundering netherastiends of each wightkin trying to forbusy as many and as undershedsomesteads as acomingly in the setlay of ikind, there is a standy niging in their suchnesses to towharve. This ashut was underborne by looking at the great manyotheredness of the forms of life which, in any small area, come into the closest witherstrive, and by looking tosomel deedsakes in ikindsomeing. I costened also to show that there is a standy niging in the forms which are eaking in rime and towharving in suchness, to undersole and benothing the less towharving, the less bettered, and beforecoming forms. I request the reader to turn to the ifay onlighting the deedship, as formerly acleared, of these manysome thoughsetlays; and he will see that the unmithebere outfollow is that the awended netherastiends coming from one akennend become broken up into maiths underrowfollowsome to maiths. In the ifay each letter on the uppermost line may aspell a wightkind imbhaving manysome wightkin; and all the wightkinds on this line form together one ilk, for all have netherastien from one alderold but unseen akenend, and, infollowingly, have erved something in imean. But the three wightkinds on the left hand have, on this same thoughsetlay, much in imean, and form a under-huered, toshed from that imbhaving the next two wightkinds on the right hand, which towhorve from a imean akennend at the fifth stepock of netherastieing. These five wightkinds have also much, though less, in imean; and they form a huered toshed from that imbhaving the three wightkinds still further to the right hand, which towhorve at a still earlier timedeal. And all these wightkinds,netherastien from (a), form an order toshed from the [bookleaf] 413 chap. Xiii. Isunderening. Wightkinds netherastien from (i). So that we here have many wightkinnetherastien from a onele akennend maithed into wightkinds; and the wightkinds are imbhad in, or underrowfollowsome to, under-huereds, huereds, and orders, all beoned into one ilk. Thus, the michel deedsake in ikindsome yorelore of the underrowfollowsomeness of maith under maith, which, from its couthred, does not always enoughsomely strike us, is in my deeming fully acleared. Ikindlorers try to dight the wightkin, wightkinds, and huereds in each ilk, on what is called the ikindsome setlay. But what is meant by this setlay? Some writmakers look at it merely as a scheme for arranging together those living towardsthings which are most alike, and for totweeming those which are most unlike; or as an saremadely means for enunciating, as briefly as acomingly, allmeanly forthputs,—that is, by one sentence to give the suchnesses imean, for bisen, to all sucklewights, by another those imean to all meat-eaters, by another those imean to the dog-wightkind, and then by ateaking a onele sentence, a full bewriting is given of each kind of dog. The aldermindlyness and nitworthness of this setlay are unflitebere. But many ikindlorers think that something more is meant by the ikindsome setlay; they believe that it swettles the plan of the shapend; but unless it be insundered whether order in time or roomhood, or what else is meant by the plan of the shapend, it seems to me that nothing is thus ateaked to our knowledge. Such outthrings as that famous one of linnæus, and which we often meet with in a more or less bederned form, that the suchnesses do not make the wightkind, but that the wightkind gives the suchnesses, seem to infold that something more is imbhad in our isunderening, than mere look-alikeness. I believe that something more is imbhad; and that kin-nearness of netherastieing,—the only known bewhy of the alikeship of lifesome beings,—is the bond, hidden as it is by sundry andsteps of awending [bookleaf] 414 isunderening. Chap. Xiii. Which is ondealy swettled to us by our isunderenings. Let us now hidge the rules followed in isunderening, and the arveths which are enwithed on the onsight that isunderening either gives some unknown plan of ishaft, or is sinfold a scheme for enunciating allmeanly forthputs and of stelling together the forms most like each other. It might have been thought (and was in alderold times thought) that those deals of the framework which toended the wones of life, and the allmeanlystead of each being in the setlay of ikind, would be of very high weightiness in isunderening. Nothing can be more false. No one regards the outly alikeship of a mouse to a shrew, of a dugong to a whale, of a whale to a fish, as of any weightiness. These look-alikenesss, though so intimately belinked with the whole life of the being, are ranked as merely "throughfitsome or samerunsome suchnesses;" but to the hidging of these look-alikenesss we shall have to edhappen. It may even be given as a allmeanly rule, that the less any deal of the dight is bemet with sunderful wones, the more weighty it becomes for isunderening. As a bisen: owen, in speaking of the dugong, says, "the wightkindstive bodyworkths being those which are most far-offly akinned to the wones and food of a wight, i have always seen as affording very clear onshows of its true sibreds. We are least likely in the awendings of these bodyworkths to mistake a merely throughfitsome for an isshiply suchness." so with plants, how edmarkbere it is that the bodyworkths of greenth, on which their whole life offhangs, are of little meaning, nimth in the first main idoles; whereas the bodyworkths of edtiddering, with their itidder the seed, are of yondmichelweighty weightiness! We must not, therefore, in isunderening, trust to look-alikenesss in deals of the dight, however weighty [bookleaf] 415 chap. Xiii. Isunderening. They may be for the welfare of the being in maithred to the outer world. Forhaps from this bewhy it has deally arisen, that almost all ikindlorers lay the greatest stress on look-alikenesss in bodyworkths of high lifefast or bodylorely weightiness. No twight this onsight of the ilkificatory weightiness of bodyworkths which are weighty is allmeanly, but by no means always, true. But their weightiness for isunderening, i believe, offhangs on their greater constancy throughout michel maiths of wightkin; and this constancy offhangs on such bodyworkths having allmeanly been underthrown to less awend in the throughfitting of the wightkin to their hodes of life. That the mere bodylorely weightiness of an bodyworkth does not toend its ilkificatory worthhood, is almost shown by the one deedsake, that in alinked maiths, in which the same bodyworkth, as we have every thinkcraft to understell, has nearly the same bodylorely worthhood, its ilkificatory worthhood is widely undershedsome. No ikindlorer can have worked at any maith without being struck with this deedsake; and it has been most fully acknowledged in the writings of almost every writmaker. It will enoughen to quote the highest alderdom, robert brown, who in speaking of somel bodyworkths in the proteaceæ, says their allmeanly weightiness, "like that of all their deals, not only in this but, as i apprehend, in every ikindsome huered, is very unevenworthly, and in some happenlays seems to be wholely lost." again in another work he says, the wightkinds of the connaraceæ "andsame in having one or more eggbearlings, in the wist or unandwardness of eggwhitemeatsetnessling, in the evenly overlapping or onewayflaply summerthroughsleep. Any one of these suchnesses singly is loomly of more than allmeanly weightiness, though here even when all taken together they thench unenoughsome to totweemed cnestis from connarus." to give an bisen amongst bugs, in one great idole of the fourskinlingwingedbugs, the headfeelers, as westwood has edmarked, are most standy in upbuild; [bookleaf] 416 isunderening. Chap. Xiii. In another idole they andsame much, and the undersheds are of quite underrowfollowsome worthhood in isunderening; yet no one likely will say that the headfeelers in these two idoles of the same order are of unevenworthly bodylorely weightiness. Any rime of bisens could be given of the forsundering weightiness for isunderening of the same weighty bodyworkth within the same maith of beings. Again, no one will say that leftlingish or drozen bodyworkths are of high bodylorely or lifefast weightiness; yet, untwightedly, bodyworkths in this hode are often of high worthhood in isunderening. No one will flite that the leftlingish teeth in the upper jaws of young cudchewingwights, andsomel leftlingish bones of the leg, are highly thaneredable in outstelling the close sibred between cudchewingwights and thickskinhoofwights. Robert brown has strongly bestood on the deedsake that the leftlingish bloomwortlings are of the highest weightiness in the isunderening of the grasses. Rimeful bisens could be given of suchnesses offstreamed from deals which must be hidged of very trifling bodylorely weightiness, but which are allhomely throughgiven as highly thaneredable in the bebinding of whole maiths. For bisen, whether or not there is an open throughfare from the nostrils to the mouth, the only suchness, according to owen, which fullthroughly tosheds fishes and creepwights—the inbend of the hurn of the jaws in bellybagwights—the way in which the wings of bugs are folded—mere colour in somel algæ—mere ripeship on deals of the bloomwort in grasses—the ikind of the skinsome betielding, as hair or feathers, in the backbonewight. If the onewholedduckbillwight had been betielded with feathers instead of hair, this outly and trifling suchness would, i think, have been considered by ikindlorers as weighty an ferk in toending the andstep of sibred of this selcouth forthshaft to [bookleaf] 417 chap. Xiii. Isunderening. Birds and creepwights, as an nighledge in upbuild in any one inly and weighty bodyworkth. The weightiness, for isunderening, of trifling suchnesses, mainly offhangs on their being togetherakinned with manysome other suchnesses of more or less weightiness. The worth indeed of an gatherhood of suchnesses is very opensightly in ikindsome yorelore. Hence, as has often been edmarked, a wightkin may wite from its allies in manysome suchnesses, both of high bodylorely weightiness and of almost allhomely switherhood, and yet leave us in no twight where it should be ranked. Hence, also, it has been found, that a isunderening founded on any onele suchness, however weighty that may be, has always failed; for no deal of the dight is allhomely standy. The weightiness of an gatherhood of suchnesses, even when none are weighty, alone aclears, i think, that saying of linnæus, that the suchnesses do not give the wightkind, but the wightkind gives the suchnesses; for this saying seems founded on an beworthing of many trifling ords of look-alikeness, too slight to be bebound.somel plants, belonging to the tubeglandbugs, bear fullcome and netherrotted bloomworts; in the latter, as a. De jussieu has edmarked, "the greater rime of the suchnesses davenly to the wightkin, to the wightkind, to the huered, to the ilk, swind, and thus laugh at our isunderening." but when aspicarpa tiddered in france, during manysome years, only netherrotted bloomworts, witing so wonderfully in a rime of the most weighty ords of upbuild from the davenly type of the order, yet m. Richard wisely saw, as jussieu behows, that this wightkind should still be bekept amongst the tubeglandbugs. This happenlay seems to me well to onlight the spirit with which our isunderenings are sometimes needbehovely founded. Dowisely when ikindlorers are at work, they do T 3 [bookleaf] 418 isunderening. Chap. Xiii. Not trouble themselves about the bodylorely worthhood of the suchnesses which they use in bebindingg a maith, or in allocating any dealocksome wightkin. If they find a suchness nearly oneshaped, and imean to a great rime of forms, and not imean to others, they use it as one of high worthhood; if imean to some lesser rime, they use it as of underrowfollowsome worthhood. This thoughsetlay has been broadly andetted by some ikindlorers to be the true one; and by none more clearly than by that highmood wortlorer, aug. St. Hilaire. Ifsomel suchnesses are always found togetherakinned with others, though no opensightly bond of belinking can be anddecked between them, asunderfast worthhood is set on them. As in most maiths of wights, weighty bodyworkths, such as those for thrisming the blood forward, or for aërating it, or those for forspreading the race, are found nearly oneshaped, they are hidged as highly thaneredable in isunderening; but in some maiths of wights all these, the most weighty lifefast bodyworkths, are found to offer suchnesses of quite underrowfollowsome worthhood. We can see why suchnesses offstreamed from the forebirthling should be of evenworth weightiness with those offstreamed from the adult, for our isunderenings iwis imbhave all eldths of each wightkin. But it is by no means opensightly, on the wonely onsight, why the upbuild of the forebirthling should be more weighty for this sake than that of the adult, which alone plays its full deal in the setlay of ikind. Yet it has been strongly thraffed by those great ikindlorers, milne edwards and agassiz, that forebirthlingsome suchnesses are the most weighty of any in the ilkification of wights; and this alderbeliefword has very allmeanly been throughgiven as true. The same deedsake holds good with bloomworting plants, of which the two main idoles have been founded on suchnesses offstreamed from the forebirthling,—on the rime and howstand of the forebirthlingly [bookleaf] 419 chap. Xiii. Isunderening. Leaves or firstleafs, and on the way of andwinding of the forebirthlingstemtip and seedlingforeroot. In our imbspeech on forebirthlinglore, we shall see why such suchnesses are so worthsome, on the onsight of isunderening orquidly imbhaving the thinkling of netherastieing. Our isunderenings are often plainly inflowmayened by chains of sibreds. Nothing can be easier than to bebind a rime of suchnesses imean to all birds; but in the happenlay of shellbearers, such bebinding has hitherto been found unacomingly. There are shellbearers at the witherrights ends of the followth, which have hardly a suchness in imean; yet the wightkin at both ends, from being plainly alinked to others, and these to others, and so onwards, can be edknown as meaningclearly belonging to this, and to no other ilk of the articulata. Earthlorely brittening has often been used, though forhaps not quite flitcraftly, in isunderening, more besunders in very michel maiths of closely alinked forms. Temminck bestands on the nitworthness or even tharfliness of this doship in somel maiths of birds; and it has been followed by manysome buglorers and wortlorers. Endsomely, with edsight to the withmetesome worthhood of the sundry maiths of wightkin, such as orders, under-orders, huereds, under-huereds, and wightkinds, they seem to be, at least at andward, almost arbitrary. Manysome of the best wortlorers, such as mr. Bentham and others, have strongly bestood on their arbitrary worthhood. Instances could be given amongst plants and bugs, of a maith of forms, first ranked by practised ikindlorers as only a wightkind, and then raised to the rank of a under-huered or huered; and this has been done, not forwhy further research has arepped weighty upbuildly undersheds, at first overlooked, but forwhy rimeful alinked wightkin, with slightly undershedsome stephoods of andsameence, have been underfollowingly anddecked. [bookleaf] 420 isunderening. Chap. Xiii. All the foregoing rules and aids and arveths in isunderening are acleared, if i do not greatly swike myself, on the onsight that the ikindsome setlay is founded on netherastieing with awending; that the suchnesses which ikindlorers hidge as showing true sibred between any two or more wightkin, are those which have been erved from a imean akennend, and, in so far, all true isunderening is kinlorely; that imeanship of netherastieing is the hidden bond which ikindlorers have been orawarely seeking, and not some unknown plan of ishaft, or the enunciation of allmeanly forthputs, and the mere putting together and totweeming towardsthings more or less alike. But i must aclear my meaning more fully. I believe that the dighting of the maiths within each ilk, in due underrowfollowsomeness and relation to the other maiths, must be strictly kinlorely in order to be ikindsome; but that the muchth of undershed in the manysome branches or maiths, though alinked in the same andstep in blood to their imean akennend, may andsame greatly, being due to the undershedsome andsteps of awending which they have undergone; and this is outthringed by the forms being ranked under undershedsome wightkinds, huereds, offdeals, or orders. The reader will best understand what is meant, if he will take the trouble of bepulling to the ifay in the fourth bookdeal. We will understell the letters a to l to aspell alinked wightkinds, which lived during the silurian yoretimelaystart, and these have netherastien from a wightkin which wesened at an unknown fore timedeal. Wightkin of three of these wightkinds (a, f, and i) have yondstelled awended netherastiends to the andward day, aspelled by the fifteen wightkinds (a14 to z14) on the uppermost skylinewise line. Now all these awended netherastiends from a onele wightkin, are aspelled as akinned in blood or netherastieing to the same [bookleaf] 421 chap. Xiii. Isunderening. Andstep; they may hueingly be called cousins to the same tenfoldhundthousandth andstep; yet they andsame widely and in undershedsome andsteps from each other. The formsnetherastien from a, now broken up into two or three huereds, inmake a toshed order from thosenetherastien from i, also broken up into two huereds. Nor can the wesening wightkin,netherastien from a, be ranked in the same wightkind with the akennend a; or those from i, with the akennend i. But the wesening wightkind f14 may be understelled to have been but slightly awended; and it will then rank with the akennend-wightkind f; just as some few still living lifesome beings belong to silurian wightkinds. So that the muchth or worthhood of the undersheds between lifesome beings all related to each other in the same andstep in blood, has come to be widely undershedsome. Nevertheless their kinlorely dighting lefthsstrictly true, not only at the andward time, but at each afterfollowly timedeal of netherastieing. All the awended netherastiends from a will have erved something in imean from their imean akennend, as will all the netherastiendsfrom i; so will it be with each underrowfollowsome branch ofnetherastiends, at each afterfollowly timedeal. If, however, we choose to understell that any of the netherastiendsof a or of i have been so much awended as to have more or less fullthroughly lost traces of their akennendage, in this happenlay, their steads in a ikindsome isunderening will have been more or less fullthroughly lost,—as sometimes seems to have betided with wesening lifers. All the netherastiendsof the wightkind f, along its whole line of netherastieing, are understelled to have been but little awended, and they yet form a onele wightkind. But this wightkind, though much offonlyed, will still forbusy its davenly betweenly howstand; for f fromly was betweenly in suchness between a and i, and the manysome wightkindsnetherastien from these two wightkinds will [bookleaf] 422 isunderening. Chap. Xiii. Have erved to a somel scope their suchnesses. This ikindsome dighting is shown, as far as is acomingly on paper, in the ifay, but in much too onelay a way. If a branching ifay had not been used, and only the names of the maiths had been written in a linear followth, it would have been still less acomingly to have given a ikindsome dighting; and it is couthfastly not acomingly to aspell in a followth, on a flat overside, the sibreds which we anddeck in ikind amongst the beings of the same maith. Thus, on the onsight which i hold, the ikindsome system is kinlorely in its dighting, like a forekintree; but the andsteps of awending which the undershedsome maiths have undergone, have to be outthringed by ranking them under undershedsome so-called wightkinds, under-huereds, huereds, offdeals, orders, and ilks. It may be worth while to onlight this onsight of isunderening, by taking the happenlay of irords. If we besat a fullcome forekintree of mankind, a kinlorely dighting of the races of man would afford the best isunderening of the sundry irords now spoken throughout the world; and if all fornaughted irords, and all betweenly and slowly awending dialects, had to be imbhad, such an dighting would, i think, be the only acomingly one. Yet it might be that some very alderold irord had awended little, and had given rise to few new irords, whilst others (owing to the spreading and underfollowing onlyed-offness and onlays of couthdom of the manysome races,netherastien from a imean race) had awended much, and had given rise to many new irords and dialects. The sundry andsteps of undershed in the irords from the same stock, would have to be outthringed by maiths underrowfollowsome to maiths; but the davenly or even only acomingly dighting would still be kinlorely; and this would be strictly ikindsome, as [bookleaf] 423 chap. Xiii. Isunderening. It would belink together all irords, fornaughted and now-time, by the closest sibreds, and would give the filiation and fromth of each tongue. In atruming of this onsight, let us glance at the isunderening of isunders, which are believed or known to have netherastien from one wightkin. These are maithed under wightkin, with under-isunders under isunders; and with our housely tidderings, manysome other stephoods of undershed are needed, as we have seen with plumpdoves. The fromth of the wist of maiths underrowfollowsome to maiths, is the same with isunders as with wightkin, namely, closeness of netherastieing with sundry andsteps of awending. Nearly the same rules are followed in isunderening isunders, as with wightkin. Writmakers have bestood on the tharfliness of ilking isunders on a ikindsome instead of an saremadely setlay; we are warned, for bisen, not to ilk two isunders of the pine-apple together, merely forwhy their ovet, though the most weighty deal, happens to be nearly selfsame; no one puts the swedish and imean turnips together, though the eatbere and thickened stems are so alike. Whatever deal is found to be most standy, is used in ilking isunders: thus the great cropcrafter marshall says the horns are very nitworth for this sake with orf, forwhy they are less sunderly than the shape or colour of the body, &c.; whereas with sheep the horns are much less thaneredable, forwhy less standy. In ilking isunders, i apprehend if we had a real forekintree, a kinlorely isunderening would be allhomely forechosen; and it has been costened by some writmakers. For we might feel sure, whether there had been more or less awending, the thoughsetlay of erve would keep the forms together which were alinked in the greatest rime of ords. In tumbler plumpdoves, though some under-isunders andsame from the others [bookleaf] 424 isunderening. Chap. Xiii. In the weighty suchness of having a longer beak, yet all are kept together from having the imean wone of tumbling; but the short-faced breed has nearly or quite lost this wone; nevertheless, without any thinkcrafting or thinking on the underthrow, these tumblers are kept in the same maith, forwhy alinked in blood and alike in some other edsights. If it could be afanded that the hottentot had netherastien from the negro, i think he would be isunderened under the negro maith, however much he might andsame in colour and other weighty suchnesses from negroes. With wightkin in a onlay of ikind, every ikindlorer has in deedsake brought netherastieing into his isunderening; for he imbhaves in his lowest stephood, or that of a wightkin, the two akenbodyworkthsplits; and how aldermichelly these sometimes andsame in the most weighty suchnesses, is known to every ikindlorer: hardly a onele deedsake can be predicated in imean of the seedlifers and weaponedwifesters of somel moochshellwights, when adult, and yet no one dreams of totweeming them. The ikindlorer imbhaves as one wightkin the manysome forebugl stepocks of the same untodealel, however much they may andsame from each other and from the adult; as he likewise imbhaves the so-called offwrixlesomestrinds of steenstrup, which can only in a builtcraftsome spoor be hidged as the same untodealel. He imbhaves owleechs; he imbhaves isunders, not solely forwhy they closely onlike the akennend-form, but forwhy they are netherastien from it. He who believes that the cowslip is netherastien from the firstrose, or otherwayly, ranks them together as a onele wightkin, and gives a onele bebinding. As soon as three orchthinklingn forms (monochanthus, myanthus, and catasetum), which had beforely been ranked as three toshed wightkinds, were known to be sometimes tiddered on the same spike, they were forthwith imbhad as a onele wightkin. [bookleaf] 425 chap. Xiii. Isunderening. But it may be asked, what ought we to do, if it could be afanded that one wightkin of kangaroo had been tiddered, by a long foor of awending, from a bear? Ought we to rank this one wightkin with bears, and what should we do with the other wightkin? The beguessing is iwis wodely; and i might answer by the groundhood to the man, and ask what should be done if a fullcome kangaroo were seen to come out of the womb of a bear? According to all samerun, it would be ranked with bears; but then assuredly all the other wightkin of the kangaroo huered would have to be isunderened under the bear wightkind. The whole happenlay is laughterly; for where there has been close netherastieing in imean, there will iwis be close look-alikeness or sibred. As netherastieing has allhomely been used in ilking together the untodealels of the same wightkin, though the seedlifers and birthlifers and forebugs are sometimes outestly undershedsome; and as it has been used in ilking isunders which have undergone a somel, and sometimes a hidgebere muchth of awending, may not this same firststuff of netherastieing have been orawarely used in maithing wightkin under wightkinds, and wightkinds under higher maiths, though in these happenlays the awending has been greater in andstep, and has taken a longer time to fullwork? I believe it has thus been orawarely used; and only thus can i understand the manysome rules and guides which have been followed by our best setlaylorers. We have no written forekintrees; we have to make out imeanship of netherastieing by look-alikenesss of any kind. Therefore we choose those suchnesses which, as far as we can deemend, are the least likely to have been awended in maithred to the hodes of life to which each wightkin has been short-agoly outset. Leftlingary upbuilds on this onsight are as good as, or even sometimes better than, other deals of the dight. We [bookleaf] 426 isunderening. Chap. Xiii. Care not how trifling a suchness may be—let it be the mere inbend of the hurn of the jaw, the way in which an bug's wing is folded, whether the skin be betielded by hair or feathers—if it swither throughout many and undershedsome wightkin, besunders those having very undershedsome wones of life, it foretakes high worthhood; for we ca rake for its andwardness in so many forms with such undershedsome wones, only by its erve from a imean akennend. We may err in this edsight in sight to onele ords of upbuild, but when manysome suchnesses, let them be ever so trifling, betide together throughout a michel maith of beings having undershedsome wones, we may feel almost sure, on the thoughtlay of netherastieing, that these suchnesses have been erved from a imean beforecomer. And we know that such togetherakinned or getherherded suchnesses have asunderfast worthhood in isunderening. We can understand why a wightkin or a maith of wightkin may wite, in manysome of its most weighty ownships, from its allies, and yet be safely isunderened with them. This may be safely done, and is often done, as long as a enoughsome rime of suchnesses, let them be ever so unweighty, betrays the hidden bond of imeanship of netherastieing. Let two forms have not a onele suchness in imean, yet if these outest forms are belinked together by a chain of betweenly maiths, we may at once offlead their imeanship of netherastieing, and we put them all into the same ilk. As we find bodyworkths of high bodylorely weightiness—those which serve to aspare life under the most sundry hodes of wist—are allmeanly the most standy, we onfasten asunderfast worthhood to them; but if these same bodyworkths, in another maith or offdeal of a maith, are found to andsame much, we beworth them less in our isunderening. We shall hereafter, i think, clearly see why forebirthlinglorely suchnesses are of such high ilkificatory weightiness. [bookleaf] 427 chap. Xiii. Isunderening. Earthlorely brittening may sometimes be brought nitworthly into play in ilking michel and widely-brittened wightkinds, forwhy all the wightkin of the same wightkind, inwoning any toshed and offonlyed ard, have in all likelihood netherastien from the same akennends. We can understand, on these onsights, the very weighty ished between real sibreds and samerunsome or throughfitsome look-alikenesss. Lamarck first called mindlook to this ished, and he has been ably followed by macleay and others. The look-alikeness, in the shape of the body and in the fin-like fore limbs, between the dugong, which is a thickskinhoofwightatous wight, and the whale, and between both these sucklewights and fishes, is samerunsome. Amongst bugs there are unarimebere bisens: thus linnæus, misled by outly upshowings, soothly isunderened an homopterous bug as a moth. We see something of the same kind even in our housely isunders, as in the thickened stems of the imean and swedish turnip. The look-alikeness of the greyhound and racehorse is hardly more fanciful than the analogies which have been drawn by some writmakers between very toshed wights. On my onsight of suchnesses being of real weightiness for isunderening, only in so far as they swettle netherastieing, we can clearly understand why samerunsome or throughfitsome suchness, although of the utmost weightiness to the welfare of the being, are almost worthhoodless to the setlaylorer. For wights, belonging to two most toshed lines of netherastieing, may readily become throughfit to alike hodes, and thus foretake a close outly look-alikeness; but such look-alikenesss will not swettle—will rather nige to bedern their blood-maithred to their davenly lines of netherastieing. We can also understand the opensightly paradox, that the very same suchnesses are samerunsome when one ilk or order is withmeted with another, but give true sibreds when the members of [bookleaf] 428 ilkening. Chap. Xiii. The same ilk or order are withmeted one with another: thus the shape of the body and fin-like limbs are only samerunsome when whales are withmeted with fishes, being throughfittings in both ilks for swimming through the water; but the shape of the body and fin-like limbs serve as suchnesses outstelling true sibred between the manysome members of the whale huered; for these sucklefishns agree in so many suchnesses, great and small, that we cannot twight that they have erved their allmeanly shape of body and upbuild of limbs from a imean beforecomer. So it is with fishes. As members of toshed ilks have often been throughfit by afterfollowly slight awendings to live under nearly alike imbstands,—to inwone for bisen the three firststuffs of land, air, and water,—we can forhaps understand how it is that a rimely evenlongdom has sometimes been behowed between the under-maiths in toshed ilks. An ikindlorer, struck by a evenlongdom of this ikind in any one ilk, by arbitrarily raising or sinking the worth of the maiths in other ilks (and all our outfand shows that this valuation has hitherto been arbitrary), could easily outstretch the evenlongdom over a wide scope; and thus the sevenfold, fivefold, fourfold, and threefold isunderenings have likely arisen. As the awended netherastiends of overweighing wightkin, belonging to the michelr wightkinds, nige to erve the foredeals, which made the maiths to which they belong michel and their akennends overweighing, they are almost sure to spread widely, and to fang on more and moresteads in the setlay of ikind. The michelr and more overweighing maiths thus nige to go on eaking in size; and they infollowingly undersole many smaller and trumlessr maiths. Thus we ca rake for the deedsake that all lifers, short-ago and fornaughted, are imbhad under a few great [bookleaf] 429 chap. Xiii. Isunderening. Orders, under still fewer ilks, and all in one great ikindsome setlay. As showing how few the higher maiths are in rime, and how widely spread they are throughout the world, the deedsake is striking, that the anddeck of australia has not ateaked a onele bug belonging to a new order; and that in the vegetable kingdom, as i learn from dr. Hooker, it has ateaked only two or three orders of small size. In the bookdeal on earthlorely aftercomingness i costened to show, on the thoughsetlay of each maith having allmeanly towharven much in suchness during the long-throughstood forthhappen of awending, how it is that the more alderold forms of life often andward suchnesses in some slight andstep betweenly between wesening maiths. A few old and betweenly akennend-forms having otherwhile yondstelled to the andward daynetherastiends but little awended, will give to us our so-called osculant or maffsome maiths. The more maffsome any form is, the greater must be the rime of belinking forms which on my thoughtlay have been benothinged and utterly lost. And we have some outshow of maffsome forms having thrawed highernstly from fornaughting, for they are allmeanly aspelled by outestly few wightkin; and such wightkin as do betide are allmeanly very toshed from each other, which again infolds fornaughting. The wightkinds onewholedduckbillwight and swamplungfish, for bisen, would not have been less maffsome had each been aspelled by a dozen wightkin instead of by a onele one; but such richness in wightkin, as i find after some underfanding, does not imeanly fall to the lot of maffsome wightkinds. We can, i think, rake for this deedsake only by looking at maffsome forms as failing maiths overwon by more successful witherstrives, with a few members aspared by some unwonely togetherfall of rithbere imbstands. Mr. Waterhouse has edmarked that, when a member [bookleaf] 430 isunderening. Chap. Xiii. Belonging to one maith of wights outstells an sibred to a quite toshed maith, this sibred in most happenlays is allmeanly and not sunderful: thus, according to mr. Waterhouse, of all rodents, the bizcacha is most nearly akinned to bellybagwights; but in the ords in which it approaches this order, its sibreds are allmeanly, and not to any one bellybagwight wightkin more than to another. As the ords of sibred of the bizcacha to bellybagwights are believed to be real and not merely throughfitsome, they are due on my thoughtlay to erve in imean. Therefore we must understell either that all rodents, imbhaving the bizcacha, branched off from some very alderold bellybagwight, which will have had a suchness in some degree betweenly with edsight to all wesening bellybagwights; or that both rodents and bellybagwights branched off from a imean akennend, and that both maiths have since undergone much awending in towharving stightings. On either onsight we may understell that the bizcacha has bekept, by erve, more of the suchness of its alderold akennend than have other rodents; and therefore it will not be asunderfastly akinned to any one wesening bellybagwight, but inwissly to all or nearly all bellybagwights, from having ondealy bekept the suchness of their imean akennend, or of an early member of the maith. On the other hand, of all bellybagwights, as mr. Waterhouse has edmarked, the phascolomys onlikes most nearly, not any one wightkin, but the allmeanly order of rodents. In this happenlay, however, it may be strongly underlooked that the look-alikeness is only samerunsome, owing to the phascolomys having become throughfit to wones like those of a rodent. The elder de candolle has made nearly alike behowings on the allmeanly ikind of the sibreds of toshed orders of plants. On the thoughsetlay of the manyening and stepmeal towhirft in suchness of the wightkin netherstien from [bookleaf] 431 chap. Xiii. Isunderening. A imean akennend, together with their retention by erve of some suchnesses in imean, we can understand the overmuchly throughtangly and tostreaming sibreds by which all the members of the same huered or higher maith are belinked together. For the imean akennend of a whole huered of wightkin, now broken up by fornaughting into toshed maiths and under-maiths, will have yondstelled some of its suchnesses, awended in sundry ways and andsteps, to all; and the manysome wightkin will infollowingly be akinned to each other by imbabout lines of sibred of sundry lengths (as may be seen in the ifay so often bepulled to), mounting up through many beforcomers. As it is arvethfast to show the blood-maithred between the rimeful kindred of any alderold and athel huered, even by the ferk of a kinlorely tree, and almost unacomingly to do this without this ferk, we can understand the orwoneliness arveth which ikindlorers have outfanded in bewriting, without the ferk of a ifay, the sundry sibreds which they onget between the many living and fornaughted members of the same great ikindsome ilk. Fornaughting, as we have seen in the fourth bookdeal, has played a weighty deal in bebindingg and widening the timestretchs between the manysome maiths in each ilk. We may thus rake even for the toshedness of whole ilks from each other—for bisen, of birds from all other backbonelingwight wights—by the belief that many alderold forms of life have been utterly lost, through which the early akennends of birds were formerly belinked with the early akennends of the other backbonelingwight ilks. There has been less whole fornaughting of the forms of life which once belinked fishes with taillessfrogs. There has been still less in some other ilks, as in that of the shellbearers, for here the most wonderfully sundry forms are still tied [bookleaf] 432 isunderening. Chap. Xiii. Together by a long, but broken, chain of sibreds. Fornaughting has only totweemed maiths: it has by no means made them; for if every form which has ever lived on this earth were suddenly to edupshow, though it would be quite unacomingly to give bebindings by which each maith could be toshed from other maiths, as all would blend together by steps as fine as those between the finest wesening isunders, nevertheless a ikindsome isunderening, or at least a ikindsome dighting, would be acomingly. We shall see this by turning to the ifay: the letters, a to l, may aspell eleven silurian wightkinds, some of which have tiddered michel maiths of awended netherastiends. Every betweenly link between these eleven wightkinds and their fromthly akennend, and every betweenly link in each branch and under-branch of theirnetherastiends, may be understelled to be still alive; and the links to be as fine as those between the finest isunders. In this happenlay it would be quite unacomingly to give any bebinding by which the manysome members of the manysome maiths could be toshed from their more forthwith akennends; or these akennends from their alderold and unknown akennend. Yet the ikindsome dighting in the ifay would still hold good; and, on the thoughsetlay of erve, all the forms netherastoe from a, or from i, would have something in imean. In a tree we can insunder this or that branch, though at the soothly fork the two beone and blend together. We could not, as i have said, bebind the manysome maiths; but we could pick out types, or forms, edandwarding most of the suchnesses of each maith, whether michel or small, and thus give a allmeanly thinkling of the worth of the undersheds between them. This is what we should be driven to, if we were ever to spow in gathering all the forms in any ilk which have lived throughout all time and roomhood. We shall iwis never spow in making [bookleaf] 433 chap. Xiii. Isunderening. So fullcome a gathership: nevertheless, in somel ilks, we are tending in this stighting; and milne edwards has lately bestood, in an able paper, on the high weightiness of looking to types, whether or not we can totweem and bebind the maiths to which such types belong. Endly, we have seen that ikindsome choosing, which outfollows from the struggle for wist, and which almost unforecomeberely beleads fornaughting and towhirft of suchness in the manynetherastiends from one overweighing akennend-wightkin, aclears that great and allhomely ownship in the sibreds of all lifesome beings, namely, their underrowfollowsomeness in maith under maith. We use the firststuff of netherastieing in ilking the untodealels of both akenbodyworkthsplits and of all eldths, although having few suchnesses in imean, under one wightkin; we use netherastieing in ilking acknowledged isunders, however undershedsome they may be from their akennend; and i believe this firststuff of netherastieing is the hidden bond of belinking which ikindlorers have sought under the term of the ikindsome setlay. On this thinkling of the ikindsome setlay being, in so far as it has been fullfremmed, kinlorely in its dighting, with the stephoods of undershed between the netherastiendsfrom a imean akennend, outthringed by the terms wightkinds, huereds, orders, &c., we can understand the rules which we are thraffed to follow in our isunderening. We can understand why we beworth somel look-alikenesss far more than others; why we are thaveted to use leftlingish and unnitworth bodyworkths, or others of trifling bodylorely weightiness; why, in withmeteing one maith with a toshed maith, we summarily withset samerunsome or throughfitsome suchnesses, and yet use these same suchnesses within the underties of the same maith. We can clearly see how it is that all living and fornaughted forms can be maithed together in one great setlay; and how the manysome members of each ilk are belinked together by the most throughtangly and tostreaming U [bookleaf] 434 shapelore. Chap. Xiii. Lines of sibreds. We shall never, likely, disenthurn the unouttanglebere web of sibreds between the members of any one ilk; but when we have a toshed towardsthing in onsight, and do not look to some unknown plan of ishaft, we may hope to make sure but slow forthstride. Shapelore.—we have seen that the members of the same ilk, unoffhangingly of their wones of life, onlike each other in the allmeanly plan of their dight. This look-alikeness is often outthringed by the term "onehood of type;" or by saying that the manysome deals and bodyworkths in the undershedsome wightkin of the ilk are sameworthsome. The whole underthrow is imbhad under the allmeanly name of shapelore. This is the most interesting witing of ikindsome yorelore, and may be said to be its very soul. What can be more frimdy than that the hand of a man, ashaped for grasping, that of a mole for digging, the leg of the horse, the paddle of the swinefish, and the wing of the bat, should all be abuilt on the same pattern, and should imbhave the same bones, in the same akinsome howstands? Geoffroy st. Hilaire has bestood strongly on the high weightiness of akinsome belinking in sameworthsome bodyworkths: the deals may awend to almost any scope in form and size, and yet they always belive belinked together in the same order. We never find, for bisen, the bones of the arm and forearm, or of the thigh and leg, yondstelled. Hence the same names can be given to the sameworthsome bones in widely undershedsome wights. We see the same great law in the onbuild of the mouths of bugs: what can be more undershedsome than the widemichelly long wharvle wighttrunk of a sphinx-moth, the frimdy folded one of a bee or bug, and the great jaws of a beetle?—yet all these bodyworkths, serving for such dif- [bookleaf] 435 chap. Xiii. Shapelore. Ferent sakes, are ashaped by boundlessly rimeful awendings of an upper lip, jaws, and two pairs of maxillæ. Samerunsome laws awield the onbuild of the mouths and limbs of shellbearers. So it is with the bloomworts of plants. Nothing can be more hopeless than to costen to aclear this alikeship of pattern in members of the same ilk, by nitworthness or by the alderbeliefword of endsome bewhys. The hopelessness of the costen has been outthringly throughgiven by owen in his most interesting work on the 'ikind of limbs.' on the wonely onsight of the unoffhanging ishaft of each being, we can only say that so it is;—that it has so pleased the shapend to abuild each wight and plant. The aclearing is manifest on the thoughtlay of the ikindsome choosing of followly slight awendings,—each awending being notesome in some way to the awended form, but often onworking by togethersibred of growth other deals of the dight. In awends of this ikind, there will be little or no niging to awend the fromly pattern, or to yondstell deals. The bones of a limb might be shortened and widened to any scope, and become stepmeally befolded in thick skinling, so as to serve as a fin; or a webbed foot might have all its bones, or somel bones, lengthened to any scope, and the skinling belinking them eaked to any scope, so as to serve as a wing: yet in all this great muchth of awending there will be no niging to awend the framework of bones or the akinsome belinking of the manysome deals. If we understell that the alderold akennend, the archetype as it may be called, of all sucklewights, had its limbs abuilt on the wesening allmeanly pattern, for whatever sake they served, we can at once onget the plain meaning of the sameworthsome onbuild of the limbs throughout the whole ilk. So with the mouths of bugs, we have only to U 2 [bookleaf] 436 shapelore. Chap. Xiii. Understell that their imean akennend had an upper lip, jaws, and two pair of maxillæ, these deals being forhaps very onelay in form; and then ikindsome choosing will rake for the boundless manyotheredness in upbuild and workhood of the mouths of bugs. Nevertheless, it is kenbere that the allmeanly pattern of an bodyworkth might become so much mistyened as to be endly lost, by the dreezeship and endfastly by the fullwork nethersnithing of somel deals, by the soldering together of other deals, and by the doubling or manyening of others,—sundrinesss which we know to be within the underties of acomingliness. In the paddles of the fornaughted entish sea-lizards, and in the mouths of somel suckfast shellbearers, the allmeanly pattern seems to have been thus to a somel scope mistyened. There is another and evenworthly frimdy branch of the andward underthrow; namely, the withmeting not of the same deal in undershedsome members of a ilk, but of the undershedsome deals or bodyworkths in the same untodealel. Most bodylorers believe that the bones of the skull are sameworthsome with—that is togetheranswer in rime and in akinsome belinking with—the firststuffsome deals of a somel rime of backbonelings. The fore and hind limbs in each member of the backbonelingwight and articulate ilks are plainly sameworthsome. We see the same law in withmeteing the wonderfully throughtangly jaws and legs in shellbearers. It is couthly to almost every one, that in a bloomwort the akinsome howstand of the outleaves, huebloomleaves, stemocks, and grasples, as well as their intimate upbuild, are understandbere on the onsight that they consist of overshaped leaves, dighted in a spire. In owleechsome plants, we often get straightfast outshow of the acomingliness of one bodyworkth being forshapen into another; and we can soothly see in forebirthlingsome shellbearers and in many other wights, and in bloomworts, that bodyworkths, which when full-grown [bookleaf] 437 chap. Xiii. Shapelore. Become outestly undershedsome, are at an early stepock of growth weetilly alike. How unaclearbere are these deedsakes on the wonely onsight of ishaft! Why should the brain be inshut in a box composed of such rimeful and such orwoneliness shaped pieces of bone? As owen has edmarked, the beforthing offstreamed from the yielding of the totweemed pieces in the bedo of akenning of sucklewights, will by no means aclear the same onbuild in the skulls of birds. Why should alike bones have been beshaped in the shaping of the wing and leg of a bat, used as they are for such totally undershedsome sakes? Why should one shellbearer, which has an outestly throughtangly mouth ashaped of many deals, infollowingly always have fewer legs; or otherwayly, those with many legs have more onelay mouths? Why should the outleaves, huebloomleaves, stemocks, and grasples in any untodealel bloomwort, though fitted for such widely undershedsome sakes, be all abuilt on the same pattern? On the thoughtlay of ikindsome choosing, we can satisdeedsakeorily answer these fraigns. In the backbonewight, we see a followth of inly backbonelings bearingsomel forthhappenes and appendeldths; in the hingeshellwight, we see the body todealt into a followth of dealocks, bearing outly appendeldths; and in bloomworting plants, we see a followth of afterfollowly wharvle whorls of leaves. An unbindfast edledging of the same deal or bodyworkth is the imean suchnessly (as owen has behowed) of all low or little-awended forms; therefore we may readily believe that the unknown akennend of the backbonewight besat many backbonelings; the unknown akennend of the hingeshellwight, many dealocks; and the unknown akennend of bloomworting plants, many wharvle whorls of leaves. We have formerly seen that deals many times edledged are highoutlyly atiely to forsunder in rime and upbuild; infollowingly it is quite likely that [bookleaf] 438 shapelore. Chap. Xiii. Ikindsome choosing, during a long-throughstood foor of awending, should have fanged on a somel rime of the fromthly alike firststuffs, many times edledged, and have throughfit them to the most sundry sakes. And as the whole muchth of awending will have been onworked by slight afterfollowly steps, we need not wonder at anddecking in such deals or bodyworkths, a somel andstep of groundsetly look-alikeness, bekept by the strong thoughsetlay of erve. In the great ilk of thinshellbearers, though we can homologise the deals of one wightkin with those of another and toshed wightkin, we can inquid but few followly homologies; that is, we are seldom bemayened to say that one deal or bodyworkth is sameworthsome with another in the same untodealel. And we can understand this deedsake; for in thinshellbearers, even in the lowest members of the ilk, we do not find nearly so much unbindfast edledging of any one deal, as we find in the other great ilks of the wight and vegetable kingdoms. Ikindlorers loomly speak of the skull as ashaped of overshaped backbonelings: the jaws of crabs as overshaped legs; the stemocks and grasples of bloomworts as overshaped leaves; but it would in these happenlays likely be more rightsome, as lorefather huxley has edmarked, to speak of both skull and backbonelings, both jaws and legs, &c.,—as having been overshaped, not one from the other, but from some imean firststuff. Ikindlorers, however, use such irord only in a hueingly spoor: they are far from meaning that during a long foor of netherastieing, fromthly bodyworkths of any kind—backbonelings in the one case and legs in the other—have soothly been awended into skulls or jaws. Yet so strong is the upshowing of a awending of this ikind having betided, that ikindlorers can hardly forbow bebrooking irord having this plain meaning. On my onsight [bookleaf] 439 chap. Xiii. Forebirthlinglore. These terms may be used staffly; and the wonderful deedsake of the jaws, for bisen, of a crab bekeeping rimeful suchnesses, which they would likely have bekept through erve, if they had really been overshaped during a long foor of netherastieing from true legs, or from some onelay appendage, is acleared. Forebirthlinglore.—it has already been casually edmarked that somel bodyworkths in the untodealel, which when full-grown become widely undershedsome and serve for undershedsome sakes, are in the forebirthling weetilly alike. The forebirthlings, also, of toshed wights within the same ilk are often strikingly alike: a better afand of this cannot be given, than a imbstand quided by agassiz, namely, that having forgotten to ticket the forebirthling of some backbonelingwight wight, he cannot now tell whether it be that of a sucklewight, bird, or creepwight. The wormshaped forebugs of moths, flies, beetles, &c., onlike each other much more closely than do the full-grown bugs; but in the happenlay of forebugs, the forebirthlings are dofast, and have been throughfit for sunderful lines of life. A trace of the law of forebirthlingsome look-alikeness, sometimes lasts till a rather late eldth: thus birds of the same wightkind, and of closely alinked wightkinds, often onlike each other in their first and twoth feathers; as we see in the spotted feathers in the thrush maith. In the cat tribe, most of the wightkin are striped or spotted in lines; and stripes can be plainly toshed in the whelp of the lion. We otherwhile though seldom see something of this kind in plants: thus the forebirthlingsome leaves of the gorse or furze, and the first leaves of the flatleafstalkly twitogetherstelledleafpeawort, are pinborn or todealt like the wonely leaves of the beanwights. The ords of upbuild, in which the forebirthlings of widely undershedsome wights of the same ilk onlike each other, often have no straightfast maithred to their tostands [bookleaf] 440 forebirthlinglore. Chap. Xiii.

Of wist. We cannot, for bisen, understell that in the forebirthlings of the backbonewight the odd loop-like foor of the edders near the branchial slits are akinned to alike hodes,—in the young sucklewight which is bylived in the womb of its mother, in the egg of the bird which is hatched in a nest, and in the spawn of a frog under water. We have no more thinkcraft to believe in such a maithred, than we have to believe that the same bones in the hand of a man, wing of a bat, and fin of a swinefish, are akinned to alike hodes of life. No one will understell that the stripes on the whelp of a lion, or the spots on the young blackbird, are of any use to these animals, or are akinned to the hodes to which they are outset.

The happenlay, however, is undershedsome when a wight during any deal of its forebirthlingsome career is dofast, and has to forelook for itself. The timedeal of activity may come on earlier or later in life; but whenever it comes on, the throughfitting of the forebug to its hodes of life is just as fullcome and as litty as in the adult wight. From such sunderful throughfittings, the alikeship of the forebugs or dofast forebirthlings of alinked wights is sometimes much mistyened; and happenlays could be given of the forebugs of two wightkin, or of two maiths of wightkin, andsaming quite as much, or even more, from each other than do their adult akennends. In most happenlays, however, the forebugs, though dofast, still obey more or less closely the law of imean forebirthlingsome look-alikeness. Moochshellwights afford a good bisen of this: even the illustrious cuvier did not onget that a afayshellfish was, as it iwis is, a shellbearer; but a glance at the forebug shows this to be the happenlay in an unmistakebere way. So again the two main idoles of moochshellwights, the stalkfeelingsinewbundlewighted and stemfayed, which andsame widely in outly upshowing, have forebugs in all their manysome stepocks barely toshedable. [bookleaf] 441 chap. Xiii. Forebirthlinglore. The forebirthling in the foor of andwinding allmeanly rises in dight: i use this outthring, though i am aware that it is hardly acomingly to bebind clearly what is meant by the dight being higher or lower. But no one likely will flite that the butterfly is higher than the forebutterfly. In some happenlays, however, the full-grown animal is allmeanly hidged as lower in the scale than the forebug, as withsomel stealeaterly shellbearers. To bepull once again to moochshellwights: the forebugs in the first stepock have three pairs of legs, a very onelay onele eye, and a probosciashaped mouth, with which they feed michelly, for they eak much in size. In the twoth stepock, answering to the forebutterflybed stepock of butterflies, they have six pairs of littily abuilt swimly legs, a pair of thrithful manyened eyes, and outestly throughtangly headfeelers; but they have a closed and unfullcome mouth, and cannot feed: their workhood at this stepock is, to search by their well-andwound bodyworkths of spoor, and to reach by their dofast wolds of swimming, a davenlystead on which to become onfastened and to undergo their endsome overshaping. When this is fullworked they are fixed for life: their legs are now forwended into graspfast bodyworkths; they again fang a well-abuilt mouth; but they have no headfeelers, and their two eyes are now edforwended into a littleock, onle, and very onelay eye-spot. In this last and fullwork onlay, moochshellwights may be hidged as either more highly or more lowly dighted than they were in the forebugl hode. But in some wightkinds the forebugs become andwound either into weaponedwifesters having the wonely upbuild, or into what i have called complemindly seedlifers: and in the latter, the andwinding has assuredly been backwise; for the seedlifer is a mere sack, which lives for a short time, and is destitute of mouth, maw, or other bodyworkth of weightiness, nimth for edtiddering. U 3 [bookleaf] 442 forebirthlinglore. Chap. Xiii. We are so much asidded to see undersheds in upbuild between the forebirthling and the adult, and likewise a close alikeship in the forebirthlings of widely undershedsome wights within the same ilk, that we might be led to look at these deedsakes as needbehovely contingent in some way on growth. But there is no opensightly thinkcraft why, for bisen, the wing of a bat, or the fin of a swinefish, should not have been sketched out with all the deals in davenly ondeal, as soon as any upbuild became seebere in the forebirthling. And in some whole maiths of wights and in somel members of other maiths, the forebirthling does not at any timedeal andsame widely from the adult: thus owen has edmarked in sight to cuttle-fish, "there is no overshaping; the headunbackbonedshellwightic character is manifested long before the deals of the forebirthling are fullworked;" and again in spiders, "there is nothing worthy to be called a overshaping." the forebugs of bugs, whether throughfit to the most sundry and dofast wones, or quite indofast, being fed by their akennends or stelled in the midst of davenly feedle, yet nearly all pass through a alike worm-like stepock of andwinding; but in some few happenlays, as in that of aphis, if we look to the bewonderbere drawings by lorefather huxley of the andwinding of this bug, we see no trace of the wormshaped stepock. How, then, can we aclear these manysome deedsakes in forebirthlinglore,—namely the very allmeanly, but not allhomely undershed in upbuild between the forebirthling and the adult;—of deals in the same indivividual forebirthling, which endfastly become very unlike and serve for sundry sakes, being at this early timedeal of growth alike;—of forebirthlings of undershedsome wightkin within the same ilk, allmeanly, but not allhomely, onliking each other;—of the upbuild of the forebirthling not being closely akinned to its hodes of wist, nimth when the [bookleaf] 443 chap. Xiii. Forebirthlinglore. Forebirthling becomes at any timedeal of life dofast and has to forelook for itself;—of the forebirthling opensightly having sometimes a higher dight than the full-grown wight, into which it is andwound. I believe that all these deedsakes can be acleared, as follows, on the onsight of netherastieing with awending. It is imeanly foretaken, forhaps from owleechsomenesses often onworking the forebirthling at a very early timedeal, that slight sundrinesss needbehovely show up at an evenworthly early timedeal. But we have little outshow on this head—indeed the outshow rather ords the other way; for it is couthfast that breeders of orf, horses, and sundry fancy wights, cannot positively tell, until some time after the wight has been born, what its merits or form will endfastly turn out. We see this plainly in our own children; we cannot always tell whether the child will be tall or short, or what its targeockfast ownships will be. The fraign is not, at what timedeal of life any sundriness has been bewhyed, but at what timedeal it is fully ewed. The bewhy may have acted, and i believe allmeanly has acted, even before the forebirthling is ashaped; and the sundriness may be due to the seedlifer and birthlifer mingefast firststuffs having been onworked by the hodes to which either akennend, or their beforecomers, have been outset. Nevertheless an onworking thus bewhyed at a very early timedeal, even before the ashaping of the forebirthling, may show up late in life; as when an ervesome cothe, which shows up in old eldth alone, has been betwixtrordd to the offspring from the edtidderly firststuff of one akennend. Or again, as when the horns of rood-bred orf have been onworked by the shape of the horns of either akennend. For the welfare of a very young wight, as long as it lefths in its mother's womb, or in the egg, or as long as it is bylived and barrowed by its akennend, it must be quite unweighty whether most of its suchnesses are fully [bookleaf] 444 forebirthlinglore. Chap. Xiii. Underfanged a little earlier or later in life. It would not signify, for bisen, to a bird which fanged its food best by having a long beak, whether or not it foretaken a beak of this dealocksome length, as long as it was fed by its akennends. Hence, i ashut, that it is quite acomingly, that each of the many afterfollowly awendings, by which each wightkin has underfanged its andward upbuild, may have come up at a not very early timedeal of life; and some straightfast outshow from our housely wights underbears this onsight. But in other happenlays it is quite acomingly that each afterfollowly awending, or most of them, may have shown up at an outestly early timedeal. I have quided in the first bookdeal, that there is some outshow to make it likely, that at whatever eldth any sundriness first shows upo in the akennend, it tends to edupshow at a togetheranswering eldth in the offspring.somel sundrinesss can only show up at togetheranswering eldths, for bisen, oddnesses in the forebutterfly, forebutterflybed, or imago onlays of the silk-moth; or, again, in the horns of almost full-grown orf. But further than this, sundrinesss which, for all that we can see, might have shown up earlier or later in life, nige to show up at a togetheranswering eldth in the offspring and akennend. I am far from meaning that this is everywhen the happenlay; and i could give a good many happenlays of sundrinesss (taking the word in the michelst spoor) which have come up at an earlier eldth in the child than in the akennend. These two thoughsetlays, if their truth be throughgiven, will, i believe, aclear all the above insundered leading deedsakes in forebirthlinglore. But first let us look at a few samerunsome happenlays in housely isunders. Some writmakers who have written on dogs, upkeep that the greyhound and bulldog, though thenching so undershedsome, are really isunders most closely alinked, and have likely netherastien from [bookleaf] 445 chap. Xiii. Forebirthlinglore. The same wild stock; hence i was frimdy to see how far their puppies andsamed from each other: i was told by breeders that they andsamed just as much as their akennends, and this, deeming by the eye, seemed almost to be the happenlay; but on soothly ameteing the old dogs and their six-days old puppies, i found that the puppies had not nearly underfanged their full muchth of ondealy undershed. So, again, i was told that the foals of cart and race-horses andsamed as much as the full-grown wights; and this overname me greatly, as i think it likely that the undershed between these two breeds has been wholly bewhyed by choosing under housening; but having had careful ameteings made of the dam and of a three-days old colt of a race and heavy cart-horse, i find that the colts have by no means underfanged their full muchth of ondealy undershed. As the outshow thenches to me beshutsome, that the manysome housely breeds of plumpdove have netherastien from one wild wightkin, i withmeted young plumpdoves of sundry breeds, within twelve hours after being hatched; i carefully ameted the ondeals (but will not here give atcuts) of the beak, width of mouth, length of nostril and of eyelid, size of feet and length of leg, in the wild stock, in pouters, fantails, runts, barbs, dragons, bearers, and tumblers. Now some of these birds, when full-grown, andsame so orwoneliness in length and form of beak, that they would, i cannot twight, be ranked in toshed wightkinds, had they been ikindsome tidderings. But when the nestling birds of these manysome breeds were stelled in a row, though most of them could be toshed from each other, yet their ondealy undersheds in the above insundered manysome ords were withmeteberely less than in the full-grown birds. Some suchnessly ords of undershed—for bisen, that of the width of mouth—could hardly be arepped in the [bookleaf] 446 forebirthlinglore. Chap. Xiii. Young. But there was one edmarkbere outtake to this rule, for the young of the short-faced tumbler andsamed from the young of the wild rock-plumpdove and of the other breeds, in all its ondeals, almost weetilly as much as in the adult onlay. The two thoughsetlays above given seem to me to aclear these deedsakes in sight to the later forebirthlingsome stepocks of our housely isunders. Fanciers choose their horses, dogs, and plumpdoves, for breeding, when they are nearly grown up: they are inundershedsome whether the frickled suchnesses and upbuilds have been underfanged earlier or later in life, if the full-grown wight besits them. And the happenlays just given, more besunders that of plumpdoves, seem to show that the suchnessly undersheds which give worthhood to each breed, and which have been upheaped by man's choosing, have not allmeanly first shown up at an early timedeal of life, and have been erved by the offspring at a togetheranswering not early timedeal. But the happenlay of the short-faced tumbler, which when twelve hours old had underfanged its davenly ondeals, afands that this is not the allhomely rule; for here the suchnessly undersheds must either have shown up at an earlier timedeal than wonely, or, if not so, the undersheds must have been erved, not at the togetheranswering, but at an earlier eldth. Now let us belay these deedsakes and the above two thoughsetlays—which latter, though not afanded true, can be shown to be in some andstep likely—to wightkin in a onlay of ikind. Let us take a wightkind of birds,netherastien on my thoughtlay from some one akennend-wightkin, and of which the manysome new wightkin have become awended through ikindsome choosing in accordance with their sundry wones. Then, from the many slight afterfollowly steps of sundriness having come up at a rather late eldth, and having been erved at a togetheranswering [bookleaf] 447 chap. Xiii. Forebirthlinglore. Eldth, the young of the new wightkin of our understelled wightkind will manifestly nige to onlike each other much more closely than do the adults, just as we have seen in the happenlay of plumpdoves. We may outstretch this onsight to whole huereds or even ilks. The fore-limbs, for bisen, which served as legs in the akennend-wightkin, may become, by a long foor of awending, throughfit in onenetherastiend to bedo as hands, in another as paddles, in another as wings; and on the above two thoughsetlays—namely of each afterfollowly awending supervening at a rather late eldth, and being erved at a togetheranswering late eldth—the fore-limbs in the forebirthlings of the manysome netherastiends of the akennend-wightkin will still onlike each other closely, for they will not have been awended. But in each untodealel new wightkin, the forebirthlingsome fore-limbs will andsame greatly from the fore-limbs in the full-grown wight; the limbs in the latter having undergone much awending at a rather late timedeal of life, and having thus been forwended into hands, or paddles, or wings. Whatever inflowmayen long-throughstood adrill or use on the one hand, and andnote on the other, may have in awending an bodyworkth, such inflowmayen will mainly onwork the full-grown wight, which has come to its full wolds of activity and has to gain its own living; and the onworkings thus tiddered will be erved at a togetheranswering full-grown eldth. Whereas the young will belive unawended, or be awended in a lesser andstep, by the onworkings of use and andnote. In somel happenlays the afterfollowly steps of sundriness might come up, from bewhys of which we are wholly unwittle, at a very early timedeal of life, or each step might be erved at an earlier timedeal than that at which it first showed up. In either happenlay (as with the short-faced tumbler) the young or forebirthling would closely [bookleaf] 448 forebirthlinglore. Chap. Xiii. Onlike the full-grown akennend-form. We have seen that this is the rule of andwinding in somel whole maiths of wights, as with cuttle-fish and spiders, and with a few members of the great ilk of bugs, as with aphis. With edsight to the endsome bewhy of the young in these happenlays not undergoing any overshaping, or closely onliking their akennends from their earliest eldth, we can see that this would outfollow from the two following offhanginesses; firstly, from the young, during a foor of awending borne on for many strinds, having to forelook for their own wants at a very early stepock of andwinding, and twothly, from their following weetilly the same wones of life with their akennends; for in this happenlay, it would be aldertharfly for the wist of the wightkin, that the child should be awended at a very early eldth in the same way with its akennends, in accordance with their alike wones. Some further aclearing, however, of the forebirthling not undergoing any overshaping is forhaps needed. If, on the other hand, it beforthed the young to follow wones of life in any andstep undershedsome from those of their akennend, and infollowingly to be abuilt in a slightly undershedsome way, then, on the thoughsetlay of erve at togetheranswering eldths, the dofast young or forebugs might easily be made by ikindsome choosing undershedsome to any kenbere scope from their akennends. Such undersheds might, also, become togetherakinned with afterfollowly stepocks of andwinding; so that the forebugs, in the first stepock, might andsame greatly from the forebugs in the twoth stepock, as we have seen to be the happenlay with moochshellwights. The adult might become fitted for sites or wones, in which bodyworkths of locomotion or of the spoors, &c., would be unnitworth; and in this happenlay the endsome overshaping would be said to be backwise. As all the lifesome beings, fornaughted and short-ago, which [bookleaf] 449 chap. Xiii. Forebirthlinglore. Have ever lived on this earth have to be isunderened together, and as all have been belinked by the finest steplings, the best, or indeed, if our gatherships were nearly fullcome, the only acomingly dighting, would be kinlorely. Netherastieing being on my onsight the hidden bond of belinking which ikindlorers have been seeking under the term of the ikindsome setlay. On this onsight we can understand how it is that, in the eyes of most ikindlorers, the upbuild of the forebirthling is even more weighty for isunderening than that of the adult. For the forebirthling is the wight in its less awended onlay; and in so far it swettles the upbuild of its akennend. In two maiths of wight, however much they may at andward andsame from each other in upbuild and wones, if they pass through the same or alike forebirthlingsome stepocks, we may feel assured that they have bothnetherastien from the same or nearly alike akennends, and are therefore in that andstep closely akinned. Thus, imeanship in forebirthlingsome upbuild swettles imeanship of netherastieing. It will swettle this imeanship of netherastieing, however much the upbuild of the adult may have been awended and mistyened; we have seen, for bisen, that moochshellwights can at once be edknown by their forebugs as belonging to the great ilk of shellbearers. As the forebirthlingsome onlay of each wightkin and maith of wightkin ondealy shows us the upbuild of their less awended alderold akennends, we can clearly see why alderold and fornaughted forms of life should onlike the forebirthlings of theirnetherastiends,—our wesening wightkin. Agassiz believes this to be a law of ikind; but i am bound to andet that i only hope to see the law hereafter afanded true. It can be afanded true in those happenlays alone in which the alderold onlay, now understelled to be aspelled in many forebirthlings, has not been netherthrutched, either by the afterfollowly sundrinesss in a long foor of awending having super- [bookleaf] 450 leftlingish bodyworkths. Chap. Xiii. Vened at a very early eldth, or by the sundrinesss having been erved at an earlier timedeal than that at which they first showed up. It should also be borne in mind, that the understelled law of look-alikeness of alderold forms of life to the forebirthlingsome stepocks of short-ago forms, may be true, but yet, owing to the earthlorely edferth not outstretching far enough back in time, may belive for a long timedeal, or for ever, uncanfast of ashowing. Thus, as it seems to me, the leading deedsakes in forebirthlinglore, which are twoth in weightiness to none in ikindsome yorelore, are acleared on the thoughsetlay of slight awendings not showing up, in the manynetherastiends from some one alderold akennend, at a very early timedeal in the life of each, though forhaps bewhyed at the earliest, and being erved at a togetheranswering not early timedeal. Forebirthlinglore rises greatly in interest, when we thus look at the forebirthling as a meteshow, more or less mistyened, of the imean akennend-form of each great ilk of wights. Leftlingish, drozen, or nethersnithen bodyworkths.—bodyworkths or deals in this selcouth hode, bearing the stamp of innitworthness, are outestly imean throughout ikind. For bisen, leftlingish mammæ are very allmeanly in the seedlifers of sucklewights: i foretake that the "bastard-wing" in birds may be safely hidged as a digit in a leftlingish onlay: in very many snakes one lobe of the lungs is leftlingish; in other snakes there are leftlings of the hipringbone and hind limbs. Some of the happenlays of leftlingish bodyworkths are outestly frimdy; for bisen, the andwardness of teeth in fœtal whales, which when grown up have not a tooth in their heads; and the andwardness of teeth, which never cut through the gums, in the upper jaws of our unborn calves. It has even been quided on good alderdom that leftlings of teeth can be arepped [bookleaf] 451 chap. Xiii. Leftlingish bodyworkths. In the beaks of somel forebirthlingsome birds. Nothing can be plainer than that wings are ashaped for flight, yet in how many bugs do we see wings so lowered in size as to be utterly uncanfast of flight, and not seldom lying under wing-happenlays, trumly soldered together! The meaning of leftlingish bodyworkths is often quite unmistakebere: for bisen there are beetles of the same wightkind (and even of the same wightkin) onliking each other most closely in all edsights, one of which will have full-sized wings, and another mere leftlings of skinling; and here it is unacomingly to twight, that the leftlings aspell wings. Leftlingish bodyworkths sometimes bekeep their strengthfastiality, and are merely not andwound: this seems to be the happenlay with the mammæ of seedlifer sucklewights, for many bisens are on edferth of these bodyworkths having become well andwound in full-grown seedlifers, and having forouted misunder. So again there are everywhenhapfastly four andwound and two leftlingish teats in the udders of the wightkind bos, but in our housely cows the two sometimes become andwound and give misunder. In untodealel plants of the same wightkin the huebloomleaves sometimes betide as mere leftlings, and sometimes in a well-andwound onlay. In plants with totweemed akenbodyworkthsplits, the seedlifer bloomworts often have a leftling of a grasple; and kölreuter found that by rooding such seedlifer plants with an weaponedwifester wightkin, the leftling of the grasple in the twibloodtudder offspring was much eaked in size; and this shows that the leftling and the fullcome grasple are isshiply alike in ikind. An bodyworkth serving for two sakes, may become leftlingish or utterly nethersnithen for one, even the more weighty sake; and belive fullcomely onworkful for the other. Thus in plants, the workhood of the grasple is to allow the bloomdust-tubes to reach the foreseeds barrowed in the eggbearling at its bottomlay. The grasple consists of a bloomdustthecher [bookleaf] 452 leftlingish bodyworkths. Chap. Xiii. Underborne on the bloomdustthecherstalk; but in some compositæ, the seedlifer bloomwortlings, which iwis cannot be inseeded, have a grasple, which is in a leftlingish state, for it is not crowned with a bloomdustthecher; but the bloomdustthecherstalk belives well andwound, and is clothed with hairs as in other daisies, for the sake of brushing the bloomdust out of the imbholding bloomdustbags. Again, an bodyworkth may become leftlingish for its davenly sake, and be used for a toshed towardsthing: in somel fish the swim-bladder seems to be leftlingish for its davenly workhood of giving floatmayen, but has become forwended into a nascent breathing bodyworkth or lung. Other alike bisens could be given. Leftlingish bodyworkths in the untodealels of the same wightkin are very atiely to forsunder in andstep of andwinding and in other edsights. Moreover, in closely alinked wightkin, the andstep to which the same bodyworkth has been made leftlingish otherwhile andsames much. This latter deedsake is well bebisened in the onlay of the wings of the birthlifer moths in somel maiths. Leftlingish bodyworkths may be utterly nethersnithen; and this infolds, that we find in a wight or plant no trace of an bodyworkth, which samerun would lead us to bewait to find, and which is otherwhile found in owleechsome untodealels of the wightkin. Thus in the snapdragon we allmeanly do not find a leftling of a fifth stemock; but this may sometimes be seen. In tracing the homologies of the same deal in undershedsome members of a ilk, nothing is more imean, or more needbehovely, than the use and anddeck of leftlings. This is well shown in the drawings given by owen of the bones of the leg of the horse, ox, and rhinoceros. It is a weighty deedsake that leftlingish bodyworkths, such as teeth in the upper jaws of whales and cudchewingwights, can often be arepped in the forebirthling, but afterwards wholly swind. It is also, i believe, a allhomely [bookleaf] 453 chap. Xiii. Leftlingish bodyworkths. Rule, that a leftlingish deal or bodyworkth is of greater size akinsomely to the afaying deals in the forebirthling, than in the adult; so that the bodyworkth at this early eldth is less leftlingish, or even cannot be said to be in any andstep leftlingish. Hence, also, a leftlingish bodyworkth in the adult, is often said to have bekept its forebirthlingsome hode. I have now given the leading deedsakes with edsight to leftlingish bodyworkths. In imbthinking on them, every one must be struck with awedness: for the same thinkcrafting wold which tells us plainly that most deals and bodyworkths are exquisitely throughfit forsomel sakes, tells us with evenworth plainness that these leftlingish or drozen bodyworkths, are unfullcome and unnitworth. In works on ikindsome yorelore leftlingish bodyworkths are allmeanly said to have been beshaped "for the sake of samemeathness," or in order "to fullwork the scheme of ikind;" but this seems to me no aclearing, merely a edquiding of the deedsake. Would it be thought enoughsome to say that forwhy sunringtungles imbwharve in elliptic foors round the sun, tungleimbwharvers follow the same foor round the sunringtungles, for the sake of samemeathness, and to fullwork the scheme of ikind? An highoutly bodylorer berimes for the andwardness of leftlingish bodyworkths, by understelling that they serve to excrete matter in overmuch, or demsome to the setlay; but can we understell that the littleock papilla, which often aspells the grasple in seedlifer bloomworts, and which is ashaped merely of bodyworkhouslingsome fleshandwork, can thus bedo? Can we understell that the ashaping of leftlingish teeth which are underfollowingly insoaked, can be of any thanered to the quickly growing forebirthlingsome calf by the forouting of dearworth yellowlightpowdersourstuffsalt of lime? When a man's fingers have been snithen off, unfullcome nails sometimes show up on the stumps: i could as soon believe that these leftdeals of nails have shown up, not from unknown laws [bookleaf] 454 leftlingish bodyworkths. Chap. Xiii. Of growth, but in order to excrete horny matter, as that the leftlingish nails on the fin of the seacow were ashaped for this sake. On my onsight of netherastieing with awending, the fromth of leftlingish bodyworkths is onelay. We have plenty of happenlays of leftlingish bodyworkths in our housely tidderings,—as the stump of a tail in tailless breeds,—the leftdeal of an ear in earless breeds,—the edupshowing of littleock dangling horns in hornless breeds of orf, more besunders, according to youatt, in young wights,—and the onlay of the whole bloomwort in the caulibloomwort. We often see leftlings of sundry deals in owleechs. But i twight whether any of these happenlays throw light on the fromth of leftlingish bodyworkths in a onlay of ikind, further than by showing that leftlings can be tiddered; for i twight whether wightkin under ikind ever undergo outbreakly awends. I believe that andnote has been the main deedcraft; that it has led in afterfollowly strinds to the stepmeal reduction of sundry bodyworkths, until they have become leftlingish,—as in the happenlay of the eyes of wights inwoning dark shraffs, and of the wings of birds inwoning oceanic islands, which have seldom been thracked to take flight, and have endfastly lost the wold of flying. Again, an bodyworkth nitworth undersomel hodes, might become demsome under others, as with the wings of beetles living on small and outset islands; and in this happenlay ikindsome choosing would continue slowly to lower the bodyworkth, until it was made harmless and leftlingish. Any awend in workhood, which can be onworked by unspoorberely small steps, is within the wold of ikindsome choosing; so that an bodyworkth made, during awended wones of life, unnitworth or demsome for one sake, might easily be awended and used for another sake. Or an bodyworkth might be bekept for one alone of its [bookleaf] 455 chap. Xiii. Leftlingish bodyworkths. Former workhoods. An bodyworkth, when made unnitworth, may well be sunderly, for its sundrinesss cannot be checked by ikindsome choosing. At whatever timedeal of life andnote or choosing lowers an bodyworkth, and this will allmeanly be when the being has come to full-grownness and to its full wolds of deedship, the thoughsetlay of erve at togetheranswering eldths will edtidder the bodyworkth in its lowered onlay at the same eldth, and infollowingly will seldom onwork or lower it in the forebirthling. Thus we can understand the greater akinsome size of leftlingish bodyworkths in the forebirthling, and their lesser akinsome size in the adult. But if each step of the forthhappen of reduction were to be erved, not at the togetheranswering eldth, but at an outestly early timedeal of life (as we have good thinkcraft to believe to be acomingly) the leftlingish deal would nige to be wholly lost, and we should have a happenlay of fullwork nethersnithing. The thoughsetlay, also, of setlay, acleared in a former bookdeal, by which the materials forming any deal or upbuild, if not nitworth to the besitter, will be saved as far as is acomingly, will likely often come into play; and this will nige to bewhy the whole neacking of a leftlingish bodyworkth. As the andwardness of leftlingish bodyworkths is thus due to the niging in every deal of the dight, which has long wesened, to be erved—we can understand, on the kinlorely onsight of isunderening, how it is that setlaylorers have found leftlingish deals as nitworth as, or even sometimes more nitworth than, deals of high bodylorely weightiness. Leftlingish bodyworkths may be withmeted with the letters in a word, still bekept in the spelling, but become unnitworth in the outliethering, but which serve as a clue in seeking for its offstreaming. On the onsight of netherastieing with awending, we may ashut that the wist of bodyworkths in a leftlingish, unfullcome, and unnitworth hode, or quite nethersnithen, far [bookleaf] 456 summary. Chap. Xiii. From andwarding a selcouth arveth, as they assuredly do on the wonely alderbeliefword of ishaft, might even have been forefollowed, and can be arimed for by the laws of erve. Summary.—in this bookdeal i have costened to show, that the underrowfollowsomeness of maith to maith in all lifers throughout all time; that the ikind of the maithred, by which all living and fornaughted beings are beoned by throughtangly, tostreaming, and imbabout lines of sibreds into one michel setlay; the rules followed and the arveths enwithed by ikindlorers in their isunderenings; the worth set upon suchnesses, if standy and swithersome, whether of high lifefast weightiness, or of the most trifling weightiness, or, as in leftlingish bodyworkths, of no weightiness; the wide withersetness in worthhood between samerunsome or throughfitsome suchnesses, and suchnesses of true sibred; and other such rules;—all quithenly follow on the onsight of the imean akennendage of those forms which are hidged by ikindlorers as alinked, together with their awending through ikindsome choosing, with its offhanginesses of fornaughting and towhirft of suchness. In hidging this onsight of isunderening, it should be borne in mind that the firststuff of netherastieing has been allhomely used in ranking together the akenbodyworkthsplits, eldths, and acknowledged isunders of the same wightkin, however undershedsome they may be in upbuild. If we outstretch the use of this firststuff of netherastieing,—the only iwis known bewhy of alikeship in lifesome beings,—we shall understand what is meant by the ikindsome setlay: it is kinlorely in its costened dighting, with the stephoods of underfanged undershed marked by the terms isunders, wightkin, wightkinds, huereds, orders, and ilks. On this same onsight of netherastieing with awending, all the great deedsakes in shapelore become understandbere,— [bookleaf] 457 chap. Xiii. Summary. Whether we look to the same pattern ewed in the sameworthsome bodyworkths, to whatever sake belaid, of the undershedsome wightkin of a ilk; or to the sameworthsome deals abuilt on the same pattern in each untodealel wight and plant. On the thoughsetlay of afterfollowly slight sundrinesss, not needbehovely or allmeanly supervening at a very early timedeal of life, and being erved at a togetheranswering timedeal, we can understand the great leading deedsakes in forebirthlinglore; namely, the look-alikeness in an untodealel forebirthling of the sameworthsome deals, which when full-grownd will become widely undershedsome from each other in upbuild and workhood; and the look-alikeness in undershedsome wightkin of a ilk of the sameworthsome deals or bodyworkths, though fitted in the adult members for sakes as undershedsome as acomingly. Forebugs are dofast forebirthlings, which have become asunderfastly awended in maithred to their wones of life, through the thoughsetlay of awendings being erved at togetheranswering eldths. On this same thoughsetlay—and bearing in mind, that when bodyworkths are lowered in size, either from andnote or choosing, it will allmeanly be at that timedeal of life when the being has to forelook for its own wants, and bearing in mind how strong is the thoughsetlay of erve—the betidings of leftlingish bodyworkths and their endsome nethersnithing, andward to us no unaclearbere arveths; on the againstwise, their andwardness might have been even forefollowed. The weightiness of forebirthlinglorely suchnesses and of leftlingish bodyworkths in isunderening is understandbere, on the onsight that an dighting is only so far ikindsome as it is kinlorely. Endly, the manysome ilkes of deedsakes which have been hidged in this bookdeal, seem to me to abaned so plainly, that the unarimebere wightkin, wightkinds, and huereds of lifesome beings, with which this world is X [bookleaf] 458 summary. Chap. Xiii. Befolked, have allnetherastien, each within its own ilk or maith, from imean akennends, and have all been awended in the foor of netherastieing, that i should without pullbackyness tochoose this onsight, even if it were ununderborne by other deedsakes or groundhoods. [bookleaf] 459 chap. Xiv. Edheading. Bookdeal xiv. Edheading and ashut. Edheading of the arveths on the thoughtlay of ikindly choosing — edheading of the allmeanly and sunderful imbstands in its rith — bewhys of the allmeanly belief in the unawendbereness of wightkin — how far the thoughtlay of ikindsome choosing may be stretched out — onworkings of its tochoosing on the throughlore of ikindsome yorelore — beshuting edmarks. As this whole writheap is one long groundhood, it may be convenient to the reader to have the leading deedsakes and offleadings briefly edheaded. That many and grave withthrowings may be advanced against the thoughtlay of netherastieing with awending through ikindsome choosing, i do not deny. I have bestriven to give to them their full thrake. Nothing at first can thench more arvethfast to believe than that the more throughtangly bodyworkths and inborndrives should have been fullfremmed, not by means oversome to, though samerunsome with, soulbearend thinkcraft, but by the upheaping of unarimebere slight sundrinesss, each good for the untodealel besitter. Nevertheless, this arveth, though thenching to our hyeshow unovercomeberely great, cannot be hidged real if we throughgive the following forthputs, namely,—that steplings in the fullcomeliness of any bodyworkth or inborndrive, which we may hidge, either do now wesen or could have wesened, each good of its kind,—that all bodyworkths and inborndrives are, in ever so slight a andstep, sunderly,—and, lastly, that there is a struggle for wist leading to the asparing of each notesome andwaying of upbuild or inborndrive. The truth of these forthputs cannot, i think, be flitten. X 2 [bookleaf] 460 edheading. Chap. Xiv. It is, no twight, outestly arvethfast even to beguess by what steplings many upbuilds have been fullfremmed, more besunders amongst broken and failing maiths of lifesome beings; but we see so many selcouth steplings in ikind, as is abaneded by the lawlay, "ikind does not make jumps," that we ought to be outestly imbheedy in saying that any bodyworkth or inborndrive, or any whole being, could not have tocome at its andward onlay by many bestepped steps. There are, it must be throughgiven, happenlays of sunderful arveth on the thoughtlay of ikindsome choosing; and one of the most frimdy of these is the wist of two or three bebound castes of workers or unwassombearing birthlifers in the same imeanship of ants; but i have costened to show how this arveth can be mastered. With edsight to the almost allhomely unwassombearingness of wightkin when first rooded, which forms so edmarkbere an againstshow with the almost allhomely tudderfastness of isunders when rooded, i must bepull the reader to the edheading of the deedsakes given at the end of the eighth bookdeal, which seem to me beshutsomely to show that this unwassombearingness is no more a sunderful ingift than is the incanmayen of two trees to be grafted together, but that it is infallish on setnessly undersheds in the edtidderly setlays of the betwixtrooded wightkin. We see the truth of this ashut in the vast undershed in the outfollow, when the same two wightkin are rooded reciprocally; that is, when one wightkin is first used as the father and then as the mother. The tudderfastness of isunders when betwixtrooded and of their mongrel offspring cannot be hidged as allhomely; nor is their very allmeanly tudderfastness overnimming when we mun that it is not likely that either their setnesss or their edtidderly setlays should have been deeply awended. Moreover, most of the [bookleaf] 461 chap. Xiv. Edheading. Isunders which have been fanded on have been tiddered under housening; and as housening opensightly tends to eliminate unwassombearingness, we ought not to bewait it also to tidder unwassombearingness. The unwassombearingness of twibloodtudders is a very undershedsome happenlay from that of first roods, for their edtidderly bodyworkths are more or less workhoodally strengthless; whereas in first roods the bodyworkths on both sides are in a perfect hode. As we throughstandingly see that lifers of all kinds are made in some andstep unwassombearing from their setnesss having been dreeved by slightly undershedsome and new hodes of life, we need not feel overnim at twibloodtudders being in some andstep unwassombearing, for their setnesss can hardly fail to have been dreeved from being getherened of two toshed dights. This evenlongdom is underborne by another evenlong, but wissly witherrights, ilk of deedsakes; namely, that the lifethrith and tudderfastness of all lifesome beings are eaked by slight awends in their hodes of life, and that the offspring of slightly awended forms or isunders underfang from being rooded eaked lifethrith and tudderfastness. So that, on the one hand, hidgebere awends in the hodes of life and roods between greatly awended forms, lessen tudderfastness; and on the other hand, lesser awends in the hodes of life and roods between less awended forms, eak tudderfastness. Turning to earthlorely brittening, the arveths enwithed on the thoughtlay of netherastieing with awending are grave enough. All the untodealels of the same wightkin, and all the wightkin of the same wightkind, or even higher maith, must have netherastien from imean akennends; and therefore, in however farfast and offonlyed deals of the world they are now found, they must in the foor of afterfollowly strinds have passed from some one deal to the others. We are often wholly unable [bookleaf] 462 edheading. Chap. Xiv. Even to beguess how this could have been onworked. Yet, as we have thinkcraft to believe that some wightkin have bekept the same insunderly form for very long timedeals, aldermichelly long as ameted by years, too much stress ought not to be laid on the otherwhile wide tospreading of the same wightkin; for during very long timedeals of time there will always be a good whate for wide yondshrithing by many means. A broken or underbroken scope may often be arimed for by the fornaughting of the wightkin in the betweenly ards. It cannot be asaken that we are as yet very unwittle of the full scope of the sundry loftlayly and earthlorely awends which have onworked the earth during now-time timedeals; and such awends will opensightlyly have greatly eathyend yondshrithing. As an bisen, i have costened to show how strengthfast has been the inflowmayen of the icelayly timedeal on the brittening both of the same and of aspelling wightkin throughout the world. We are as yet deeply unwittle of the many otherwhile means of yondbearing. With edsight to toshed wightkin of the same wightkind inwoning very farfast and offonlyed ards, as the forthhappen of awending has needbehovely been slow, all the means of yondshrithing will have been acomingly during a very long timedeal; and infollowingly the arveth of the wide tospreading of wightkin of the same wightkind is in some andstep lessened. As on the thoughtlay of ikindsome choosing an interminable rime of betweenly forms must have wesened, linking together all the wightkin in each maith by steplings as fine as our andward isunders, it may be asked, why do we not see these linking forms all imb us? Why are not all lifesome beings blended together in an unouttanglebere dwolm? With edsight to wesening forms, we should mun that we have no right to bewait (nimth in seldly happenlays) to anddeck straightfastly belinking [bookleaf] 463 chap. Xiv. Edheading. Links between them, but only between each and some fornaughted and undersoled form. Even on a wide area, which has during a long timedeal belived throughstanding, and of which the loftlay and other hodes of life awend unspoorberely in going from a andlay forbusied by one wightkin into another andlay forbusied by a closely alinked wightkin, we have no just right to bewait often to find betweenly isunders in the betweenly zone. For we have thinkcraft to believe that only a few wightkin are undergoing awend at any one timedeal; and all awends are slowly onworked. I have also shown that the betweenly isunders which will at first likely wesen in the betweenly zones, will be atiely to be undersoled by the alinked forms on either hand; and the latter, from wesening in greater rimes, will allmeanly be awended and bettered at a quicker rimespeed than the betweenly isunders, which wesen in lesser rimes; so that the betweenly isunders will, in the long run, be undersoled and benothinged. On this alderbeliefword of the benothinging of an infinitude of belinking links, between the living and fornaughted inwoners of the world, and at each afterfollowly timedeal between the fornaughted and still older wightkin, why is not every earthlorely beshaping throughfilled with such links? Why does not every gathership of stonewight lefths afford plain outshow of the stepling and awending of the forms of life? We meet with no such outshow, and this is the most opensightly and strengthful of the many withthrowings which may be thraffed against my thoughtlay. Why, again, do whole maiths of alinked wightkin thench, though iwis they often falsely thench, to have come in suddenly on the manysome earthlorely stepocks? Why do we not find great piles of flatwiselayers beneath the silurian setlay, stored with the lefthsof the akennends of the silurian maiths of stonewights? For iwis on my thoughtlay such [bookleaf] 464 edheading. Chap. Xiv. Flatwiselayers must somewhere have been offstelled at these alderold and utterly unknown yoretimelaystarts in the world's yorelore. I can answer these fraigns and grave withthrowings only on the beguessing that the earthlorely edferth is far more unfullcome than most earthlorers believe. It cannot be withthrown that there has not been time enoughsome for any muchth of lifesome awend; for the whilestitch of time has been so great as to be utterly inunhefty by the soulbearend mindmayen. The rime of neeslings in all our sarehouses is fullthroughly as nothing withmeted with the countless strinds of countless wightkin which iwis have wesened. We should not be able to edknow a wightkin as the akennend of any one or more wightkin if we were to underseek them ever so closely, unless we likewise besat many of the betweenly links between their eretide or akennend and andward onlays; and these many links we could hardly ever bewait to anddeck, owing to the unfullcomeliness of the earthlorely edferth. Rimeful wesening twightful forms could be named which are likely isunders; but who will belike that in to-come eldths so many stonewight links will be anddecked, that ikindlorers will be able to becut, on the imean onsight, whether or not these twightful forms are isunders? As long as most of the links between any two wightkin are unknown, if any one link or betweenly ilk be anddecked, it will sinfold be isunderened as another and toshed wightkin. Only a small muchthdeal of the world has been earthlorely rossed. Only lifesome beings of somel ilks can be aspared in a stonewight hode, at least in any great rime. Widely ranging wightkin forsunder most, and isunders are often at first stowly,—both bewhys making the anddeck of betweenly links less likely. Stowly isunders will not spread into other and farfast ards until they are hidgeberely awended and im- [bookleaf] 465 chap. Xiv. Edheading. Afanded; and when they do spread, if anddecked in a earthlorely beshaping, they will thench as if suddenly beshaped there, and will be sinfold isunderened as new wightkin. Most shapennesses have been betwixtstelling in their upheaping; and their whilehood, i am bighfast to believe, has been shorter than the throughsnithe whilehood of insunderly forms. Afterfollowly shapennesses are totweemed from each other by aldermichel blank timestretchs of time; for stonewight-making shapennesses, thick enough to withset to-come netherrotting, can be upheaped only where much siltstuff is offstelled on the nethersettling bed of the sea. During the offwrixlesome timedeals of alifting and of unaquetchsome level the edferth will be blank. During these latter timedeals there will likely be more sundriness in the forms of life; during timedeals of nethersettling, more fornaughting. With edsight to the unandwardness of stonewight-making shapennesses beneath the lowest silurian flatwiselayers, i can only edwend to the fore-thoughtlay given in the ninth bookdeal. That the earthlorely edferth is unfullcome all will throughgive; but that it is unfullcome to the andstep which i tharf, few will be bighfast to throughgive. If we look to long enough timestretchs of time, earthlore plainly declares that all wightkin have awended; and they have awended in the way which my thoughtlay tharfs, for they have awended slowly and in a bestepped way. We clearly see this in the stonewight lefthsfrom afollowsome shapennesses everywhen being much more closely akinned to each other, than are the stonewights from shapennesses farfast from each other in time. Such is the sum of the manysome chief withthrowings and arveths which may rightly be thraffed against my thoughtlay; and i have now briefly edheaded the answers and aclearings which can be given to them. I have felt these arveths far too heavily during many years to X 3 [bookleaf] 466 edheading. Chap. Xiv. Twight their weight. But it andtheens asunderfast bemark that the more weighty withthrowings relate to fraigns on which we are togively unwittle; nor do we know how unwittle we are. We do not know all the acomingly overgangly steplings between the onelayst and the most fullcome bodyworkths; it cannot be beliked that we know all the besundered means of brittening during the long whilestitch of years, or that we know how unfullcome the earthlorely edferth is. Grave as these manysome arveths are, in my deeming they do not overthrow the thoughtlay of netherastieing with awending. Now let us turn to the other side of the groundhood. Under housening we see much sundriness. This seems to be mainly due to the edtidderly setlay being highoutlyly opentakely to awends in the hodes of life; so that this setlay, when not made strengthless, fails to edtidder offspring weetilly like the akennend-form. Sundriness is awielded by many throughtangly laws,—by togethersibred of growth, by use and andnote, and by the straightfast deedship of the bodily hodes of life. There is much arveth in foriwising how much awending our housely tidderings have undergone; but we may safely offlead that the muchth has been michel, and that awendings can be erved for long timedeals. As long as the hodes of life belive the same, we have thinkcraft to believe that a awending, which has already been erved for many strinds, may continue to be erved for an almost boundless rime of strinds. On the other hand we have outshow that sundriness, when it has once come into play, does not wholly blin; for new isunders are still otherwhile tiddered by our most alderoldly housened tidderings. Man does not soothly tidder sundriness; he only [bookleaf] 467 chap. Xiv. Edheading. Uninwhelvely outstells lifesome beings to new hodes of life, and then ikind bedoes on the dight, and bewhys sundriness. But man can and does choose the sundrinesss given to him by ikind, and thus upheap them in any frickled way. He thus throughfits wights and plants for his own beforthing or pleasure. He may do this do-wayly, or he may do it orawarely by asparing the untodealels most nitworth to him at the time, without any thought of awending the breed. It is fullknown that he can michelly inflowmayen the suchness of a breed by choosing, in each afterfollowly strind, untodealel undersheds so slight as to be quite inunhefty by an unbelored eye. This forthhappen of choosing has been the great deedcraft in the tiddering of the most toshed and nitworth housely breeds. That many of the breeds tiddered by man have to a michel scope the suchness of ikindsome wightkin, is shown by the unouttanglebere twights whether very many of them are isunders or fromthfast wightkin. There is no opensightly thinkcraft why the thoughsetlays which have acted so onworkfully under housening should not have acted under ikind. In the asparing of rithed untodealels and races, during the standily-edhappening struggle for wist, we see the most woldful and ever-bedoing means of choosing. The struggle for wist unforecomeberely follows from the high metelorely todealmaithred of eak which is imean to all lifesome beings. This high rimespeed of eak is afanded by bereckoning, by the onworkings of a afterfollowingness of odd yeartides, and by the outfollows of ikindsomeing, as acleared in the third bookdeal. More untodealels are born than can acomingly overlive. A grain in the evenweight will toend which untodealel shall live and which shall die,—which isunder or wightkin shall eak in rime, and which shall decrease, or endly become fornaughted. As the untodealels [bookleaf] 468 edheading. Chap. Xiv. Of the same wightkin come in all edsights into the closest witherstrive with each other, the struggle will allmeanly be most highernst between them; it will be almost evenworthly highernst between the isunders of the same wightkin, and next in sternhood between the wightkin of the same wightkind. But the struggle will often be very highernst between beings most far-off in the scale of ikind. The slightest foredeal in one being, at any eldth or during any yeartide, over those with which it comes into witherstrive, or better throughfitting in however slight a andstep to the imbholding bodily hodes, will turn the evenweight. With wights having totweemed akenbodyworkthsplits there will in most happenlays be a struggle between the seedlifers for besitting of the birthlifers. The most lifethrithsome untodealels, or those which have most successfully struggled with their hodes of life, will allmeanly leave most afterkin. But success will often offhang on having sunderful weapons or means of forstanding, or on the charms of the seedlifers; and the slightest foredeal will lead to victory. As earthlore plainly abaneds that each land has undergone great bodily awends, we might have bewaited that lifesome beings would have besundered under ikind, in the same way as they allmeanly have besundered under the awended hodes of housening. And if there be any sundriness under ikind, it would be an unberimebere deedsake if ikindsome choosing had not come into play. It has often been forthstomped, but the forthstomping is quite uncanfast of afand, that the muchth of sundriness under ikind is a strictly narrowened muchth. Man, though bedoing on outly suchnesses alone and often finickily, can tidder within a short timedeal a great outfollow by ateaking up mere untodealel undersheds in his housely tidderings; and every one throughgives that there are at least untodealel undersheds in wightkin under ikind. But, besides such undersheds, all ikindlorers [bookleaf] 469 chap. Xiv. Edheading. Have throughgiven the wist of isunders, which they think enoughsomely toshed to be worthy of edferth in setlayly works. No one can draw any clear ished between untodealel undersheds and slight isunders; or between more plainly marked isunders and under-wightkin, and wightkin. Let it be behowed how ikindlorers andsame in the rank which they atoken to the many aspelling forms in europe and north america. If then we have under ikind sundriness and a woldful agent always ready to bedo and choose, why should we twight that sundrinesss in any way nitworth to beings, under their overmuchly throughtangly sibreds of life, would be aspared, upheaped, and erved? Why, if man can by thild choose sundrinesss most nitworth to himself, should ikind fail in choosing sundrinesss nitworth, under awending hodes of life, to her living itidders? What undertie can be put to this wold, bedoing during long eldths and stiffly throughneesing the whole setness, upbuild, and wones of each forthshaft,—rithing the good and withsetting the bad? I can see no undertie to this wold, in slowly and littily throughfitting each form to the most throughtangly sibreds of life. The thoughtlay of ikindsome choosing, even if we looked no further than this, seems to me to be in itself likely. I have already edheaded, as fairly as i could, the withlaid arveths and withthrowings: now let us turn to the sunderful deedsakes and groundhoods in rith of the thoughtlay. On the onsight that wightkin are only strongly marked and foreversome isunders, and that each wightkin first wesened as a isunder, we can see why it is that no line of offmarking can be drawn between wightkin, imeanly understelled to have been tiddered by sunderful bedos of ishaft, and isunders which are acknowledged to have been tiddered by twothsome laws. On this same onsight we can understand how it is that in each ard [bookleaf] 470 edheading. Chap. Xiv. Where many wightkin of a wightkind have been tiddered, and where they now flourish, these same wightkin should andward many isunders; for where the manudeedsakeory of wightkin has been dofast, we might bewait, as a allmeanly rule, to find it still in deedship; and this is the happenlay if isunders be beginsome wightkin. Moreover, the wightkin of the michelr wightkinds, which afford the greater rime of isunders or beginsome wightkin, bekeep to a somel andstep the suchness of isunders; for they andsame from each other by a less muchth of undershed than do the wightkin of smaller wightkinds. The closely alinked wightkin also of the michelr wightkinds opensightly have intightened scopes, and they are clustered in little maiths round other wightkin—in which edsights they onlike isunders. These are selcouth sibreds on the onsight of each wightkin having been unoffhangingly beshaped, but are understandbere if all wightkin first wesened as isunders. As each wightkin tends by its metelorely todealmaithred of edtiddering to eak overmichel in rime; and as the awended netherastiends of each wightkin will be bemayened to eak by so much the more as they become more sunderlyened in wones and upbuild, so as to be bemayened to fang on many and widely undershedsomesteads in the setlay of ikind, there will be a standy niging in ikindsome choosing to aspare the most towharving offspring of any one wightkin. Hence during a long-throughstood foor of awending, the slight undersheds, suchnessly of isunders of the same wightkin, nige to be morened into the greater undersheds suchnessly of wightkin of the same wightkind. New and bettered isunders will unforecomeberely undersole and benothing the older, less bettered and betweenly isunders; and thus wightkin are made to a michel scope bebound and toshed towardsthings. Overweighing wightkin belonging to the michelr maiths nige to give birth to new and overweighing [bookleaf] 471 chap. Xiv. Edheading. Forms; so that each michel maith tends to become still michelr, and at the same time more towharving in suchness. But as all maiths cannot thus spow in eaking in size, for the world would not hold them, the more overweighing maiths beat the less overweighing. This niging in the michel maiths to go on eaking in size and towharving in suchness, together with the almost unmithebere offhanginess of much fornaughting, aclears the dighting of all the forms of life, in maiths underrowfollowsome to maiths, all within a few great ilks, which we now see everywhere imb us, and which has swithered throughout all time. This michel deedsake of the maithing of all lifesome beings seems to me utterly unaclearbere on the thoughtlay of ishaft. As ikindsome choosing bedoes only by beheaping slight, afterfollowly, rithbere sundrinesss, it can tidder no great or sudden awending; it can bedo only by very short and slow steps. Hence the lawlay of "ikind does not make jumps," which every fresh ateak to our knowledge tends to make more strictly rightsome, is on this thoughtlay sinfold understandbere. We can plainly see why ikind is highmichel in isunder, though niggard in benewing. But why this should be a law of ikind if each wightkin has been unoffhangingly beshaped, no man can aclear. Many other deedsakes are, as it seems to me, aclearbere on this thoughtlay. How selcouth it is that a bird, under the form of woodpecker, should have been beshaped to prey on bugs on the ground; that upland geese, which never or seldom swim, should have been beshaped with webbed feet; that a thrush should have been beshaped to dive and feed on under-waterly bugs; and that a holmthesterbird should have been beshaped with wones and upbuild fitting it for the life of an auk or grebe! And so on in endless other happenlays. But on the onsight of each [bookleaf] 472 edheading. Chap. Xiv. Wightkin standily trying to eak in rime, with ikindsome choosing always ready to throughfit the slowly besundering netherastiends of each to any unforbusied or ill-forbusiedstead in ikind, these deedsakes blin to be selcouth, or forhaps might even have been forefollowed. As ikindsome choosing bedoes by witherstrive, it throughfits the inwoners of each landred only in maithred to the andstep of fullcomeliness of their onbinds; so that we need feel no overnim at the inwoners of any one landred, although on the wonely onsight understelled to have been asunderfastly beshaped and throughfit for that landred, being beaten and undersoled by the ikindened tidderings from another land. Nor ought we to awonder if all the acrafts in ikind be not, as far as we can deemend, fullthroughly fullcome; and if some of them be abhorrent to our thinklings of fitness. We need not awonder at the sting of the bee bewhying the bee's own death; at drones being tiddered in such vast rimes for one onele bedo, and being then slaughtered by their unwassombearing sisters; at the aweing waste of bloomdust by our fir-trees; at the inborndrivesome hatred of the queen bee for her own tudderfast daughters; at fourskinlingwingedforebugdweller feeding within the live bodies of forebutterflies; and at other such happenlays. The wonder indeed is, on the thoughtlay of ikindsome choosing, that more happenlays of the want of fullthrough fullcomeliness have not been behowed. The throughtangly and little known laws awielding sundriness are the same, as far as we can see, with the laws which have awielded the tiddering of so-called insunderly forms. In both happenlays bodily hodes seem to have tiddered but little straightfast onworking; yet when isunders enter any zone, they otherwhile foretake some of the suchnesses of the wightkin davenly to that zone. In both isunders and wightkin, use and andnote seem to have tiddered some onworking; for it is arvethfast to withset this con- [bookleaf] 473 chap. Xiv. Edheading. Clusion when we look, for bisen, at the logger-headed duck, which has wings uncanfast of flight, in nearly the same hode as in the housely duck; or when we look at the burrowing tucutucu, which is otherwhile blind, and then atsomel moles, which are wonely blind and have their eyes betielded with skin; or when we look at the blind wights inwoning the dark caves of america and europe. In both isunders and wightkin togethersibred of growth seems to have played a most weighty deal, so that when one deal has been awended other deals are needbehovely awended. In both isunders and wightkin edwhirfts to long-lost suchnesses betide. How unaclearbere on the thoughtlay of ishaft is the otherwhile upshowing of stripes on the shoulder and legs of the manysome wightkin of the horse-wightkind and in their twibloodtudders! How sinfold is this deedsake acleared if we believe that these wightkin have netherastien from a striped akennend, in the same way as the manysome housely breeds of plumpdove have netherastien from the blue and barred rock-plumpdove! On the wonely onsight of each wightkin having been unoffhangingly beshaped, why should the insunderly suchnesses, or those by which the wightkin of the same wightkind andsame from each other, be more sunderly than the allmeanly suchnesses in which they all agree? Why, for bisen, should the colour of a bloomwort be more likely to forsunder in any one wightkin of a wightkind, if the other wightkin, understelled to have been beshaped unoffhangingly, have undershedsomely coloured bloomworts, than if all the wightkin of the wightkind have the same coloured bloomworts? If wightkin are only well-marked isunders, of which the suchnesses have become in a high andstep foreversome, we can understand this deedsake; for they have already besundered since they branched off from a imean akennend in somel suchnesses, by which they have come to be insunderly toshed from each other; [bookleaf] 474 edheading. Chap. Xiv. And therefore these same suchnesses would be more likely still to be sunderly than the allmeanly suchnesses which have been erved without awend for an aldermichel timedeal. It is unaclearbere on the thoughtlay of ishaft why a deal andwound in a very unwonely way in any one wightkin of a wightkind, and therefore, as we may quithenly offlead, of great weightiness to the wightkin, should be highoutlyly atiely to sundriness; but, on my onsight, this deal has undergone, since the manysome wightkin branched off from a imean akennend, an unwonely muchth of sundriness and awending, and therefore we might bewait this deal allmeanly to be still sunderly. But a deal may be andwound in the most unwonely way, like the wing of a bat, and yet not be more sunderly than any other upbuild, if the deal be imean to many underrowfollowsome forms, that is, if it has been erved for a very long timedeal; for in this happenlay it will have been made standy by long-throughstood ikindsome choosing. Glancing at inborndrives, wonderful as some are, they offer no greater arveth than does bodily framework on the thoughtlay of the ikindsome choosing of afterfollowly, slight, but notesome awendings. We can thus understand why ikind moves by bestepped steps in ingifting undershedsome wights of the same ilk with their manysome inborndrives. I have costened to show how much light the thoughsetlay of stepling throws on the bewonderbere forebuilddrawcraftsome wolds of the hive-bee. Wone no twight sometimes comes into play in awending inborndrives; but it iwis is not aldertharfly, as we see, in the happenlay of wanmingebodyworkthwight bugs, which leave no afterkin to erve the onworkings of long-throughstood wone. On the onsight of all the wightkin of the same wightkind having netherastien from a imean akennend, and having erved much in imean, we can understand how it is that alinked wightkin, when stelled under hidgeberely undershedsome hodes of life, [bookleaf] 475 chap. Xiv. Edheading. Yet should follow nearly the same inborndrives; why the thrush of south america, for bisen, lines