The name Old High Theetch (OHT, Theetch: Althochdeutsch, shortened Ahd.; English: Old High German) bespeaks the earliest time of the Theetch tung ond it often overlays the timespan from around 500 to 1050. Fast writs do not kythe until the other half of the 8th yearhundred, ond some hondle the time before 750 as 'fore-eretidely' ond put the beginning of true Old High Theetch to 750 for this ground. There are, however, scores of Elder Futhark writings from the 6th yearhundred (as byspell the Pforzen buckle), as well as lone words ond monny names found in Latinish writs before the 8th yearhundred.
The main unlikeness between Old High Theetch (German) ond the West Theedish (Germanic) byleids from which it grew is that it underwent the Twoth Loud Shift or High Theetch withloud shift. This is overall put wary roughly to the late 5th ond early 6th yearhundreds - hence putting the start of OHT to around 500. The outcome of this loud-shift is that the withloud framework of Theetch belives unsame from all other West Theedish tungs, inholding English ond Low Theetch. Stavecraftly, however, Old High Theetch belived much alike to Old English, Old Lowlondish ond Old Saxish.
By the mid 11th yearhundred the monny unsame selflouds found in unhighlighted loudteams had all been lessened to 'e'. Since these selflouds were a deal of the stavecraftly endings in the namewords and deedwords, their loss led to steep fewfolding of the shiftingly stavecraft of Theetch. For the sake of these grounds, 1050 is seen as the start of the Middle High Theetch time, though indeed there are almost no writings in Theetch for the next hundred years.
Byspells of selfloud lessening in unhighlighted loudteams:
|Old High Theetch '||Middle High Theetch||English|
|machôn||machen||to make, to do|
(The New Theetch builds of these words are broadly the same as in Middle High Theetch.)
There was no shared or over-landshiply kind of Old High Theetch; every writ is written in a known byleid, or sometimes a blending of byleids. Broadly speaking, the head byleid splits of Old High Theetch seem to have been alike to those of later times; they are grounded on settled landly teamings ond the deeds of the Twoth Loud Shift, which have belived swaying until today. But since the straight showingness for Old High Theetch is made up only of writings made in a few big churchly midspots, there is no byleid-sundriness word of the kind on which new byleid maps are grounded. For this reason the OHT byleids may be named minster byleids.
The main OHT byleids, with their bishoprics and minsters:
- Middle Theetch
- Middle Frankish: Trier, Echternigh, Rikeling (Cologne)
- Rhine Frankish: Lorsch, Speyer, Worms, Mainz, Frankfurt
- South Rhine Frankish: Weissenburgh im Elsass
- East Frankish: Fulda, Bamberg, Würzburgh
- Thuringish: (no writings)
- West Frankish: likely byleid of the Franks in Northern Gaul
- Upper Theetch
- Allmannish: Murbach, Reichenau, Holy Gallen. Straßburgh
- Bavarish: Freising, Passau, Regensburgh, Augsburgh, Ebersberg, Wessobrunn, Tegernsea, Salzburgh, Mondsea
- Lombardish: (only bits, teaming as OHT unsicker)
There are some weighty unlikenesses between the landlorely spread of the Old High Theetch byleids ond that of New Theetch:
- no Theetch byleids were spoken east of the eas Elbe and Saale - in the OHT timespan this land had Slavish folks and was not settled by Theetch speakers until the 12th yearhundred* the Lombardish byleid of the Lombards who overran Northern Italy in the 6th yearhundred is thought to have been an Upper Theetch byleid, though little showingness of it belives aside from names and onesome words in Latinish writs, and a few writings.
The Franks overwon Northern Gaul as far south as the Loire; the speechcraftly border later steadied roughly along the flow of the Maas and Mosel, with Frankish speakers further west being made Romishly. However, Frankish is a standout among the old West Theedish tungs, the Frankish theeds build their rike at the same time as the High Theetch withloud shift happened. This meant that the byleids of Frankish in the North of their rike, the Lowlonds, did not shift while the byleids in the South did. The byleids in the south are a deal of Old High Theetch, the ones in the North are deal of Old Lowlondish.
With Churl the Great's loss of the Lombards in 776, nearly all mainlandly Theetch speaking folks had been inwrought into the Frankish Rike, thus also bringing all mainlandly West Theedish speakers under Frankish leadership. However, since the tung of both the rike and the Church was Latin, this togethering did not lead to any growth of an over-landshiply kind of Frankish.
The early share of the time saw heeding errandboder deeds, and by 800 the whole of the Frankish Rike had, guessingly, been christened. All the writings which inhold Old High Theedish writs were written in churchly writingrooms by draughtsmen whose main errand was writing in Latin rather than Theedish. Thereby, the greaterhood of Old High Theetch writings are worshipsome and show strong swaying of Church Latin on the wordstock. In truth, most outlasting prose writings are wendings of Latin stemwrits. Even worldly works such as the Hildebrandslied are often kept only since they were written on spare sheets in worshipsome erebooks.
The earliest OHT writing is overall taken to be the Abrogans, a Latin-Old High Theetch wordlist sundrily put between 750 and 780, most likely from Reichenau. The 8th hundredyear Merseburgh Spellcraftspeaks are the only leftover of fore-Christlike Theedish booklore. The earliest writings not hanging on Latin stemwrits would seem to be the Hildebrandslied and the Wessobrunn Bead, both written in writings of the early 9th hundredyear, though the writings are thought to stem from earlier deals.
The Bayarish Muspilli is the only outlaster of what must have been a broad spoken folklore. Other weighty works are the Evangelienbuch (Gospel banding) of Otfrid of Weissenburg, the short but wonderful Ludwigslied and the 9th hundredyear Georgslied. The border to Early Middle High Theetch (from around 1050) is not clear-cut. The most sightly byspell of EMHT booklore is the Annolied.
The Lord's Bead in three OHT byleids. Because these are oversettings of a churchly worshipsome writ, they are best not taken as byspells of lively tung, but they do show byleid sundriness wary starkly.
|Allmannish, 8th hundredyear||South Rhine Frankish, 9th hundredyear||East Frankish, around 830|
|The St Gall Lord's Prayer||Weissenburg Christhandbook||OHT Tatian|
Fater unseer, thu pist in himile,
Fater unsēr, thu in himilom bist,
Fater unser, thū thār bist in himile,
Stem: Braune/Ebbinghaus, Althochdeutsches Lesebuch, 17th wending (Niemeyer, 1994)
- Joseph Wright, An Old High Theetch Futharkbook – whole writ of 1906 work (English)
- A Short Gathering of Old High Theetch (English)
- Althochdeutsche Texte im Internet (8.–10. Jahrhundert) - links to a reach of online writs (Theedish)
- LiTLiNks: althochdeutche Texte - thorough listing of OHT writs with links to online makes. (Theedish)
- Althochdeutches Lesebuch, wenders W.Braune, K.Helm, E.A.Ebbinghaus, 17th wending, Tübingen 1994. ISBN 3-484-10707-3
- J. Knight Bostock, A Handbook on Old High German Literature, 2nd wending, looked again by K.C.King and D.R.McLintock, Oxford 1976. ISBN 0-19-815392-9
- R.E.Keller, The German Language, London 1978. ISBN 0-571-11159-9
- Lexikon der Germanistischen Linguistik, wenders Hans Peter Althaus, Helmut Henne, Herbert Ernst Weigand, 2nd againlooked wending, Tübingen 1980. ISBN 3-484-10396-5
- S.Sonderegger, Althochdeutsche Sprache und Literatur, de Gruyter 1974 ISBN 3-11-004559-1
- C.J.Wells, German. A Linguistic History to 1945, Oxford 1987. ISBN 0-19-815809-2
|Tungs||Kin of tungs|
|Theedish||North Theedish: Faroeish - Icelandish (High Icelandic)- Old Nordish tung -Old Gutnish - South Jutish|
West Theedish: Old Saxish tung - Middle Low Theech - Netherlandish (Old Low Frankish) - Old High Theech
East Theedish: Gottish tung - Vandalish - Burgundish
Engle-Frisish tungs: English (Old English - English tung - Anglish - Lowland Shottish - Yola - Old Frisish tung
|Celtish||Welsh - Breton - Gaulish|
|Romanish||Latin (Folklatin) - Italish - Frenchish - Spanish - Portugalish - Mirandish|
|Indish-Iranish tungs||Indish-Aryish: Bengalish - Hindi - Urdu - Roma - Punjabish
|Other||Chinish tung - Japanish tung - Arabish tung|