The First New Hollanders came to the New Holland between 80,000 and 160,000 years ago, where they lived by hunting and gathering. In the eighteen hundreds, the British started sending their lawbreakers to live there. Now most New Holland folk are from Eveish roots, with English being the leading tongue.
In the mid 1600s, Eveish seafarer's ships ran along the New Holland's north-west landedge while on the way to their settlings in Sunriseland (Asia). However Dutch, Portugalish and English alike were sadly let down at what they saw.
Dutchman Abel Tasman, while on his far-reaching seafarings, saw little that would bring wealth to his backers. And William Dampier later wrote of New Holland,".....as barely yielding enough to keep alive Earth's most wretched folk."
In 1770, Head Shipman James Cook and the wiscraftmen aboard "Endeavour" were less scathing. Amazed at the sight of such odd wight-life and wort-life there on the New Holland's eastern seaboard's green, seemingly endless fields, Cook went on to say that he believed it to be a land ready to bear, in time, a thriving folkdom. And of the First New Hollanders, Cook also had some kind words, "They may seem to some to be Earth's most wretched folk, but in truth they are happier than we Europeans." Cook took ownership of the New Holland's eastern seaboard landbulk in the name of England's King George 3rd, on many a score, but for more than less to thwart the will of other European kingdoms thinking of setting up their own settlings there.
In 1788 the First Fleet, with its leader Arthur Phillip, came from England to build a settling to hold the unwanted lawbreakers of Great Britain and Ireland. The 750 lags and their 252 warders, harmen of the newly named New South Wales Fighting Body, who were there to see that law and frith was kept and, if need be, by the harshest methes(means), made landfall near nowadays Sydney on 26th, January 1788. Of the some 500,000 First Folk already living there, in the mind of settling's Helmsman, Arthur Phillip, they had all but lost their right to the land. Whether this was within the law did not weigh heavily on his mind; it could be dealt with later. However, it was settled some twenty years later by a wont for land, by a steady stream of newcomers flowing into the young settling.
The newcomers, those with say-so or those in shackles, thought that their way of life was far better than that of a wild folk, barely out of the Stone Eldth. Yet there were times together of words fairspoken, and friendly meeting with some thought for each other's life ways. But it was not long before misunderstanding grew, misgivings about one another's wonts welled-up and with bad-will and reckoning feeding the balefire of bitterness, the wilds of New South Wales and Van Dieman's Land, by the 1830s, saw the First New Hollander dying in their thousands
The coming of the White Man upset their hunting ways by shutting them out of their hunting grounds, and their sheep and cattle fouled the waterholes. The First New Hollander's answers to the unwanted incoming and over-running of their land were sundry. Some were willing to try to learn more of the ways of the weird newcomer, trying new food like bread and sugar; others hunted new wights such as cows and sheep; a few tried to fight back, and many sought freedom from harm by fleeing into the bush.
Overall the First New Hollanders tried to take the White Man into their way of life in trading of goods, hunting, wayfaring and guestliness. But they seemed to have little wish to become like or live like white folk. Instead they looked to a time when the outborners would move on or begin to follow their way of life. It soon dawned upon them that the newcomers wanted to own the land, not share it. There was little hope of getting a fair deal from them. The chawn between the two folks' life ways was too great, and the newcomers had the might and the weapon-hoard needed to win any fight-out. They were here to stay.
By the 1900s some white folks began to listen to the First Hollander's tale of their way of life throughout some seventy thousand years adwelling in the Land. The First Hollanders holy lore tells us that their world was made in the Dreamtime, when a body of godly beings lived on the Earth and made all the shapes of the landscape and gave souls to all living beings. These godly beings were the forebears of the First Folk and all livings things, as well. Sometime manlife, sometime wightlife, they had the might to work wonders. Their eldtime deeds, and folkways have been come down from kith-end to kith-end by word of mouth in folktale, skip'n step and song from a time beyond the mind and underpinned by hallowed ways of worship.
The First Hollanders were not a thede as we would understand the meaning of the word, but rather a manifold of folk made up of many kindreds. Each adwelled in "homelands" and each spoke a tongue and had a set of folkways that were not wholly the same as those of its neighbour. A kindred could have as few as a hundred folk or as many as fifteen hundred. A kindred could break-up furtherly into two or four smaller sibsets who lived, hunted and gathered food together.
Not only men and women were kindred. Wights, birds, fish also were believed to be by the First Hollanders ghostly kin. Each kindred and sibset (clan) had two or more tokens and shown on them might be a wight, a wort or something of the worldly landscape such as the Moon, while each sibling had their own token. Hard to understand kinship laws set out ways and rights of wedlocking and kithships deeds.
A wayfaring folk they had few worldly belongings. They did not live in europish-kind houses, but instead built makeshift shieldings from lowly wind breaks of boughs, bark and stone to a fairly strong, long hut sitting on poles, overlaid with sheets of bark, and an uplifted floor, where underneath a fire could be lit to keep away gnats and bloodflies.
Their kind of food would have been well-rounded and healthful, held in sway only by the reach of food brought forth by the earth in their kindred landships. Folk meeting was a time of great happiness with merrymaking, mongering, worship, singing old and new songs, welcoming old friends and settling old scores.
The First Hollanders had great know-how as huecrafters, and were outstanding folk-gleeman and folktellers. Huecrafting on bark, rocks, or godkindly tokens were all linked to worship, song, gleedream and skip'n step( sealt?). They spoke many tongues, and a tongue might have many by-tongues, more so if it was spoken over a wide landstretch Speechlorers believe that there were some 250 unsame tongues spoken by mainland First Folk. They had no written leide, although word was passed between faraway kindreds by markings on twigs.
Throughout the many thousands of years of the First Hollander's adwelling on the New Holland, they have followed a way of life friendly to the Earth. Their knowledge of the land, know-how in hunting and food gathering let them live-on, even in the harshest, almost rainless, sandy stretches where day-to-day life was always a struggle. And before the coming of the European it is fair to say that wherever they lived, from the sandy steads of the hinterland to the green, food-rich fields and streams of the eastern seaboard, their life was even and eadish. Kindred ways and set-up let each folk have a feeling of worth and might with the right to share in all things.
With the loss of her settlings in North America, Great Britain had to find a new overseas lock-up for its lawbreakers. In 1788 with the landing of the First Fleet near nowaday Sydney, Great Britain had found it. Between 1788 and 1868 more than 160,000 lawbreakers were sent to New Holland. Theft was their most often lawbreaking deed in a Britain and Ireland where the unevenness of wealth, and neediness made the do-wells uneathly of even lesser deeds of unlawfulness. Other wrongdoers had lead folk-gatherings in "The Shires" calling for a better deal in life, and some had even had the boldness to set up workers' guilds. Many were Irish folk seeking to throw off the yoke of the accursed Saxon from their homeland, and were unwilling to bow down meekly, but ready to stand and fight for the freedom of the "Green". After a while in New Holland many misdoers began to see themselves only as short-time bondfolk, not lifelong serfs. Freedom for many brought a new beginning in a settling feeding itself, and gave them a gleam of hope for a better life. Once free they could work for fee, or even till their own land. But for scofflaws there was greater dretch to undergo, such as unsparing flogging and further outcasting to "Earthly Heavens of Utmost Dread" at Norfolk Iland in the Great Sea of Frith", Port Arthur in Van Dieman's Land, or Moreton Bay at nowaday Brisbane. And the outcome of a lag-woman's further, oft-time wrongdoings brought work-wearying toil in the "Workhouse" at Parramatta, some 25 miles from Sydney.
With a folk blend of lag and free settler, qualms and fears saw the settling's folksettish weave, at times, become a little tattered in the early days, seeing its Helmsman Phillip soon asking for more free settlers to come and live in New South Wales. In between time freed lags were being let land to till and, also finding work in many other fields. The rights of children's born to lags was another thing needing a quick and straightforward answer. More farsighted fellows like John Macarthur, rose to wealthiness and lasting good standing through his setting-up of the sheep business. It was Macarthur, and his wife Elizabeth, who brought the first merino sheep to New Holland.
The first great mootish ordeal in the young settling life arose with a test of strength between the headmen of the NSW Fighting Body, more so John Macarthur and the Land's Helmsman William Bligh. Bligh had dealt strongly with the harmen of the Body and their dealings; above all in their hindering the folkdom's fee-flow by paying workers in rum, rather than fee, and the sending lags to do work mostly tilling fields belonging to the settling's better known do-wells. The step taken by Bligh in 1808 to have Macarthur put in the town's lock-up led to an uprising by some harmen. The happening is known as the Rum Uprising.
A leading player in the settling's folkbinding, building boom and overall growth was Helmsman Lachlan Macquarie. Coming to New South Wales in 1810, his sway saw a wending of the settling from a lagstead to one for free folk also; a step most weighty in the shaping of the after-time folkdom. Notwithstanding harsh forsaying of his leadership by reeves in London, his good name went on growing even after his death, more so amongst freed lags and their afterbears. On the headstone of his grave on Scotland's Isle of Mull are carved the words, "Father of New Holland".
In 1813 Blaxland, Lawson and Wentworth found a way through the Blue Fells and, quickly, an unhindered flow of folk followed seeking land to till and stock with sheep. The Folksteer could do little to stop squatters from settling upon the land and tilling it.
New settlings were founded at Hobart (1803), Brisbane (1823), Perth (1829), Melbourne (1835), and Adelaide (1836). The Adelaide and Perth settlings were founded by free settlers, although from 1846 to 1868 the settling on the Swan Ea in Western Southland rested heavily on lags to do most of the burdensome work. In these settlings the hope for a fairer and even deal for the New Holland's First Folk lasted only until settlers hungry for land found them in the way.
By the 1840s the New Hollandish settlings were wending otherwisely. The calling for the incoming of free settlers only, spoke of an New Holland with a fairer and more even folkset than that of Britain. For those of the well-to-do kind, a new way forward brought uneathliness in a Land of lags and their bairns.
British reevedom's thoughts about the New Hollandish settlings were shaping anewly. In 1819 its reeve, John Bigge, sent to New Holland to find out about the standing of things in N.S.W., had put a great deal of weight in his write-up upon the need to keep a stark asunder between the right of the freeman and lag. For lags, he said, a much tighter handling and fuller and better use of their work-time was needed to offset the outlay for their upkeep. Bigge dressed Macquarie down for his leadership shortcomings and his ill-founded step to bring back into the folkset's fellowship former lawbreakers, by giving to them work of standing with some rights and say in the folkset. Furthermore Bigge seethed at Macquarie's welcoming of former lags to gatherings at Folksteer House. Yet some twenty years afterwards, a British Find-out Body said that lagship had lessened the worth of freeman and lag alike, and called for the forthwith ending of outcasting of lawbreakers to the settlings in New Holland.
However any fear of going forth that the folk of the settlings might have had, stemmed not from some unworthy laggish blackmark, but from the high-handed deeds of the British Folksteer in London. Drawn to mind is its call in 1848, without talking to the settlers in Sydney, to start-up once more the outcasting of lawbreakers to N.S.W.
In 1851 the finding of gold firstly in New South Wales and shortly after in Victoria, turned the settlings upside down. As gold seekers from all over the world streamed into Victoria, it became a lawless folkset with bigger towns such as Melbourne emptying of folk, and men living in cloth-huts and makeshift dwellings without the soothing thereabouts of kith and kin. About 2% of the indwellers of Britain and Ireland sailed to NSW and Victoria. Also tens of thousands of folk from China came. Their being on the goldfields sparked mistrust and saw them set upon at times by white gold diggers.
Gold brought sudden wealth for a few, and some of New Holland's nowaday's wealthiest folk, mark the Gold Rush years as the beginning of their kinsfolk's thrivedom.
Many of the gold seekers stayed on in New Holland, and within a few years there were more free folk than lagfolk in the settlings. Angry at such high fees for a gold-digging letwrit, harsh dealings by law-wardens and the untrustworthy deeds by worthless folksteer reeves, a manifold of diggers from many Lands took a stand for a better deal by building a stronghold near Ballarat in 1854. More than thirty diggers, armed with only small weapons, were killed in a bloody fight when harmen and law-wardens stormed their stronghold in the early hours of the morning of December 3, 1854. In early 1855, in the Head-Lawhouse at Melbourne, they were put before a body of their fellows, who under oath would not and did not deem them guilty of any wrongdoing.
The fight-out at Ballarat, (English: the Eureka Stockade) and the uproar that followed thereafter seems to have helped bring about fairer folk rights. For in 1855 the settlings of NSW, Victoria, South Southland, and Tasmania were given full rikeling-hood with upper and lower house folkmoots. And within a year, in 1856, New Hollandish workers were the first in the world to win an eight-hour working day.
The Gold Rush brought about a quicker inflow of folk, from almost all the lands on Earth into New Holland, and scores of new towns and hamlets sprung up throughout Victoria and New South Wales. Almost forgotten throughout all these happenings, and doomed by many as a "dying folk", were the New Holland's homegrown indwellers who had all but withered away with only some 60,000 living on.
The swift growth which followed the Gold Rushes gave birth to a time of thrivishness, which went on for more than forty years, only coming to an end with the "Land Bust" of the 1880s. Melbourne grew at great speed, becoming New Holland's biggest town, and for a while was the second most folkfilled town under British wield. This time saw the building of the framework of New Holland's Head Towns. In 1870 arose a deep feeling amongst New Hollanders of an aloneness as a folk living in an Anglo-Saxon outstead -12,000 miles from their ilk in Britain- when fears of a Russian inslaught saw the hasty building of strongholds along New Holland's south eastern shoreline.
The "Great Bust", a ten year long wanthriven, brought a lot of worklessness, and the downfall of many worksteads, gave workhirers the opening to drive down pay. Some workhirers tried to undercut worker's rights by bringing in workers from China. The backlash that followed led to all settlings barring the incoming of Asians. This was the grounds upon which the "White New Holland" laws were made, with the setting up of "The Commonwealth of New Holland" in 1901, forbidding folks of black and yellowish, skin hues from living in New Holland.
The kind of New Holland they wished to live in stirred workers into a struugle for a fairer deal in the 1890s. They looked to a new kind of deal for workers with the sharing of the Land's wealth evenly. Asians were to be feared, and kept out of New Holland, as their willingness to work long hours for little pay, and to be taken on as strikebreakers, it was believed, would threaten the wellbeing of other workers. While some workers pressed on in seeking to build a working-man's heaven in New Holland; others such as William Lane, believing that this kind of folkset could no longer be set up in New Holland, along with a band of followers, sailed to Paraguay, and there in the wilderness, went about trying to build a "Newer Holland". Furthermore, Workers Guilds banded together to set up their own mootish bodies: many the forerunners of the New Hollandish Work Moot (Austalian Labour Party). In the midst of wanthriven, struggle and ill-will, it is a wonder that the sundry rikelings could forge a new folkdom so well as they did but, after much long and often bitter mooting, the Commonwealth of Australia was born on January 1, 1901.
For The Tale Of Australia after 1901: go to the leaf Commonwealth of Australia