A loanword is a word taken into a tung from another with little or no oversetting. By contrast, a loan oversetting is a kin process whereby it is the meaning that is borrowed rather than the word itself. The word "loanword" is itself a loan oversetting of the Teutonlandish Lehnwort.
Although loanwords are most far less widespread than the homeborn words of most tungs (mixtungs being an obvious exception), they are often widely known and used, for their borrowing served a certain purpose, for example to give a name to a new invention.
Borrowing and BequeathingEdit
As tungs grow, most times the bulk of the wordstock of a speech is bequeathed from its fore-eld speech, or ur-speech. Words that are bequeathed from the fore-eld speech, the "homeborn" words of the tung, are not thought to have been borrowed. Borrowing is when words are added to a speech from any speech other than the fore-eld tung or, on the other hand, when words from one tung are taken into another speech (as when oversetting).
Old English Loanword ListEdit
Old English was overwhelming Teutonish, unlike New English which is roughly two-thirds not Teutonish. The following is a list of some outland borrowings into Old English. Many of these words were to do with Christendom. Many of these words have either fallen out of use, or been taken over by another outland borrowing (such as "cabbage"). In some cases, the word was borrowed again at a later date and shoved out the earlier borrowing, for instance "Siccor"/"Secure" and "Cempa"/"Champion" to name but two. Some of these words were borrowed into the Elder Teutonish Tung before it split into the New Teutonish tungs such as English, Teutonlandish, Dutch and so forth. This means that some of these words have kinwords in the other Teutonish Tungs even though they are of outlandish wellspring.
Ambeht "Replaced by 'Servant' in 1225" (Ambeht comes from the same root as 'ambassador') Ambeht was also a Fore-migration borrowing
Anchor "Fore-migration borrowing"
Belt "Fore-migration borrowing"
Both may be from OE bá þá 1016-1150
Brock "Replaced by 'Badger' 1523"
Butter "Fore-migration borrowing"
Caelic "'Chalice' borrowed in 12th Century"
Call before 1016
Camp "Fore-migration borrowing"
Campa "Replaced by 'Warrior' 1297"
Can (n) "Fore-migration borrowing"
Capellane "'Chaplain' borrowed in 1340"
Carcer (as in "Incarceration") "Replaced by 'Prison' 1123"
Caul/Cawel/Cole/Kale "'cabbage' borrowed in 1440" ("coleslaw")
Cemes "Reborrowed as 'Chemise' around 1200"
Cempa "'champion' borrowed in 1225"
Chancellor (but without the "h"; h form came in Middle English)
Cheap "Fore-migration borrowing"
Chest "Fore-migration borrowing"
Corona "'Crown' borrowed in 1111"
Culp (as in "culpability") "'fault' borrowed in 1280"
Culver "'Pigeon' borrowed in 1211"
Dish ('Disk' borrowed in 1664 from the same root)
Drake "'Dragon' borrowed in 1220"
Ele "'Oil' borrowed in 1175"
Engel "'Angel' borrowed in 14th century"
Fenester "'window' borrowed in 1225"
Fers "'Verse' borrowed around 1050"
Fiddle "'violin' borrowed in 1579"
Gigant (as in "gigantic")
Hemp "Fore-migration borrowing"
Insigel "'Seal' borrowed in 1230"
Iron "Fore-migration borrowing"
Linen "Fore-migration borrowing"
Mill "Fore-migration borrowing"
Monk "Fore-migration borrowing"
Overproud "'haughty' borrowed in 1530"
Pan "Fore-migration borrowing"
Pea (hen, fowl, cock)
Pepper "Fore-migration borrowing"
Pine (v) "'Pain' borrowed from same root 1297"
Pit "Fore-migration borrowing"
Plum "Fore-migration borrowing"
Pound "Fore-migration borrowing"
Predician "'Preach' borrowed in 12th Hundredyear"
Sack "Fore-migration borrowing"
Sealtian (As in "Saltation".) "Replaced by 'Dance' 1300"
Shrive "Fore-migration borrowing"
Sicor/Sicker "'Secure' borrowed in 1553"
Stop ('Stuff' borrowed in 1330 from the same root)
Street "Fore-migration borrowing"
Strop "'Strap' borrowed in 1620"
Tile "Fore-migration borrowing"
Toll "Fore-migration borrowing"
Town "Fore-migration borrowing"
War "From late Old English (c.1050), wyrre, werre, from Old North French werre "war" (Fr. guerre), from Frankish *werra, from Proto-Germanic *werso (Compare with Old Saxon werran, Old high German werran, German verwirren "to confuse, perplex"). Cognates suggest the original sense was "to bring into confusion."
Westen "'Waste' borrowed in 1200"
Wine "Fore-migration borrowing"
Ynce "'Ounce' borrowed in 1330" ('Ynce' also later became 'Inch')