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Loanword

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A loanword is a word taken into a tung from another with little or no oversetting. By contrast, a loan oversetting is a kin process whereby it is the meaning that is borrowed rather than the word itself. The word "loanword" is itself a loan oversetting of the Teutonlandish Lehnwort.

Although loanwords are most far less widespread than the homeborn words of most tungs (mixtungs being an obvious exception), they are often widely known and used, for their borrowing served a certain purpose, for example to give a name to a new invention.

Borrowing and BequeathingEdit

As tungs grow, most times the bulk of the wordstock of a speech is bequeathed from its fore-eld speech, or ur-speech. Words that are bequeathed from the fore-eld speech, the "homeborn" words of the tung, are not thought to have been borrowed. Borrowing is when words are added to a speech from any speech other than the fore-eld tung or, on the other hand, when words from one tung are taken into another speech (as when oversetting).

Old English Loanword ListEdit

Old English was overwhelming Teutonish, unlike New English which is roughly two-thirds not Teutonish. The following is a list of some outland borrowings into Old English. Many of these words were to do with Christendom. Many of these words have either fallen out of use, or been taken over by another outland borrowing (such as "cabbage"). In some cases, the word was borrowed again at a later date and shoved out the earlier borrowing, for instance "Siccor"/"Secure" and "Cempa"/"Champion" to name but two. Some of these words were borrowed into the Elder Teutonish Tung before it split into the New Teutonish tungs such as English, Teutonlandish, Dutch and so forth. This means that some of these words have kinwords in the other Teutonish Tungs even though they are of outlandish wellspring.

Abbot
Altar
Ambeht "Replaced by 'Servant' in 1225" (Ambeht comes from the same root as 'ambassador') Ambeht was also a Fore-migration borrowing
Anchor "Fore-migration borrowing"
Apostle
Ass
Bacon
Bat
Belt "Fore-migration borrowing"
Bin
Box
Brock "Replaced by 'Badger' 1523"
Butter "Fore-migration borrowing"
Caelic "'Chalice' borrowed in 12th Century"
Calend "month"
Camp "Fore-migration borrowing"
Campa "Replaced by 'Warrior' 1297"
Can (n) "Fore-migration borrowing"
Candle
Cap
Capellane "'Chaplain' borrowed in 1340"
Capon
Carcer (as in "Incarceration") "Replaced by 'Prison' 1123"
Cat
Catacomb
Caul/Cawel/Cole/Kale "'cabbage' borrowed in 1440" ("coleslaw")
Ceaster "Castle"
Cemes "Reborrowed as 'Chemise' around 1200"
Cempa "'champion' borrowed in 1225"
Chalk
Chancellor (but without the "h"; h form came in Middle English)
Cheap "Fore-migration borrowing"
Cheese
Chest "Fore-migration borrowing"
Church
Clerk
Cloister
Comet
Cook
Copper
Corona "'Crown' borrowed in 1111"
Creed
Crisp
Cross
Culp (as in "culpability") "'fault' borrowed in 1280"
Culver "'Pigeon' borrowed in 1211"
Cup
Cymbal
Devil
Disciple
Dish ('Disk' borrowed in 1664 from the same root)
Down
Drake "'Dragon' borrowed in 1220"
Dun
Ele "'Oil' borrowed in 1175"
Engel "'Angel' borrowed in 14th century"
Epistle
False
Fenester "'window' borrowed in 1225"
Fers "'Verse' borrowed around 1050"
Fever
Fiddle "'violin' borrowed in 1579"
Flail
Flank
Fork
Gem
Gigant (as in "gigantic")
Harp
Hemp "Fore-migration borrowing"
Imp
Inch
Insigel "'Seal' borrowed in 1230"
Iron "Fore-migration borrowing"
Kettle
Kirtle
Kitchen
Lily
Line
Linen "Fore-migration borrowing"
Mantle
Martyr
Mass
Master
Mile
Mill "Fore-migration borrowing"
Minster
Mint (money)
Monk "Fore-migration borrowing"
Molt
Mule
Noon
Nun
Offer (n)
Organ
Overproud "'haughty' borrowed in 1530"
Oxymel
Palm (tree)
Pan "Fore-migration borrowing"
Paralysis
Parsley
Passion
Patriarch
Pea (hen, fowl, cock)
Pea
Peel
Pense
Pepper "Fore-migration borrowing"
Phoenix
Pillow
Pin
Pine (v) "'Pain' borrowed from same root 1297"
Pipe
Pit "Fore-migration borrowing"
Place
Plant
Plaster
Pluck
Plum "Fore-migration borrowing"
Pole
Pot
Pound "Fore-migration borrowing"
Predician "'Preach' borrowed in 12th Hundredyear"
Pride
Privilege
Proud
Punt (boat)
Purse
Rich
Rock
Rose
Sack "Fore-migration borrowing"
Scot
School
Scuttle (n)
Sealtian (As in "Saltation".) "Replaced by 'Dance' 1300"
Serve
Shambles
Shrive "Fore-migration borrowing"
Sickle
Sicor/Sicker "'Secure' borrowed in 1553"
Sock
Spend
Sponge
Stop ('Stuff' borrowed in 1330 from the same root)
Street "Fore-migration borrowing"
Strop "'Strap' borrowed in 1620"
Table
Tan
Temper
Tile "Fore-migration borrowing"
Title
Toll "Fore-migration borrowing"
Tower
Town "Fore-migration borrowing"
Turn
Verse
Wall
War
Westen "'Waste' borrowed in 1200"
Wine "Fore-migration borrowing"
Ynce "'Ounce' borrowed in 1330" ('Ynce' also later became 'Inch')

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