The greater share of Icelandish speakers live in Iceland. There are about 8,165 speakers of Icelandish living in Denmark, of whom roughly 3,000 are learners. The tung is also spoken by about 5,122 folks in the Banded Folkdoms of Americksland and by 1,385 in Canada (mostly in the town of Gimli, Manitoba). The leedward-fed Árni Magnússon Body for Icelandishlore works as a nave for keeping olden Icelandish handwrits and learning the tung and its written works. Since 1995, on Bloodmonth 16 each year, the birthday of 19th hundredyear leethwriter Jónas Hallgrímsson is bemarked as Icelandish Tung Day.
The oldest kept writs in Icelandish were written around 1100 AD. Much of the writs are based on leethcraft and laws kept by word of mouth. The most bereemed of the writings, which were written from the 12th hundredyear onward, are the Icelandish Sagas, which are a gathering of the writings of yorer Snorri Sturluson and the Eddish Leeths. The Sagas are written in Old Icelandish, also called Old Nordish, which oncame to Iceland from the Nordish settlers from North Europe. The Danish oversee of Iceland from 1380 to 1918 weighed but little on the unfolding of Icelandish, for the tung was still spoken daily by Icelanders during this timespan. Icelandish has shifted little since the 13th hundredyear, with shifts happening mainly in overall breathening. Nowa speakers can understand the first sagas and leeths (albeit with slight ednewing and footlogs), and while the skill is often oversaid, some speakers can indeed read the olden writings.
Early Icelandish wordstock was mainly brought from Old Norsish. The inleading of Christendom to Iceland in the 11th hundredyear, trade and knightship all brought on the need to bewrite new thinking, leading to borrowing from other Teutonish tungs and French. In the late 18th hundredyear, tung cleanliness began to get ground in Iceland, and since the early 19th hundredyear, it has seen wide backing from the Icelandish leedward and folk. Tung cleanliness in Iceland has let Icelandish wordstock blive mainly Germanish.
Tung cleanliness Edit
During the 18th hundredyear, a scrithing was begun by writers and other learned folk to rid the tung of walsh words as much as could be done and to make a new Icelandish wordstock and shape the mothertung to fit the unfolding of new thinkings, instead of borrowing new words as happened with many other tungs. Many words that were no longer used were given new meanings in today's speech, and new words were made from Old Norsish roots. Work is still being done to cleanse the tung further and to keep Icelandish timely.
Writing framework Edit
The Icelandish staffhoard is well known for keeping two old staves no longer found in the Anglish or New English staffhoards: Þ, þ "thorn" and Ð, ð "eth", of which the first stands for the rearded and the other the unrearded "th" galdor, as in Anglish "thin" and "this". The full Icelandish staffhoard is as follows:
In Icelandish, swayinglies with tittles (á, é, í, ó, ú, ýand ö) are freestanding staves, and not thought of as being the same as the swayinglies they come from. The staff «é» was put into the staffhoard in 1929 to stand in stead of «je», and the staff «z» was taken out in 1973.
Kinwords with Anglish Edit
Icelandic and Anglish are both Theedish tungs, so many kinwords can be found between them; each having akin meanings and the same root. The words that arise from the shared root have shifted spelling and sayingwise in each tung, as is shown the byspells given below:
|Anglish word||Icelandic word|
|Tungs||Kin of tungs|
|Teutonish tungs||North Teutonish tungs: Faroeish tung - Icelandish tung (High Icelandic)- Old nordish tung -Old Gutnish tung - South Jutish|
West Teutonish tungs: Old Saxish tung - Middle Low Teutonlandish - Old High Teutonlandish
East Teutonish tungs: Gothish tung - Vandalish - Burgundish
Anglo-Frish tungs: English (Old english tung and Old English tongue - English tung - Anglish tung - Lowland Scots Tongue - Yola - Old Frish tung
|Celtish tungs||Welsh tongue - Breton tung - Gaulish tung|
|Romanish tungs||Latin (Folklatin) - Italish tung - French tung (Old Low Frankish)- Spanish tung - Portugish tung - Mirandish tongue|
|Indo-Persish tungs||Indish tungs: Bengalish tung - Hindi - Urdu - Roma Tung - Punjabish tongue
|Other||Chinish tung - Japanish tung - Arabish tung|