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Staff V of the English Wordbook.

Basic abbreviations:

  • OE = Old English
  • ME = Middle English
  • PG = Or-theedish
  • SW = Swedish
  • Dan. = Danish
  • ON = Old Norse
  • NHG = New Hightheech
  • IC = Icelandish
  • H.IC = High Icelandish
  • Du. = Netherlandish
  • Fris. = Freesish

For a full list of etymological and other abbreviations used in these wordlists, see: Offshortenings.


A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


Chancery English Class Anglish/English
Attested Unattested
vacancy n black hole, emptiness;
bareness,
-
vacant adj bare; fallow, off; deadpan,
numb; forgotten, forsaken
toom (<OE tóm)
vacate vb empty -
vacation n break, holiday, leave -
vaccine n booster, jab -
vacuity n black hole, emptiness; bareness -
vacuum n tow 1. toom (<OE tōm 'empty');

2. dustsucker

vaettir n wight -
vagrancy n - eardless wandering,
vagrant n drifter, floater, wanderer eardless wanderer
vague adj fuzzy; dim; shadowy; hazy unsuttle (<ME sutel <OE sweotol clear)
vagina n

cunt (vulgar),
pussy (slang; also vulgar),
womanhood (also slang)

sheath (translation of the Latin,
<OE scæþ, cf. Du. Schede,
NHG. Scheide),

maytril

vain adj

1. cocky, high-and-mighty, snotty;
2. worthless, idle,
3. empty, shallow,
worthless, hollow

-
vain, in phr for nothing, worthlessly, in wanhope -
valediction n goodbye, farewell, leave-taking -
valerian n all-heal -
valet n theen, steward -
valiant adj bold, doughty, fearless, stalworth -
valid adj sound, well-grounded -
valkyrie n - walcury
valley n dale
deep, of a stream: dene
wide, grassy: slade
narrow, steep: clove
comb, deneland, earthdene,
valour n ellen -
value n worth merit: meed,
value vb worthen -
vampire n bloodsucker, shark, wolf dreigh (<OE dréag)
bloodfiend, bloodnicker
vanguard n - andward (calque)
vanir n - wanes (calque of the ON)
vanish vb fade, wither, melt, sink fordwine, quink, swinden/ swind (<OE swinden; cf. NHG schwinden, Du. zwinden, Dan. svinde, LG swinnen, & others)
vanity n pride, idleness idle, renk
vanquish vb - besye (cf. NHG besiegen)
vapour n -

athom (<OE ǽðm),
damp (original meaning of damp),
breath, watersmoke

variant n offshoot sundering
variation n - frothering
offwrixling (cf. Fr. ôfwikseling)
variegated adj rainbow; dotted manyhued
variety n kind -
various adj many, manifold, sundry, rainbow mistly (<OE mistlic)

forshed (cf. NHG verschieden)

vas deferens n - seedladder (calque)
vassal n feeman, knave neat, younger, maythegn
vast adj wide, great, endless -
vault of heaven n -

rother (<OE rodor),
heavenwhalf (<OE hofonhwealf)
pl: heavenwhalve
(<OE heheofonhwealfa)

n - Weoh (<ME weoh 'sacred, holy'), Way
veal n calf calf-flesh
vector n wayload -
veer vb swerve, trundle -
veil n wimple rift, helster
vegan n - greentheater, wortaloneater
vegetable n green, greens foodwort, greenth (Du. groente)
vegetarian n - greens-eater, fleshlesseater
vehicle n wain, craft farewain, farecraft
vein n - edder (<OE ǣdre, cf. NHG Ader)

leat, bloodburrow

velcro n - graspcloth, fangcloth
velociraptor  n - quickreacker, dashsnatcher, quickfanger
velvet n/adj - furrel (fur + dim. -el)
vendor n seller, dealer -
venesection n bloodletting -
venison n - hartflesh, roeflesh (cf. NHG Rehfleisch)
venom n/vb - atter
vent n hole -
venturesome adj daring, free-swinging thriste (<OE)
venue n - showstow (cf. NHG Schauplatz)
veracious adj true luter (<OE hlutor)
verb n - deedword, workword (cf. Du. werkwoord), tideword(cf. Fris.)
verbal adj wordy; spoken, unwritten,
word-of-mouth
-
verbatim adj word-for-word, word for word as was said, wordly (NHG. wörtlich)
verbose adj long-winded -
verbosity n wordiness -
verdant n green, lush -
verge n brink, edge, threshold -
verify vb find out, look at/into -
verily adv truly, soothly, indeed, forsooth, iwis -
verity n

truth. (see
Truth and sooth, verity and reality)

-
vernacular n unbookish, everyday speech mean speech

Umgangspeech
(cf. NHG umgangssprache)

(see umgang)

vernal adj spring -
verse n - yedding (<OE geddung)

stave, staff

leethcraft (OE)

version n reading, betokening

offshoot

fading (<OE fadung), leaf,
wend, reckoning, aspelling

versus prep against -
vertebra n - warvel (<OE hweorf, cf. Du. wervel, NHG wirfel)
vertical adj standing, upright weft
vertically adv heightwise, upward(s),
up and down
-
vertigo n - highweariness
veruca n wart -
vervain n - ash-throat (<OE æscðrote)
very adj/adv

1. sore, sorely; way, highly;
fairly; greatly, mighty, through-,
ful-, for-, so;

2. much, truly, soothly, forsooth,
indeed, rather, rattling,
mickle, dead, fele, fell;

3. same, selfsame;

4. sheer; utter;

5. true, truly, full;

6. true;

7. rightful, lawful

very much:
most (att'd <OE mǽst), well

swithe (<OE swíðe)

very fair: forfair (<OE forfæger)

very good: eregood (<OE ǽrgód),
fulgood (<OE fulgód)

very guilty: throughshildy
(<OE þurhscyldig)

very many: fele (<OE fela),
foremany (<OE foremanig),
formany (<OE formanig),
full many

very much: forswithe (<OE forswíðe),
fortharl (<OE forþearle),
fulswithe (<OE fulswíðe),
stithe (<OE stíðe),
tharl (<OE þearle),
yarrow (<OE gearwe)

very old: orold (<OE oreald)

very wealthy: throughspeedy (<OE þurhspédig)

vesica n bladder -
vespertilines n bat rere-mouse, rye-mouse, flitter-mouse
vessel n vat, ship -
vest n British: undershirt
American: waistcoat
-
vestibule n -

cavortown (<OE cafortūn),
foreburrow (<OE foreburh),
foredure (<OE foreduru),
coavertown (<OE cāfortūn),
inburrow (<OE inburh),
wiketown (<OE wīctūn)

entrance to: infarreld (<OE infæreld),
ingang (<OE)

def. 2: foredyrre (<OE),
forthtie (<OE forþtīge)

def. 3: foredere (<OE foredere),
forestie (<OE forestige)

vex vb nettle

teen (<OE teonian), grill (<OE grillan),
dreve (<OE drefan), begrame,
dreck (<OE dreccan)

vexation n feaze

dreevedness (<OE drefednes),
grame (<ME<OE gramian)

via conj by -
vibrate vb shiver, shudder, quiver, shake -
vicar n - speller, spelland (<OE speliend)
vicarious adj - wician, wice
vicepresident n - underforesitter
viceroy n - underking (<OE undercyning)
vicinity n nearness; neighbourhood nighth
vicious adj - baderdy (cf. NHG bösartig)

nithe

vicissitude n ups and downs, seesaw

ebbs and flows, ebb and neap,
wends and wynds, wax and wanes

victim n - tiber (<OE tíber)

armshed

victor n winner sye/sig(wo)man
victory n win

sye/sig

video n

film, short film, short,
show, showing, broadcast

ewing (<OE īwung; meaning showing/revealing)
video CD n - white book
video game n game

ewing game

reckoner game,
stream game

view n outlook, eyeshot, sight, insight -
view vb look, watch, see, gaze, gawk -
viewer n onlooker, witness, watcher -
vigil n wakefulness, wake, watch -
vigilance n heedness, wareness, watchfulness rathing
vigilant adj eye-bright, wakeful, aware,
wary, watchful, wide awake,
wakerife, ware, sharp
-
vigilante n

watchman, warder, ward,
keeper, overseer

folkreve (<OE folcgérefa)

vigilance comittee member selfbeadle, selfsheriff

vigour n liveliness, drive -
vigorous adj hearty, rathe, lusty,
driving, lively, hale, yauld
rathsome (OE hræþ)
vile adj evil, wicked, loathsome -
Vili n - Will
village n hem, thorpe/thorp/dorp, wick,
town, whistle-stop
hemling, ham
villain n black hat nithing (<OE niðing)
vine n - droovebeam (cf. Fr. druvebeam)
viola n - midfiddle
violate vb breach overnim, sorthe, forbreak (<OS farbrekan)
violence n foul play

bloodshed; recklessness

threat, hest, hattleness, nid,
strack, strength, swithness, unreck
violent adj stormy; dreadful; mad; reckless; wrathful

hest (<OE haeste), hattle,
riff, tharl grimful (<OE grimful)

violet adj - tever (<OE teafor), bawse (<OE basu)
violin n fiddle -
violoncello n - knee fiddle
virgin n maiden unswiven
virginity n maidenhood unswivenhood, famenhood
virtually adv almost, nearly, seemingly, all but -
virtue n worth, uprightness; doughtiness, heart

douth (<OE duguþ)

virtuous adj right-minded douthsome (cf. Du. deugdzaam)
virus n - smitter (cf. Sw. smitta), weevil
visage n blee, likeness neb (<OE nebb)
viscosity n stickiness, clinginess -
viscous adj sticky, clingy, ropy -
viscum n mistletoe, balder's bane -
visible adj - seenly (<ME seheliche); seesome
vision n sight; dream, sweven -
visionary adj farsighted, foresighted -
visit vb call upon, drop in, see fandle (<OFR)

beseek (<OE bísæce,
cf. NHG besuchen)

see home (ex. I saw my father home yesterday.)

visit n - fandle

beseeking (<OE bísæce,
cf. NHG Besuch)

visitor n caller, guest fandler

beseeker

vital adj

flush, lusty, red-blooded; mettlesome,
springy; needed; fell; key

-
vitality n liveliness, beans dodrive
vitamin n - lifematter (cf. Ic. fjörefni)
vocabulary n word-hoard -
vocal adj loud, outspoken -
vociferous adj outspoken, loudmouthed -
vodka n - Russlandish lifewater, firewater
voice n steven, (<OE stefn)
("With dreary heart and
sorrowful steven ..")
one of the few words to
rhyme with 'heaven' steaven
(so the way it is written does
indeed rhyme with heaven)

stevvon

stimm (<OE, cf. NHG Stimme)
pl: stimmen (Cf. NHG Stimmen) 

reard, Sc. reird, raird (<OE reord)

leathor (<OE hlēoðor)

sweyleathor (<OE swēġhlēoðor)
pl: sweyleathru

swey (<OE swēġ),
pl: sweyäs
(<OE swēġas)

of thunder: thunderradestefen
(<OE þunnorrādstefn)
pl: thunderradestefna
(<OE þunnorrādstefna)

of water:
watersteven (<OE wæterstefn)

headwooth (<OE hēafodwōþ)

voiced adj soft, weak, flat -
voiceless adj hard, strong, sharp Stimmless

stevenless (calque)

void n/adj

n: black hole, emptiness

adj: bereft

room (<OR rūm)

toom (<OE tōm)

volcano n - firebarrow, firefell
völkisch adj folkish (att'd; <OE folcisc) -
volleyball n - flightball (calque)
volume n book: wad
acoustics: din, loudness

physics: bulk,
roommeal(cf. Ic. rúmmál),
inhold (cf. Du. inhoud)

voluntary adj willing, freewilling -
volunteer n - freewill worker, freewiller
vomer n - ploughshare bone
vomit vb

spew, puke, throw up,
hurl, retch, upchuck

-
vomit n spew, puke, sick, throw-up, hurl -
vote n/vb poll, show of hands, choosing
vb: choose
steven
vow n/vb oath, behest, pledge, troth, word behest, behight
vowel n - clipple (<OE clipol), clipend
voyage n/vb sail farfareld
vulgar adj low, filthy, ill-bred, churlish churly (<OE ceorllic)
vulnerable adj helpless, powerless, strengthless, mightless
vulpine adj foxlike -
vulture n - geir (calque), ulter