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English Wordbook/S

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Staff S of the English Wordbook.

Basic abbreviations:

  • OE=Old English
  • NHG=New High German
  • Du.=Dutch

For a full list of etymological and other abbreviations used in these wordlists, see: Offshortenings.


A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


Chancery English Class Anglish/English
Attested Unattested
sabotage vb cripple, undermine -
saboteur n - crippler
sacred adj holy, hallowed -
Sacrament n holy oath, holy undertaking, hallowing forhallowing, holy-work (<OE haligweorc)
sacrifice vb/n give, give up,  bloot (<OE blotan)
sacrilege n unholiness -
sacrilegious adj unholy, sinful -
sacrosanct adj holy, hallowed -
sadism n fiendishness, heartlessness meanlove, meanlust
sadistic adj heartless overtuly
safe n strongbox -
safe adj sound, fast; white; trusty, good -
safety n shelterness, wholeness, soundness munding, berg, frith, sickerhood (cf. G sicherheit)
safety instructions n - sickerhoodinwiten (cf. G sicherheitshinweise)
safe space n haven, hugbox frithyard (<OE friþġeard)
sagacious adj

insightful, wise, witty

rede hedging (<OE rǽdhycgende)
hyesnotter (<OE hygesnottor)
redesnotter (<OE rǽdsnotor)
searthinkle (<OE searuþancol)
shedwise (<OE scéadwís)
smighful (<OE sméah)
wisefast (<OE wísfæst)
yarewittle (<OE gearuwitol)

Saint (St.) n Holy -
saint n - holyman, hallow
salmon n - lax (<OE leax, cf. NHG Lachs, Yid. לאַקס (laks), ON, Ic. Sw. lax, Dn. Nw. laks)
salamander n - landwater athex, land-newt, land-eft
salary n earnings, income, salt toll
salutary n friendly, good, helpful, kindly; good, healthy, wholesome -
salutation n greeting, welcome, hail -
saltire n Andrew's Cross
salvation n lifeline

redding (<OE hreddung) halwendness (<OE hālwendnes)

salvo n unload, outburst -
samurai n - dawnlandish knight
sanctify vb hallow -
sanctuary n haven, grith, holyroom, hallow, holystead, frithhouse, frithstow -
Santa Claus n Father Christmas -
sapient n aware -
sasquatch n Bigfoot -
Satanism n - Satandom
satchel n knapsack, rucksack -
satellite n moon

artificial: ironmoon, swail searsender,

ymworldloftvat ("around-world-air-vessel" att'd on the Old English Wikipedia as ymbeworuldlyftfæt) / * NB: 'ump-' as in 'umpteen' = around an amount

satiate vb fulfill, quench, slake -
satire(ist) n heaning, heancraft(er), heanwriting(er) -
satisfaction n gladness

quemeness (<OE cwemness), eadiness
befrithening (cf. NHG Befriedigung)

itheness (<OE  īeðnes)

satisfy vb gladden, slake, fulfill, sate, quench

queme, afill, befrith, sede (<OE ġesēdan)

saturate vb sop, soak, steep indrench (<OE indrencan)
Saturday n - Lyeday (< OE læg, leag "lye" (cognates: M.Du. loghe, Du. loog, OHG louga). The substance was formerly used in place of soap, hence OHG luhhen "to wash," ON laug "bath". ON laugardagr, Dan. lørdag, Swed. lördag "Saturday," literally "bath day".)
sauce n dip -
sauerkraut n - sourcole, sourkale
sauna n steam room hot-house, hotroom, sweatbath
sausage n pudding, banger swineflesh, meary (<OE mearh)
savage adj/n wild; wilder wildard
save vb keep, store, spare,  nere (<OE nerian, akin to NHG nähren)
redd (<OE hreddan 'to free from recover rescue save take away')
berg/barrow (<OE beorgan 'to save, preserve', Goth bairgan, OHG bergan, ON bjarga)
hain, stow, hoard, heal
saviour n - healand (cf. NHG Heiland, from OHG Heliand 'the healing one')
halend, healer, healant (<OE hælend, in light of MnE 'coolant')

ner(i)gend (<OE, 'the Savior', cf. nerian)

savory adj - hearthaft (cf. NHG herzhaft)
defty (cf. NHG deftig)
scale vb climb -
scalpel n - leechsax

scapegoat

n - fenman (from Old Dutch thews of offering a man-bloot by either throwing the chosen into a fen, lynching them or throwing them into streams to undo the anger of the gods.)
scar n blight, blotch, flaw, pockmark, wale, weal, wheal, wen, welt
scarabaeus stercoreous n - turd-weevil
scarce adj light, sparing; lacking, low, shy, wanting -
scarcely adv barely, hardly, narrowly, slightly -
scarcity n lack, shortness, seldomness, fewness, dearth -
scarlet adj - wormred (<OE wyrmread)
scatophilia n - dritelust
scatter vb broadcast, cast, deal out, go-off, go through, let go, oversow, overspread, put to flight, spread, strew -
scene n background, setting; blowup, fireworks; footing -
schizoid adj - splitlike (calque of Gk. schizein "split, break, shatter" and -oeides "like")
schizophrenia n - splitmindness, shattermindness (calques of Gk. schizein "split, break, shatter" and phrēn "mind, understaing")
kithshatter, kithcleave (cf. Ic. geðclofi)
scholar n learner fieldknower, learnand
scholarship n knowledge, learning bookhood, loreship
science n lore, wisdom witship (cf. Du. wetenschap, NHG wissenschaft )
scientist n -

witshipper (cf. Du. wetenschapper, NHG wissenschaftler)

loreman

scientific adj - worldkenly, witshiply, lorely
scientific language n - craftspeech (<OE cræftspræc)
scintillate vb sparkle, flash, shine, leam -
scissors n - shears (Scots cf. NHG. Scheren)
-scope sfx - -seer
scorpion n - stingtail, night-sting
scout n pathfinder foretrekker (< Afr. voortrekker, 'pioneer')
scowling adj - black-browed
screen n - shirm (<PG skirmiz, compare Du. scherm NHG. Schirm)
scrotum n ballsack* cod (<OE codd)

ballbag (Scots bawbag, OE. beall and ON. baggi)

*sack (Latin saccus)

scrutinize vb overlook -
sea monster n merfiend fifel (<OE)
search vb seek, rake, comb, delve, hunt nease (<OE neosan, to search out, find out by enquiry)
speer (<OE spyrian)
search word n - seekword
season n time, tide sele (<ME), yeartime, yeartide (by analogy from German Jahrzeit)
seat of joy n - gleestool (<OE glīwstōl)
sebum n tallow -
secede vb leave, withdraw, cleave, sunder, split off offsplit
secession n withdrawal, breakaway, parting, breakup, cleaving, sundering, splitting off offsplitting
secessionist n - offsplitter
second n - nutlog; eyeblink (cf. NHG "augenblick"); timebit; time-mote.
second adj -

next, other,twithe(twi- + th as in four-th)

secret adj/n

adj: dern, hidden, withdrawn, unseen, inward, stealthy, untold, unbeheld, underground, underhanded, hushhush, inly n: dern

n: hiddle
hushthought, hushword
roun(d) (< OE run, 'mystery, secret, rune'), hime (cf. NHG "geheim", Du. "geheim", Swed. "hemmelighet", Dan. "hemmelig")
secret society n - himebind (cf. NHG "geheimbund") stealthfay (cf. Ic. "seynifélagið"), hidden guild
secretary n - inwriter
secrete vb seep, leak, ooze -
sect n block, body afterfollowing (<OE æfterfylgung)
secular adj worldly, of this world, earthly -
secular n worldhood -
secularise/-ize vb - formean, forworlden (cf NHG verweltlichen)
secure adj belayed, fast, steadfast -
secure vb bulwark, shield, ward; ice; fix, more, set mund, fasten
sediment n dregs, silt, draff, dross -
seduce vb fortee, lead on span (<OE spanan), adwell
segregation n -keeping/holding/setting apart beshedding, asunderhood, aparthood, apartness
seize vb hold, hend, clutch, take

fang (<OE fangen)

reack (<OE geræcan)

seizure n fit -
select vb choose, pick, wale core (<OE coren 'elected')
self-effacement n self-naughting
self-esteem n self-worth -
self-restraint n - forhaveness (<OE forhæfnes) pl: forhavenessa (<OE forhæfnessa)
semester n sixmonth, half-year -
seminar n workshop -
sempiternity n - endlessness, unendinghood, alwayness, everlastingness
semi- pref half-, sam-/sand-/some- (<OE sam-) -
semicircle n - halfring, samring
semisphere n - halfball, samball
senate n - eldermoot [elder: <L. senex + moot (council)]
senator n - folkwite (<OE folcwita), elder
senile adj doddery, doddering, elderly, old, doted -
senior citizens n elderly, old folks, eldfolk, eldman -
sensate adj feeling -
sensation n 1. feeling 2. upthrill
sensational adj amazing wuldersome
sense n 1.feeling 2. meaning seave (<OE sefa)
sense vb feel -
sensible vb - feelbere (calque), begetful
sensitive adj feeling, keen, sharp -
sentence n wordset; byword, saw -
sentence vb doom -
sententious adj pithy -
sentience n awareness awaredom (obsolete OED word)
sentient life n wight, being -
sentiment n feeling, thought -
separate vb sunder, split, break, cleave, fork shide (<ME sheden: cf. NHG/Du. scheiden)
separate adj sundry, freestanding, sundered
cleave, cloven
-
separation n splitting betwixgang (OE), asunderhood
September n - Holymonth (which was noted in OE), Sheddingmonth, Harvestmonth
Septuagesima n - Berueingtide (<OE berwosungtid)
sequence n aftermath, backwash, child, outcome, outgrowth, upshot; string; setup gatherbinding
sequential adj back-to-back, straight, through fayed, gatherbinding
series n line, stream -
serious adj earnest, unfunny, heavy, weighty -
seriously adv earnestly, thoroughly, wholeheartedly, with heart & soul, willingly, agoodly, weightily -
serpent n snake wirm (<OE wyrm)
nadder (<OE nædre, cf. ON naðra, OHG natra)
slang (Cf. NHG Schlange, Du. slang, Dan. slange)
servant n

housekeeper, maid (fm.), dey (fm.), bondsman, loaf-eater, knight, shalk, boy

thane (<OE þegn)

ambight (<OE ambiht)
serve vb help, dish, hye

bethane

theen (<NHG, Du. Dienen)

(OE>geambihtan; onþéowian)

service n -

bethanehood

betheening (<NHG bedienung)

session n sitting, stint -
several adj sundry -
severe adj stern, hard, harsh, tough, thorough -
severely adv hardly, roughly, sternly, stiffly; -
sewer n drain, sieve -
sex n folkhalf, lovemaking cun (<OE cyn, cf. Dan. køn, Norw. kjønn, Swed. kön, Ic./Far. kyn)
sex act n - heamedlock (<OE hæmedlac)
swive
fleshly knowledge, bysleep (cf. NHG Beischlaf, DU bijslaap)
sexual reproduction n breeding swiveful matchyielding, swiveful matchbearing
sexy adj hot -
shantytown n tinstow, hutstead, slum -
shark n haye highcarl (cf. O.N. hákarl), dreadfish, sea dog
shingles n tetter -
show mercy vb - orefast/arfast (<OE ārfæstan)
shrapnel n - blastfall, blastrain, blastbits
shrine n - halidom (<OE haligdom, cf. NHG Heiligtum)
siege vb beleaguer, (um)beset -
sign n token, shingle -
sign vb - sicker, underwrite
signal n bale-fire -
silence n forsuwung (<OE forsuwung) roo (<ME ro <OE rō, cf. NHG Ruhe )
Sirius n Dog Star, Brightest Star -
smuggler n - owler
socialism n - fellowship, fellowdom
socialist adj - fellowshiply, fellowdomish
sociëty n - gesideship (<OE gesíðscipe, cf. NHG Gesellschaft) yroomship, yfellowship
solar adj sun-like, sunly -
solstice n sunstead -
sorcery n witchcraf dreecraft, drycraft -
sound n din, clang loud, lide (<OE hlýd, cf. NHG. Laut, Du. luid, Dan. lyd, Swed. ljud, Icel. hljóð)
statue n - standbilth (cf. Ger. Standbild; Du. Standbeeld)
stingray n - righ (<OE reohhe cf. NHG Rochen, Du. Rog), stingrigh
street n road, roadway wainway, wagonway (to be brooked inborough to tell between the walking path (walkway) and the faring path)
survive vb outlive (current in some senses) overlive (cf. NHG. überleben Du. overleven Dan. overleve Norw. overleve Swed. överleva)
sustain vb underhold, uphold, stay
swastika n fylfot, gleerune (as a religious symbol) hookedrood (cf. NHG Hakenkreuz)
syllable n - staveset
synonym n - likeword

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