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English Wordbook/S

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Staff S of the English Wordbook.

Basic abbreviations:

  • OE=Old English
  • NHG=New High German
  • Du.=Dutch

For a full list of etymological and other abbreviations used in these wordlists, see: Offshortenings.


A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


Chancery English Class Anglish/English
Attested Unattested
sabotage vb cripple, undermine -
saboteur n - crippler
sacred adj holy, hallowed -
Sacrament n holy oath, holy undertaking, hallowing forhallowing, holy-work (<OE haligweorc)
sacrifice vb/n give, give up,  bloot (<OE blotan)
sacrilege n unholiness holishending (cf. Du heiligshennis) (to shend, to defile)
sacrilegious adj unholy, sinful -
sacrosanct adj holy, hallowed -
sadism n fiendishness, heartlessness meanlove, meanlust
sadistic adj heartless, coldhearted overtuly
safe n strongbox -
safe adj sound, fast; white; trusty, good -
safety n shelterness, wholeness, soundness, frith (archaic) munding, berg, frith, sickerhood (cf. G sicherheit)
safety instructions n - sickerhoodinwiten (cf. G sicherheitshinweise)
safe space n haven, hugbox frithyard (<OE friþġeard)
sagacious adj

insightful, wise, witty

rede hedging (<OE rǽdhycgende)
hyesnotter (<OE hygesnottor)
redesnotter (<OE rǽdsnotor)
searthinkle (<OE searuþancol)
shedwise (<OE scéadwís)
smighful (<OE sméah)
wisefast (<OE wísfæst)
yarewittle (<OE gearuwitol)

Saint (St.) n Holy -
saint n - holyman, hallow
salmon n - lax (<OE leax, cf. NHG Lachs, Yid. לאַקס (laks), ON, Ic. Sw. lax, Dn. Nw. laks)
salamander n - landwater athex, land-newt, land-eft
salary n earnings, income, salt toll
salutary n friendly, good, helpful, kindly; good, healthy, wholesome -
salutation n greeting, welcome, hail -
saltire n Andrew's Cross
salvation n lifeline

redding (<OE hreddung) halwendness (<OE hālwendnes)

salvo n unload, outburst -
samurai n -Easternwye dawnlandish knight
sanctify vb hallow, behallow
sanctuary n haven, grith, holyroom, hallow, holystead, frithhouse, frithstow -
Santa Claus n Father Christmas -
sapient n aware -
sasquatch n Bigfoot -
Satanism n -Heathenish Satandom; Satan-worship
satchel n knapsack, rucksack -
satellite n moon

artificial: ironmoon, swail searsender,

ymworldloftvat ("around-world-air-vessel" att'd on the Old English Wikipedia as ymbeworuldlyftfæt) / * NB: 'ump-' as in 'umpteen' = around an amount

satiate vb fulfill, quench, slake -
satire(ist) n heaning, heancraft(er), heanwriting(er) -
satisfaction n gladness

quemeness (<OE cwemness), eadiness
befrithening (cf. NHG Befriedigung)

itheness (<OE  īeðnes)

satisfy vb gladden, slake, fulfill, sate, quench

queme, afill, befrith, sede (<OE ġesēdan)

saturate vb sop, soak, steep indrench (<OE indrencan)
Saturday n - Lyeday (< OE læg, leag "lye" (cognates: M.Du. loghe, Du. loog, OHG louga). The substance was formerly used in place of soap, hence OHG luhhen "to wash," ON laug "bath". ON laugardagr, Dan. lørdag, Swed. lördag "Saturday," literally "bath day".)
sauce n dip -
sauerkraut n - sourcole, sourkale
sauna n steam room hot-house, hotroom, sweatbath
sausage n pudding, banger swineflesh, meary (<OE mearh)
savage adj/n wild; wilder wildard
save vb keep, store, spare,  nere (<OE nerian, akin to NHG nähren)
redd (<OE hreddan 'to free from recover rescue save take away')
berg/barrow (<OE beorgan 'to save, preserve', Goth bairgan, OHG bergan, ON bjarga)
hain, stow, hoard, heal
saviour n -sparer healand (cf. NHG Heiland, from OHG Heliand 'the healing one')
halend, healer, healant (<OE hælend, in light of MnE 'coolant')

ner(i)gend (<OE, 'the Savior', cf. nerian)

savory adj -smeckfull hearthaft (cf. NHG herzhaft)
defty (cf. NHG deftig)
scale vb climb -
scalpel n - leechsax

scapegoat

n - fenman (from Old Dutch thews of offering a man-bloot by either throwing the chosen into a fen, lynching them or throwing them into streams to undo the anger of the gods.)
scar n blight, blotch, flaw, pockmark, wale, weal, wheal, wen, welt
scarabaeus stercoreous n - turd-weevil
scarce adj light, sparing; lacking, low, shy, wanting -
scarcely adv barely, hardly, narrowly, slightly -
scarcity n lack, shortness, seldomness, fewness, dearth -
scarlet adj -bawysbrown wormred (<OE wyrmread)
scatophilia n - dritelust
scatter vb broadcast, cast, deal out, go-off, go through, let go, oversow, overspread, put to flight, spread, strew -
scene n background, setting; blowup, fireworks; footing -
schizoid adj - splitlike (calque of Gk. schizein "split, break, shatter" and -oeides "like")

cleavemindy; mindcleavish

schizophrenia n - splitmindness, shattermindness (calques of Gk. schizein "split, break, shatter" and phrēn "mind, understaing")
kithshatter, kithcleave (cf. Ic. geðclofi)

wit-cleftness

scholar n learner fieldknower, learnand
scholarship n knowledge, learning bookhood, loreship
science n lore, wisdom witship (cf. Du. wetenschap, NHG wissenschaft )
scientist n -

witshipper (cf. Du. wetenschapper, NHG wissenschaftler)

loreman

scientific adj -craftly worldkenly, witshiply, lorely
scientific language n - craftspeech (<OE cræftspræc)
scintillate vb sparkle, flash, shine, leam -
scissors n - shears (Scots cf. NHG. Scheren)
-scope sfx - -seer
scorpion n - stingtail, night-sting
scout n pathfinder foretrekker (< Afr. voortrekker, 'pioneer')
scowling adj - black-browed
screen n - shirm (<PG skirmiz, compare Du. scherm NHG. Schirm)
scrotum n ballsack* cod (<OE codd)

ballbag (Scots bawbag, OE. beall and ON. baggi)

*sack (Latin saccus)

scrutinize vb overlook -
sea monster n merfiend fifel (<OE)
search vb seek, rake, comb, delve, hunt nease (<OE neosan, to search out, find out by enquiry)
speer (<OE spyrian)
search word n - seekword
season n time, tide sele (<ME), yeartime, yeartide (by analogy from German Jahrzeit)
seat of joy n - gleestool (<OE glīwstōl)
sebum n tallow -
secede vb leave, withdraw, cleave, sunder, split off offsplit
secession n withdrawal, breakaway, parting, breakup, cleaving, sundering, splitting off offsplitting
secessionist n - offsplitter
second n -twoth nutlog; eyeblink (cf. NHG "augenblick"); timebit; time-mote.
second adj twoth

next, other, after (obsolete), twithe(twi- + th as in four-th)

secret adj/n

adj: dern, hidden, withdrawn, unseen, inward, stealthy, untold, unbeheld, underground, underhanded, hushhush, inly n: dern

n: hiddle
hushthought, hushword
roun(d) (< OE run, 'mystery, secret, rune'), hime (cf. NHG "geheim", Du. "geheim", Swed. "hemmelighet", Dan. "hemmelig")
secret society n - himebind (cf. NHG "geheimbund") stealthfay (cf. Ic. "seynifélagið"), hidden guild
secretary n - inwriter
secrete vb seep, leak, ooze -
sect n block, body afterfollowing (<OE æfterfylgung)
secular adj worldly, of this world, earthly -
secular n worldhood -
secularise/-ize vb - formean, forworlden (cf NHG verweltlichen)
secure adj belayed, fast, steadfast -
secure vb bulwark, shield, ward; ice; fix, more, set mund, fasten
sediment n dregs, silt, draff, dross -
seduce vb fortee, lead on span (<OE spanan), adwell
segregation n -keeping/holding/setting apart beshedding, asunderhood, aparthood, apartness
seize vb hold, hend, clutch, take, gripe

fang (<OE fangen)

reack (<OE geræcan)

seizure n fit -
select vb choose, pick, wale core (<OE coren 'elected')
self-effacement n self-naughting
self-esteem n self-worth -
self-restraint n - forhaveness (<OE forhæfnes) pl: forhavenessa (<OE forhæfnessa)
semester n sixmonth, half-year -
seminar n workshop -
sempiternity n - endlessness, unendinghood, alwayness, everlastingness
semi- pref half-, sam-/sand-/some- (<OE sam-) -
semicircle n - halfring, samring
semisphere n - halfball, samball
senate n - eldermoot [elder: <L. senex + moot (council)]
senator n - folkwite (<OE folcwita), elder
senile adj doddery, doddering, elderly, old, doted -
senior citizens n elderly, old folks, eldfolk, eldman, the old -
sensate adj feeling -
sensation n 1. feeling 2. upthrill
sensational adj amazing wuldersome
sense n 1.feeling 2. meaning seave (<OE sefa)
sense vb feel -
sensible vb - feelbere (calque), begetful
sensitive adj feeling, keen, sharp -
sentence n wordset; byword, saw,quide -
sentence vb doom -
sententious adj pithy -
sentience n awareness awaredom (obsolete OED word)
sentient life n wight, being -
sentiment n feeling, thought -
separate vb sunder, split, break, cleave, fork shide (<ME sheden: cf. NHG/Du. scheiden)
separate adj sundry, freestanding, sundered
cleave, cloven
-
separation n splitting, split betwixgang (OE), asunderhood
September n - Holymonth (which was noted in OE), Sheddingmonth, Harvestmonth
Septuagesima n - Berueingtide (<OE berwosungtid)
sequence n aftermath, backwash, child, outcome, outgrowth, upshot; string; setup gatherbinding
sequential adj back-to-back, straight, through fayed, gatherbinding
series n line, stream -
serious adj earnest, unfunny, heavy, weighty -
seriously adv earnestly, thoroughly, wholeheartedly, with heart & soul, willingly, agoodly, weightily -
serpent n snake wirm (<OE wyrm)
nadder (<OE nædre, cf. ON naðra, OHG natra)
slang (Cf. NHG Schlange, Du. slang, Dan. slange)
servant n besteader

housekeeper, maid (fm.), dey (fm.), bondsman, loaf-eater, knight, shalk, boy

thane (<OE þegn)

theener (<OE þēonest cf. NHG Diener)

ambight (<OE ambiht)

serve vb help, dish, hye, bestead

theen (<OE þeġnian cf. NHG/Du. dienen)

bethane

(OE>geambihtan; onþéowian)

service n -besteading

theenst (<OE þēnest, cf. NHG Dienst)

bethanehood

betheening (<NHG bedienung)

session n sitting, stint -
several adj sundry -
severe adj stern, hard, harsh, tough, thorough -
severely adv hardly, roughly, sternly, stiffly; -
sewer n drain, sieve -
sex n folkhalf, lovemaking, hade cun (<OE cyn, cf. Dan. køn, Norw. kjønn, Swed. kön, Ic./Far. kyn)
sex act n - heamedlock (<OE hæmedlac)
swive
fleshly knowledge, bysleep (cf. NHG Beischlaf, DU bijslaap)
sexual reproduction n breeding swiveful matchyielding, swiveful matchbearing
sexy adj hot -
shantytown n tinstow, hutstead, slum -
shark n haye highcarl (cf. O.N. hákarl), dreadfish, sea dog
shingles n tetter -
show mercy vb spare orefast/arfast (<OE ārfæstan)
shrapnel n - blastfall, blastrain, blastbits
shrine n - halidom (<OE haligdom, cf. NHG Heiligtum)
siege vb beleaguer, (um)beset -
sign n token, shingle, mark -
sign vb -onmark sicker, underwrite
signal n bale-fire, beacon -
silence n - forsuwung (<OE forsuwung) roo (<ME ro <OE rō, cf. NHG Ruhe )
simple adj onefold -
Sirius n Dog Star, Brightest Star -
size n greatness grete (<ME <OE grīetu, cf. NHG Größe)
smuggler n - owler
socialism n - fellowship, fellowdom
socialist adj - fellowshiply, fellowdomish
sociëty n - gesideship (<OE gesíðscipe, cf. NHG Gesellschaft) yroomship, yfellowship
solar adj sun-like, sunly -
solstice n sunstead -
sorcery n witchcraft, dwimmer dreecraft, drycraft
sound n reard loud, lide (<OE hlýd, cf. NHG. Laut, Du. luid, Dan. lyd, Swed. ljud, Icel. hljóð)

cling (<OE clynan, NHG Klang)

soup n broth supp (<OE sopa <PG supô, cf. NHG Suppe)
special adj - besunder (cf. NHG besonders)

sundorly (<OE sundorlic, cf. NHG sonderlich)

speciality n - besunderhood (cf. NHG Besonderheit)

ownhood/ship (cf. NHG Eigenheit/schaft)

statue n - standbilth (cf. Ger. Standbild; Du. Standbeeld)
stingray n - righ (<OE reohhe cf. NHG Rochen, Du. Rog), stingrigh
street n road, roadway wainway, wagonway (to be brooked inborough to tell between the walking path (walkway) and the faring path)
sub- pref under- -
suburb n - underborough (<OE underburg)
sugar n - sweetcristle Late Old English (denoting ice or a mineral resembling it), from Old French cristal, from Latin crystallum, from Greek krustallos ‘ice, crystal
supply n yield, stock, spring
supply vb yield, feed, fill
survive vb outlive (current in some senses) overlive (cf. NHG. überleben Du. overleven Dan. overleve Norw. overleve Swed. överleva)
sustain vb underhold, uphold, stay
swastika n fylfot, gleerune (as a religious symbol) hookedrood (cf. NHG Hakenkreuz)
syllable n - staveset
synonym n - likeword, selfsame

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