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Staff S of the English Wordbook.

Basic abbreviations:

  • OE=Old English
  • NHG=New High German
  • Du.=Dutch

For a full list of etymological and other abbreviations used in these wordlists, see: Offshortenings.


A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


Chancery English Class Anglish/English
Attested Unattested
sabotage vb cripple, undermine -
saboteur n - crippler
sacred adj holy, hallowed -
Sacrament n holy oath, holy undertaking, hallowing forhallowing, holy-work (<OE haligweorc)
sacrifice vb/n give, give up,  bloot (<OE blotan)
sacrilege n unholiness holishending (cf. Du heiligshennis) (to shend, to defile)
sacrilegious adj unholy, sinful -
sacrosanct adj holy, hallowed -
sadism n fiendishness, heartlessness meanlove, meanlust
sadistic adj heartless, coldhearted overtuly
safe n strongbox -
safe adj sound, fast; white; trusty, good, sheltered, shielded Sicker (Eng./ NHG Sicher)
safety n shelter, wholeness, soundness, frith (archaic) munding, berg, frith,

Sickerhood (cf. G sicherheit)

safety instructions n - sickerhoodinwiten (cf. G sicherheitshinweise)
safe space n haven, hugbox frithyard (<OE friþġeard)
sagacious adj

insightful, wise, witty

rede hedging (<OE rǽdhycgende)
hyesnotter (<OE hygesnottor)
redesnotter (<OE rǽdsnotor)
searthinkle (<OE searuþancol)
shedwise (<OE scéadwís)
smighful (<OE sméah)
wisefast (<OE wísfæst)
yarewittle (<OE gearuwitol)

Saint (St.) n Holy -
saint n - holyman, hallow
salmon n - lax (<OE leax, cf. NHG Lachs, Yid. לאַקס (laks), ON, Ic. Sw. lax, Dn. Nw. laks)
salamander n - landwater athex, land-newt, land-eft
salary n earnings, income, salt toll
salutary n friendly, good, helpful, kindly; good, healthy, wholesome -
salutation n greeting, welcome, hail -
saltire n Andrew's Cross
salvation n lifeline

redding (<OE hreddung) halwendness (<OE hālwendnes)

salvo n unload, outburst -
sample vb to have a smack of, foresmack
samurai n -Easternwye dawnlandish knight
sanctify vb hallow, behallow
sanctuary n haven, grith, holyroom, hallow, holystead, frithhouse, frithstow -
Santa Claus n Father Christmas -
sapient n aware -
sasquatch n Bigfoot -
Satanism n -Heathenish Satandom; Satan-worship
satchel n knapsack, rucksack -
satellite n moon

artificial: ironmoon, swail searsender,

ymworldloftvat ("around-world-air-vessel" att'd on the Old English Wikipedia as ymbeworuldlyftfæt) / * NB: 'ump-' as in 'umpteen' = around an amount

satiate vb fulfill, quench, slake -
satire(ist) n heaning, heancraft(er), heanwriting(er) -
satisfaction n gladness

quemeness (<OE cwemness), eadiness
befrithening (cf. NHG Befriedigung)

itheness (<OE  īeðnes)

satisfy vb gladden, slake, fulfill, sate, quench

queme, afill, befrith, sede (<OE ġesēdan)

saturate vb sop, soak, steep indrench (<OE indrencan)
Saturday n - Lyeday (< OE læg, leag "lye" (cognates: M.Du. loghe, Du. loog, OHG louga). The substance was formerly used in place of soap, hence OHG luhhen "to wash," ON laug "bath". ON laugardagr, Dan. lørdag, Swed. lördag "Saturday," literally "bath day".)
sauce n dip -
sauerkraut n - sourcole, sourkale
sauna n steam room hot-house, hotroom, sweatbath
sausage n pudding, banger swineflesh, meary (<OE mearh)
savage adj/n wild; wilder wildard
save vb keep, store, spare,  nere (<OE nerian, akin to NHG nähren)
redd (<OE hreddan 'to free from recover rescue save take away')
berg/barrow (<OE beorgan 'to save, preserve', Goth bairgan, OHG bergan, ON bjarga)
hain, stow, hoard, heal
saviour n -sparer healand (cf. NHG Heiland, from OHG Heliand 'the healing one')
halend, healer, healant (<OE hælend, in light of MnE 'coolant')

ner(i)gend (<OE, 'the Savior', cf. nerian)

savory adj -smeckfull hearthaft (cf. NHG herzhaft)
defty (cf. NHG deftig)
scale vb climb -
scalpel n - leechsax

scapegoat

n - fenman (from Old Dutch thews of offering a man-bloot by either throwing the chosen into a fen, lynching them or throwing them into streams to undo the anger of the gods.)

singoat (cf. Du. zondebok; NHG Sündenbock)

scar n blight, blotch, flaw, pockmark, wale, weal, wheal, wen, welt
scarabaeus stercoreous n - turd-weevil
scarce adj light, sparing; lacking, low, shy, wanting -
scarcely adv barely, hardly, narrowly, slightly -
scarcity n lack, shortness, seldomness, fewness, dearth -
scarlet adj -bawysbrown wormred (<OE wyrmread)
scatophilia n - dritelust
scatter vb broadcast, cast, deal out, go-off, go through, let go, oversow, overspread, put to flight, spread, strew -
scene n background, setting; blowup, fireworks; footing -
schizoid adj - splitlike (calque of Gk. schizein "split, break, shatter" and -oeides "like")

cleavemindy; mindcleavish

schizophrenia n - splitmindness, shattermindness (calques of Gk. schizein "split, break, shatter" and phrēn "mind, understaing")
kithshatter, kithcleave (cf. Ic. geðclofi)

wit-cleftness

scholar n learner fieldknower, learnand
scholarship n knowledge, learning bookhood, loreship
science n lore, wisdom witship (cf. Du. wetenschap, NHG wissenschaft )
scientist n -

witshipper (cf. Du. wetenschapper, NHG wissenschaftler)

loreman

scientific adj -craftly worldkenly, witshiply, lorely
scientific language n -

craftspeech (<OE cræftspræc)

Witshipspeech (<NHG Wissenschaftssprache)

scintillate vb sparkle, flash, shine, leam -
scissors n - shears (Scots cf. NHG. Scheren)
-scope sfx - -seer
scorpion n - stingtail, night-sting
scout n pathfinder foretrekker (< Afr. voortrekker, 'pioneer')
scowling adj - black-browed
screen n - shirm (<PG skirmiz, compare Du. scherm NHG. Schirm)
scribe n writer, logger -
scrotum n ballsack* cod (<OE codd)

ballbag (Scots bawbag, OE. beall and ON. baggi)

*sack (Latin saccus)

scrutinize vb - scrode (<OE scrutinan)

gaumgive (<Ic. gaumgæfa)

scrutiny n shroud(e)ning (<OE sċrūtnung)
sea monster n merfiend fivel (<OE)
search vb seek, rake, comb, delve, hunt nease (<OE neosan, to search out, find out by enquiry)
speer (<OE spyrian)
search word n - seekword
season n time, tide sele (<ME), yeartime, yeartide (by analogy from German Jahrzeit)
seat of joy n - gleestool (<OE glīwstōl)
sebum n tallow -
secede vb leave, withdraw, cleave, sunder, split off offsplit
secession n withdrawal, breakaway, parting, breakup, cleaving, sundering, splitting off offsplitting
secessionist n - offsplitter
second n -twoth, tick, eyeblink,  nutlog; eyeblink (cf. NHG "augenblick"); timebit; time-mote.
second adj twoth

next, other, after (obsolete), twithe(twi- + th as in four-th)

secret adj/n

adj: dern, hidden, withdrawn, unseen, inward, stealthy, untold, unbeheld, underground, underhanded, hushhush, inly n: dern

dyle (<ME diȝel, <OE dīegol)

n: hiddle
hushthought, hushword
roun(d) (< OE run, 'mystery, secret, rune'), homely (cf.NHG. heimlich NHG "geheim", Du. "geheim", Swed. "hemmelighet", Dan. "hemmelig")

secret society n - himebind (cf. NHG "geheimbund") stealthfay (cf. Ic. "seynifélagið"), hidden guild
secretary n - inwriter
secrete vb seep, leak, ooze -
sect n block, body afterfollowing (<OE æfterfylgung)
secular adj worldly, of this world, earthly -
secular n worldhood -
secularise/-ize vb - formean, forworlden (cf NHG verweltlichen)
secure adj

belayed, fast, steadfast, sicker  

(Sicker <NHG. sicher, and lastly from Proto-Ger. sikuraz. though endly from latin securus. See entry in "List Of Old English in OED" "S")

secure vb shield, ward; ice; more, set mund, fasten
security n - sickerness

sickerhood (NHG. Sicherheit)

sediment n dregs, silt, draff, dross -
seduce vb fortee, lead on spane (<OE spanan), adwell
segregation n -keeping/holding/setting apart beshedding, asunderhood, aparthood, apartness
seize vb hold, hend, clutch, take, gripe

fang (<OE fangen)

raeck (<OE geræcan)

seizure n fit -
select vb choose, pick, wale
self-effacement n self-naughting
self-esteem n self-worth -
self-restraint n - forhaveness (<OE forhæfnes) pl: forhavenessa (<OE forhæfnessa)
semester n sixmonth, half-year -
seminar n workshop -
sempiternity n - endlessness, unendinghood, alwayness, everlastingness
semi- pref half-, sam-/sand-/some- (<OE sam-) -
semicircle n - halfring, samring
semisphere n - halfball, samball
senate n - eldermoot [elder: <L. senex + moot (council)]
senator n - folkwit (<OE folcwita), elder
senile adj doddery, doddering, elderly, old, doted -
senior citizens n elderly, old folks, eldfolk, eldman, the old -
sensate adj feeling -
sensation n 1. feeling 2. upthrill
sensational adj amazing wuldersome
sense n 1.feeling 2. meaning seave (<OE sefa)
sense vb feel -
sensible vb - feelbere (calque), begetful
sensitive adj feeling, keen, sharp -
sentence n wordset; byword, saw,quide -
sentence vb doom -
sententious adj pithy -
sentience n awareness awaredom (obsolete OED word)
sentient life n wight, being -
sentiment n feeling, thought -
separate vb sunder, split, break, cleave, fork shed(e) (<ME sheden: cf. NHG/Du. scheiden)
separate adj sundry, freestanding, sundered
cleave, cloven
-
separation n splitting, split betwixgang (OE), asunderhood
September n - Holymonth (which was noted in OE), Sheddingmonth, Harvestmonth
Septuagesima n - Berueingtide (<OE berwosungtid)
sequel n - afterfollow

forthsetting (<NHG Fortsetzung)

sequence n aftermath, backwash, child, outcome, outgrowth, upshot; string; setup gatherbinding
sequential adj back-to-back, straight, through fayed, gatherbinding
series n line, stream -
serious adj earnest, unfunny, heavy, weighty -
seriously adv earnestly, thoroughly, wholeheartedly, with heart & soul, willingly, agoodly, weightily -
serpent n snake, worm  (<OE wyrm), adder

|
slang (Cf. NHG Schlange, Du. slang, Dan. slange)

servant n besteader

housekeeper, maid (fm.), dey (fm.), bondsman, loaf-eater, knight, shalk, boy

thane (<OE þegn)

theener (<OE þēonest cf. NHG Diener)

ambight (<OE ambiht)

serve vb help, dish, hye, bestead

theen (<OE þeġnian cf. NHG/Du. dienen)

bethane

(OE>geambihtan; onþéowian)

service n -besteading

theenst (<OE þēnest, cf. NHG Dienst)

bethanehood

betheening (<NHG bedienung)

servile adj - thewly (<OE þéowlic)
session n sitting, stint -
several adj sundry -
severe adj stern, hard, harsh, tough, thorough -
severely adv hardly, roughly, sternly, stiffly; -
sewer n drain, sieve -
sex n kind folkhalf, hade
sex act n lovemaking heamedlock (<OE hæmedlac), swive
fleshly knowledge, bysleep (cf. NHG Beischlaf, DU bijslaap)
sexual reproduction n breeding swiveful matchyielding, swiveful matchbearing
sexy adj hot, steamy -
shantytown n tinstow, hutstead, slum -
shark n haye highcarl (cf. O.N. hákarl), dreadfish, sea dog
shingles n tetter -
show mercy vb spare orefast/arfast (<OE ārfæstan)
shrapnel n - blastfall, blastrain, blastbits
shrine n - halidom (<OE haligdom, cf. NHG Heiligtum)
siege vb beleaguer, (um)beset -
sign n token, shingle, mark -
sign vb -onmark, underwrite sicker (NHG. Sicher...as in "to guarantee/ secure" )
signal n bale-fire, beacon -
silence n stillness forsuwing (<OE forsuwung), roo (<ME ro <OE rō, cf. NHG Ruhe )
simple adj onefold -
sir n - herr (<OE hearra, cf. NHG Herr)
sire n lord herr
Sirius n Dog Star, Brightest Star -
size n greatness grete (<ME <OE grīetu, cf. NHG Größe)
smuggler n - owler
slave n thrall þhræl (OE)
socialism n - fellowship, fellowdom
socialist adj - fellowshiply, fellowdomish
sociëty n - asithership (<OE gesíðscipe, cf. NHG Gesellschaft) aroomship, afellowship
solar adj sun-like, sunly -
sole (foot) n - il (cf. Ic. il)

footfolm

solstice n sunstead -
sorcery n witchcraft, dwimmer dreecraft, drycraft
sound n reard, cling, ring, loudness loud, lide (<OE hlýd, cf. NHG. Laut, Du. luid, Dan. lyd, Swed. ljud, Icel. hljóð)
sound v ring, clink, cling

sound like:

to be heard like...

to sound like: onhear/ hear on (NHG. anhören)
soup n broth, gruel sope (<OE sopa <PG supô, cf. NHG Suppe)
special adj - besunder (cf. NHG besondere)

sunderly (<OE sundorlic, cf. NHG sonderlich)

speciality n - besunderhood (cf. NHG Besonderheit)

ownhood/ship (cf. NHG Eigenheit/schaft)

species n - lifekin
sphere n - ball, kuggle (cf. NHG Kugel)
spy n/vb sleuth: very late borrowing into Old English (near to 1200AD) from The Orrmulum. -
squadron n - Sheltron; Shieldtrum OE (scieldtruma); geswathe (cf. NHG Geschwader)
square n - fourside (cf. Du. vierkant)
statue n - standbilth (cf. Ger. Standbild; Du. Standbeeld)
stay vb belive -
stingray n - righ (<OE reohhe cf. NHG Rochen, Du. Rog), stingrigh
stomach n maw
strange adj outlandish, weird, unwonted, unknown, wild, odd, freakish, eerie Fremd (Eng. but seldom)
street n road, roadway wainway, wagonway (to be brooked inborough to tell between the walking path (walkway) and the faring path)
stress n burden, weight, load thrutch (cf. NHG Druck)

belasting (cf. NHG belastung, Du. belasting)

study vb/n swot, either usage (up on), thought, noun only -
sub- pref under-

(subsequent) after-

-
subject v - underthrow (cf. Du. onderwerpen, NHG. unterwerfen)
subject n - underthrow (cf. D. onderwerp)
submarine adj/n adj: undersea n: diveboat (cf. Du. duikboot)

n: underseaer (cf. Du. onderzeeër)

n: underseaboat (cf. NHG Unterseeboot)

substitute v swap outtrade (cf. NHG. austauschen)replace: aset (cf. NHG ersetzen)
subtitle n - undername, understerling
suburb n - underborough (<OE underburg)
succeed vb - to be afollowful (cf. NHG erfolgreich sein)
success n - afollow (cf. NHG Erfolg)
succumb vb - alie <alying;alay;alain (cf. NHG erliegen)
sudden adj swift, rushing, rash -
suddenly adv swiftly, rushingly, rashly, forthwith, straightaway -
suffer vb - tholin (<OE þolian, þrowian)
suffix n
sugar n sweethurst (hurst is old english for crystal) sweetcristle Late Old English (denoting ice or a mineral resembling it), from Old French cristal, from Latin crystallum, from Greek krustallos ‘ice, crystal'
sunflower n - Sunbloom (<NHG. Sonnenblume)
supercalifragilisticexpialidocious adj - overfairnessbrokenliatoneliteachworthy
superhero n - overheleth
supervillain n - overnithing
supply n yield, stock, spring
supply vb yield, feed, fill
support vb forward, foster, upbring,

uphold, underprop, upstart, underset

understut (cf. NHG unterstützen) (spoken as "stoot")

stut

suppose vb ween, believe, guess, think, reckon, forethink
sure adj, - wis
surface n overlay -
surprise vb stun, astound, overcome

Overrush (NHG Überrraschen)

survive vb outlive (current in some senses) overlive (cf. NHG. überleben Du. overleven Dan. overleve Norw. overleve Swed. överleva)
sustain vb underhold, uphold, stay
swastika n fylfot, gleerune (as a religious symbol) hookedrood (cf. NHG Hakenkreuz)
syllable n - staveset
synonym n - likeword, selfsame

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