Staff S of the English Wordbook.

Basic abbreviations:

  • OE=Old English
  • NHG=New High German
  • Du.=Dutch

For a full list of etymological and other abbreviations used in these wordlists, see: Offshortenings.


Chancery English Class Anglish/English
Attested Unattested
sabotage vb cripple, undermine -
saboteur n - crippler
sacred adj holy, hallowed -
Sacrament n holy oath, holy undertaking, hallowing forhallowing, holy-work (<OE haligweorc)
sacrifice vb/n give, give up,  bloot (<OE blotan)
sacrilege n unholiness holishending (cf. Du heiligshennis) (to shend, to defile)
sacrilegious adj unholy, sinful -
sacrosanct adj holy, hallowed -
sadism n fiendishness, heartlessness meanlove, meanlust
sadistic adj heartless, coldhearted overtuly
safe n strongbox -
safe adj sound, fast; white; trusty, good, sheltered, shielded -
safety n shelter, wholeness, soundness, frith (archaic) munding, berg, frith
safe space n haven, hugbox frithyard (<OE friþġeard)
sagacious adj

insightful, wise, witty, foresightful

rede hedging (<OE rǽdhycgende)
hyesnotter (<OE hygesnottor)
redesnotter (<OE rǽdsnotor)
searthinkle (<OE searuþancol)
shedwise (<OE scéadwís)
smighful (<OE sméah)
wisefast (<OE wísfæst)
yarewittle (<OE gearuwitol)

Saint (St.) n Holy -
saint n - holyman, hallow
salmon n - lax (<OE leax, cf. NHG Lachs, Yid. לאַקס (laks), ON, Ic. Sw. lax, Dn. Nw. laks)
salamander n - landwater athex, land-newt, land-eft
salary n earnings, income, salt toll
salutary n friendly, good, helpful, kindly; good, healthy, wholesome -
salutation n greeting, welcome, hail -
saltire n Andrew's Cross* (*but "cross" is from French)
salvation n lifeline

redding (<OE hreddung) halwendness (<OE hālwendnes)

salvo n unload, outburst -
sample vb to have a smack of, foresmack
samurai n -Easternwye dawnlandish knight
sanctify vb hallow, behallow -
sanctuary n haven, grith, holyroom, hallow, holystead, frithhouse, frithstow -
Santa Claus n Father Christmas -
sapient n aware -
sasquatch n Bigfoot -
Satanism n -Heathenish Satandom; Satan-worship
satchel n knapsack, rucksack -
satellite n moon

artificial: ironmoon, swail searsender,

umworld loftvat ("around-world-air-vessel" att'd on the Old English Wikipedia as ymbeworuldlyftfæt) / * NB: 'ump-' as in 'umpteen' = around an amount

satiate vb fulfill, quench, slake -
satire(ist) n heaning, heancraft(er), heanwriting(er) -
satisfaction n gladness

cwemeness (<OE cwemness), eadiness
befrithening (cf. NHG Befriedigung)

itheness (<OE  īeðnes)

satisfy vb gladden, slake, fulfill, sate, quench

queme, afill, befrith, sede (<OE ġesēdan)

saturate vb sop, soak, steep indrench (<OE indrencan)
Saturday n - Lyeday (< OE læg, leag "lye" (cognates: M.Du. loghe, Du. loog, OHG louga). The substance was formerly used in place of soap, hence OHG luhhen "to wash," ON laug "bath". ON laugardagr, Dan. lørdag, Swed. lördag "Saturday," literally "bath day".)
sauce n dip -
sauerkraut n - sourcole, sourkale
sauna n steam room hot-house, hotroom, sweatbath
sausage n pudding, banger swineflesh, meary (<OE mearh)
savage adj/n wild; wilder wildard
save vb keep, store, spare,  nere (<OE nerian, akin to NHG nähren)
redd (<OE hreddan 'to free from recover rescue save take away')
berg/barrow (<OE beorgan 'to save, preserve', Goth bairgan, OHG bergan, ON bjarga)
hain, stow, hoard, heal
saviour n -sparer healand (cf. NHG Heiland, from OHG Heliand 'the healing one')
halend, healer, healant (<OE hælend, in light of MnE 'coolant')

ner(i)gend (<OE, 'the Savior', cf. nerian)

savory adj -smeckfull hearthaft (cf. NHG herzhaft)
defty (cf. NHG deftig)
scale vb climb -
scale n layout, frame, framework, mete, setup -
scalpel n - leechsax


n - fenman (from Old Dutch thews of offering a man-bloot by either throwing the chosen into a fen, lynching them or throwing them into streams to undo the anger of the gods.)

singoat (cf. Du. zondebok; NHG Sündenbock)

scar n blight, blotch, flaw, pockmark, wale, weal, wheal, wen, welt
scarabaeus stercoreous n - turd-weevil
scarce adj light, sparing; lacking, low, shy, wanting -
scarcely adv barely, hardly, narrowly, slightly -
scarcity n lack, shortness, seldomness, fewness, dearth -
scarlet adj -bawysbrown wormred (<OE wyrmread)
scatophilia n - dritelust
scatter vb broadcast, cast, deal out, go-off, go through, let go, oversow, overspread, put to flight, spread, strew -
scene n background, setting; blowup, fireworks; footing -
schizoid adj - splitlike (calque of Gk. schizein "split, break, shatter" and -oeides "like")

cleavemindy; mindcleavish

schizophrenia n - splitmindness, shattermindness (calques of Gk. schizein "split, break, shatter" and phrēn "mind, understaing")
kithshatter, kithcleave (cf. Ic. geðclofi)


scholar n learner fieldknower, learnand
scholarship n knowledge, learning bookhood, loreship
school n - learnhall
science n lore, wisdom witship (cf. Du. wetenschap, NHG wissenschaft )
scientist n -

witshipper (cf. Du. wetenschapper, NHG wissenschaftler)


scientific adj -craftly worldkenly, witshiply, lorely
scientific language n -

craftspeech (<OE cræftspræc)

scintillate vb sparkle, flash, shine, leam -
scissors n - shears (Scots cf. NHG. Scheren)
-scope sfx - -seer
scorpion n - stingtail, night-sting
scout n pathfinder foretrekker (< Afr. voortrekker, 'pioneer')
scowling adj - black-browed
screen n - shirm (<PG skirmiz, compare Du. scherm NHG. Schirm)
scribe n writer, logger -
scrotum n ballsack*, sack* (*but "sack" is from Latin saccus) cod (<OE codd)

ballbag (Scots bawbag, OE. beall and ON. baggi)

scrutinize vb - scrut (<OE scrutinan)

gaumgive (<Ic. gaumgæfa)

scrutiny n shroutening (<OE sċrūtnung)
sea monster n merfiend fivel (<OE)
search vb seek, rake, comb, delve, hunt nease (<OE neosan, to search out, find out by enquiry)
speer (<OE spyrian)
search word n - seekword
season n time, tide sele (<ME), yeartime, yeartide (by analogy from German Jahrzeit)
seat of joy n - gleestool (<OE glīwstōl)
sebum n tallow -
secede vb leave, withdraw, cleave, sunder, split off offsplit
secession n withdrawal, breakaway, parting, breakup, cleaving, sundering, splitting off offsplitting
secessionist n - offsplitter
second n moment: tick, eyeblink 

nutlog  (hour: log,  minute: shortlog)

second adj twoth

next, other, after (obsolete), twithe(twi- + th as in four-th)

secret adj/n

adj: dern, hidden, withdrawn, unseen, inward, stealthy, untold, unbeheld, underground, underhanded, hushhush, inly n: dern

n: hiddle (<OE hydels), dyle (<ME diȝel, <OE dīegol) hushthought, hushword
roun(d) (< OE run, 'mystery, secret, rune'), hem (cf.NHG. heimlich NHG "geheim", Du. "geheim", Sw. "hemmelighet", Da. "hemmelig")

secret society n - himebind (cf. NHG "geheimbund") stealthfay (cf. Ic. "seynifélagið"), hidden guild
secretary n - inwriter
secrete vb seep, leak, ooze -
sect n block, body afterfollowing (<OE æfterfylgung)
secular adj worldly, of this world, earthly -
secular n worldhood -
secularise/-ize vb - formean, forworlden (cf NHG verweltlichen)
secure adj

belayed, fast, steadfast

secure vb shield, ward; ice; more, set, fasten mound (<OE mundian 'to protect, shelter, guard)
security n - sickerness

sickerhood (NHG. Sicherheit)

sediment n dregs, silt, draff, dross -
seduce vb fortee, lead on span (<OE spanan), adwell
segment n lith -
segregation n - beshedding, asunderhood
seize vb hold, hend, clutch, take, gripe

fang (<OE fangen), reach (<OE geræcan)

seizure n fit -
select vb choose, pick, wale -
selenium n - moonstuff
self-effacement n - self-naughting
self-esteem n self-worth -
self-restraint n - forhaveness (<OE forhæfnes)
semester n sixmonth, half-year -
seminar n workshop -
sempiternity n - endlessness, unendinghood, alwayness, everlastingness
semi- pref half-, sam-/sand-/some- (<OE sam-) -
semicircle n - halfring, samring
semisphere n - halfball, samball
senate n - eldermoot [elder: <L. senex + moot (council)]
senator n - folkwit (<OE folcwita), elder
senile adj doddery, doddering, elderly, old, doted -
senior citizens n elderly, old folks, eldfolk, eldman, the old -
sensate adj feeling -
sensation n 1. feeling 2. upthrill
sensational adj amazing wuldersome
sense n 1.feeling 2. meaning seave (<OE sefa)
sense vb feel -
sensible vb - feelbere (calque), begetful
sensitive adj feeling, keen, sharp -
sentence n wordset; byword, saw (ety. 2) cwide (<ME, OE cwide)
sentence vb doom -
sententious adj pithy -
sentience n awareness awaredom (obsolete OED word)
sentient life n wight, being -
sentiment n feeling, thought -
separate vb sunder, split, break, cleave, fork shed (<ME sheden: cf. NHG/Du. scheiden)
separate adj sundry, freestanding, sundered
cleave, cloven
separation n splitting, split shedding, asunderhood
September n - Holymonth (which was noted in OE), Sheddingmonth, Harvestmonth
Septuagesima n - Berueingtide (<OE berwosungtid)
sequel n - afterfollowing, forthsetting (<NHG Fortsetzung)
sequence n aftermath, backwash, child, outcome, outgrowth, upshot; string; setup gatherbinding
sequential adj back-to-back, straight, through fayed, gatherbinding
series n line, stream -
serious adj earnest, unfunny, heavy, weighty -
seriously adv earnestly, thoroughly, wholeheartedly, with heart & soul, willingly, agoodly, weightily -
serpent n snake, worm  (<OE wyrm), adder slang (cf. NHG Schlange, Du. slang, Da. slange)
servant n besteader

housekeeper, maid (fm.), dey (fm.), bondsman, loaf-eater, knight, shalk, boy, thane (<OE þegn)

thew (obs.)

theener, theen (<OE þēonest cf. NHG Diener)

ambight (<OE ambiht)

serve vb help, dish, hye, bestead

theen (<OE þeġnian cf. NHG/Du. dienen)

thew, ambight (<OE geambihtan; onþéowian)

serf n thrall
service n besteading

theen (<OE þēnest, cf. NHG Dienst)

betheening (cf. NHG Bedienung)

servile adj - thewly (<OE þéowlic)
session n sitting, stint -
several adj sundry -
severe adj stern, hard, harsh, tough, thorough -
severely adv hardly, roughly, sternly, stiffly; -
sewer n drain, sieve -
sex n kind folkhalf, hade
sex act n lovemaking swiving, heamedlock (<OE hæmedlac)
fleshly knowledge, bysleep (cf. NHG Beischlaf, DU bijslaap)
sexual reproduction n breeding swiveful matchyielding, swiveful matchbearing
sexy adj

hot, steamy,


shantytown n tinstow, hutstead, slum -
shark n haye highcarl (cf. O.N. hákarl), dreadfish, sea dog
shingles n tetter -
show mercy vb spare orefast/arfast (<OE ārfæstan)
shrapnel n - blastfall, blastrain, blastbits
shrine n - halidom (<OE haligdom, cf. NHG Heiligtum)
siege vb beleaguer, (um)beset -
Sierra Leone n - Lewess Ridgelands
sign n token, shingle, mark -
sign vb onmark, underwrite undertoken (calque of Ger. speech cf. NHG unterzeichnen, Du. ondertekenen)
signal n bale-fire, beacon -
significant adj weighty markworthy
silence vb hush, make still, soothe bestill, beroo (cf. NHG beruhigen)
silence n stillness forsowing (<OE forsuwung), roo (Eng., ME ro <OE rō, cf. NHG Ruhe )


silicon n - flintstuff
simple adj onefold -
sir n - hare (ety. 3) (<OE hearra, cf. NHG Herr)
sire n lord hare
Sirius n Dog Star, Brightest Star -
site n stead point, location: 

ord (Eng.)

situate v lay down, ground -
situation n lay? (cf. lay of the land)
size n greatness grete (<ME <OE grīetu, cf. NHG Größe)
skeleton n - boneset
slander n/vb n: smear

vb: belittle, defile, smear, sully, tarnish

holen (<ME holen < OE hōlian
slave n thrall theen (OE)
smuggler n - owler
snow globe/snowglobe n - snowkuggle (cf. NHG Schneekugel)
socialism n - fellowship, fellowdom
socialist adj - fellowshiply, fellowdomish
society n -


sithership (<OE gesíðscipe, cf. NHG Gesellschaft)

sodium n - saltstuff
solar adj sun-like, sunly -
sole (foot) n - ile (<OE ile, cf. Ic. il), footfolm
solstice n sunstead -
solve v answer loose, loosen, lease (calque of Ger. speech)
sorcery n witchcraft, dwimmer dreecraft, drycraft
sorrel n - sourleaf
sound n reard, cling, ring, loudness, loude, lidden (<OE hlýd, OE hlýden, cf. NHG. Laut, Du. geluid, Dan. lyd, Swed. ljud, Icel. hljóð)
sound v ring, clink, cling

sound like:

to be heard like...

to sound like: onhear/ hear on (NHG. anhören)
soup n broth, gruel -
space n - room

astrology: roomth

spacious adj - roomy
spatial adj - roomthy
special adj - besunder (cf. NHG besondere)

sunderly (<OE sundorlic, cf. NHG sonderlich)

speciality n - besunderhood (cf. NHG Besonderheit)

ownhood/ship (cf. NHG Eigenheit/schaft)

species n - lifekin
specific adj - bestevened (cf. NHG bestimmt) (see steven)
sphere n - ball, kuggle (cf. NHG Kugel)
spice n - croud (cf. Du. kruit)
spy n/vb sleuth: very late borrowing into Old English (near to 1200AD) from The Orrmulum. -
squadron n - sheltron, shieldtrum (<OE scieldtruma); swathe (cf. NHG Geschwader)
square n - fourside (cf. Du. vierkant)
squirrel n acquerne O.E. ācweorna, O.N. loan in O.E. scug; skug. shadow-tail -
statue n - standbilth (cf. Ger. Standbild; Du. Standbeeld)
stay vb belive -
stellar adj starly -
stingray n - -
stomach n maw
strange adj outlandish, weird, unwonted, unknown, wild, odd, freakish, eerie Fremd (Eng. but seldom)
street n road, roadway wainway, wagonway (to be brooked inborough to tell between the walking path (walkway) and the faring path)
stress n burden, weight, load thrutch (cf. NHG Druck)

belasting (cf. NHG belastung, Du. belasting)

strict adj hash, hard, stern, forbidding -
structure n makeup upmake
study vb/n swot, either usage (up on), thought, noun only -
sub- pref under-

(subsequent) after-

subject v - underthrow (cf. Du. onderwerpen, NHG. unterwerfen)
subject n - underthrow (cf. D. onderwerp)
submarine n/adj adj: undersea n: U-boat, diveboat (cf. Du. duikboot)
substitute v swap outtrade (cf. NHG. austauschen)replace: aset (cf. NHG ersetzen)
subtitle n - undername, understerling
suburb n - underborough (<OE underburg)
succeed vb - -
success n - afollowing (cf. NHG Erfolg)
succumb vb - undernicken (<OE underhnigan); alie <alying;alay;alain (cf. NHG erliegen)
sudden adj swift, rushing, rash -
suddenly adv swiftly, rushingly, rashly, forthwith, straightaway -
suffer vb - thole (<OE þolian, þrowian)
suffering n harm, ache, sorrow, woe, smarts -
suffix n word tail, endfastening
sugar n sweethurst (hurst is old english for crystal) sweetcristle (<late OE, denoting ice or a mineral resembling it, from Old French cristal, from Latin crystallum, from Greek krustallos ‘ice, crystal') sweetmote
sugar cane n - sweetreed (cf. Du. suikerriet)
sulfur n brimstone -
sunflower n - sunbloom (<NHG. Sonnenblume)
super adj/pfx adj: over, overly

pfx: over-

supercalifragilisticexpialidocious adj - overfairnessbrokenliatoneliteachworthy
supercontinent n - overworlddeal
superhero n - overheleth
supervillain n - overnithing, overnither
supply n yield, stock, spring
supply vb yield, feed, fill
support vb forward, foster, upbring,

uphold, underprop, upstart, underset


understut (cf. NHG unterstützen) (spoken as "stoot"), stut

suppose vb ween, believe, guess, think, reckon, forethink
sure adj wis
surface n overlay, layer -
surprise vb stun, astound, overcome overrrush (NHG überrraschen)
surrender vb hand over, give up overgive
survive vb outlive (current in some senses) overlive (cf. NHG. überleben Du. overleven Dan. overleve Norw. overleve Swed. överleva)
suspect v mistrust, underlook forthink (cf. Du./NHG. verdenken)
suspicion n mistrustfulness, underlook forthought (cf. Du. verdachting, NHG. verdacht)
suspicious adj mistrustful, wary forthoughtful/ forthoughty (cf. Du.
sustain vb underhold, uphold, stay
suitable adj fit -
swastika n fylfot, gleerune (as a religious symbol) hookrood (cf. NHG Hakenkreuz)
syllable n - staveset
synesthesia n - linked feeling (calque)
synonym n - likeword, selfsame
system n layout, makeup outlay, upmake

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