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English Wordbook/S

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Staff S of the English Wordbook.

Basic abbreviations:

  • OE=Old English
  • NHG=New High German
  • Du.=Dutch

For a full list of etymological and other abbreviations used in these wordlists, see: Offshortenings.


A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


Chancery English Class Anglish/English
Attested Unattested
sabotage vb cripple, undermine -
saboteur n - crippler
sacred adj holy, hallowed -
Sacrament n holy oath, holy undertaking, hallowing forhallowing, holy-work (<OE haligweorc)
sacrifice vb/n give, give up,  bloot (<OE blotan)
sacrilege n unholiness -
sacrilegious adj unholy, sinful -
sacrosanct adj holy, hallowed -
sadism n fiendishness, heartlessness meanlove, meanlust
sadistic adj heartless overtuly
safe n strongbox -
safe adj sound, fast; white; trusty, good -
safety n shelterness, wholeness, soundness munding, berg, frith, sickerhood (cf. G sicherheit)
safety instructions n - sickerhoodinwiten (cf. G sicherheitshinweise)
safe space

(I first heard of this phenomenon

here .)

n hugbox frithyard (<OE friþġeard)
sagacious adj

insightful, wise, witty

rede hedging (<OE rǽdhycgende)
hyesnotter (<OE hygesnottor)
redesnotter (<OE rǽdsnotor)
searthinkle (<OE searuþancol)
shedwise (<OE scéadwís)
smighful (<OE sméah)
wisefast (<OE wísfæst)
yarewittle (<OE gearuwitol)

Saint (St.) n Holy -
saint n - holyman, hallow
salmon n - lax (<OE leax, cf. NHG Lachs, Yid. לאַקס (laks), ON, Ic. Sw. lax, Dn. Nw. laks)
salamander n - landwater athex
salary n earnings, income, salt toll
salutary n friendly, good, helpful, kindly; good, healthy, wholesome -
salutation n greeting, welcome, hail -
saltire n Andrew's Cross
salvation n lifeline

redding (<OE hreddung) halwendness (<OE hālwendnes)

salvo n unload, outburst -
samurai n - dawnlandish knight
sanctify vb hallow -
sanctuary n haven, grith, holyroom, hallow, holystead, frithhouse, frithstow -
Santa Claus n Father Christmas -
sapient n aware -
sasquatch n Bigfoot -
Satanism n - Satandom
satchel n knapsack, rucksack -
satellite n moon

artificial: ironmoon, swail searsender,

ymworldloftvat ("around-world-air-vessel" att'd on the Old English Wikipedia as ymbeworuldlyftfæt) / * NB: 'ump-' as in 'umpteen' = around an amount

satiate vb fulfill, quench, slake -
satire(ist) n heaning, heancraft(er), heanwriting(er) -
satisfaction n gladness

quemeness (<OE cwemness), eadiness
befrithening (cf. NHG Befriedigung)

itheness (<OE  īeðnes)

satisfy vb gladden, slake, fulfill, sate, quench

queme, afill, befrith, sede (<OE ġesēdan)

saturate vb sop, soak, steep indrench (<OE indrencan)
Saturday n - Lyeday (< OE læg, leag "lye" (cognates: M.Du. loghe, Du. loog, OHG louga). The substance was formerly used in place of soap, hence OHG luhhen "to wash," ON laug "bath". ON laugardagr, Dan. lørdag, Swed. lördag "Saturday," literally "bath day".)
sauce n dip -
sauerkraut n - sourcole, sourkale
sauna n steam room hot-house, hotroom, sweatbath
sausage n pudding, banger swineflesh, meary (<OE mearh)
savage adj/n wild; wilder wildard
save vb keep, store, spare,  nere (<OE nerian, akin to NHG nähren)
redd (<OE hreddan 'to free from recover rescue save take away')
berg/barrow (<OE beorgan 'to save, preserve', Goth bairgan, OHG bergan, ON bjarga)
hain, stow, hoard, heal
saviour n - healand (cf. NHG Heiland, from OHG Heliand 'the healing one')
halend, healer, healant (<OE hælend, in light of MnE 'coolant')

ner(i)gend (<OE, 'the Savior', cf. nerian)

savory adj - hearthaft (cf. NHG herzhaft)
defty (cf. NHG deftig)
scale vb climb -
scalpel n - leechsax

scapegoat

n - fenman (from Old Dutch thews of offering a man-bloot by either throwing the chosen into a fen, lynching them or throwing them into streams to undo the anger of the gods.)
scar n blight, blotch, flaw, pockmark, wale, weal, wheal, wen, welt
scarabaeus stercoreous n - turd-weevil
scarce adj light, sparing; lacking, low, shy, wanting -
scarcely adv barely, hardly, narrowly, slightly -
scarcity n lack, shortness, seldomness, fewness, dearth -
scarlet adj - wormred (<OE wyrmread)
scatophilia n - dritelust
scatter vb broadcast, cast, deal out, go-off, go through, let go, oversow, overspread, put to flight, spread, strew -
scene n background, setting; blowup, fireworks; footing -
schizoid adj - splitlike (calque of Gk. schizein "split, break, shatter" and -oeides "like")
schizophrenia n - splitmindness, shattermindness (calques of Gk. schizein "split, break, shatter" and phrēn "mind, understaing")
kithshatter, kithcleave (cf. Ic. geðclofi)
scholar n learner fieldknower, learnand
scholarship n knowledge, learning bookhood, loreship
science n lore, wisdom witship (cf. Du. wetenschap, NHG wissenschaft )
scientist n -

witshipper (cf. Du. wetenschapper, NHG wissenschaftler)

loreman

scientific adj - worldkenly, witshiply, lorely
scientific language n - craftspeech (<OE cræftspræc)
scintillate vb sparkle, flash, shine, leam -
scissors n - shears (Scots cf. NHG. Scheren)
-scope sfx - -seer
scorpion n - stingtail, night-sting
scout n pathfinder foretrekker (< Afr. voortrekker, 'pioneer')
scowling adj - black-browed
screen n - shirm (<PG skirmiz, compare Du. scherm NHG. Schirm)
scrotum n ballsack* cod (<OE codd)

ballbag (Scots bawbag, OE. beall and ON. baggi)

*sack (Latin saccus)

scrutinize vb overlook -
sea monster n - fifel (<OE)
search vb seek, rake, comb, delve, hunt nease (<OE neosan, to search out, find out by enquiry)
speer (<OE spyrian)
search word n - seekword
season n time, tide sele (<ME), yeartime, yeartide (by analogy from German Jahrzeit)
seat of joy n - gleestool (<OE glīwstōl)
sebum n tallow -
secede vb leave, withdraw, cleave, sunder, split off offsplit
secession n withdrawal, breakaway, parting, breakup, cleaving, sundering, splitting off offsplitting
secessionist n - offsplitter
second n - nutlog; eyeblink (cf. NHG "augenblick"); timebit; time-mote.
second adj -

next, other,twithe(twi- + th as in four-th)

secret adj/n

adj: dern, hidden, withdrawn, unseen, inward, stealthy, untold, unbeheld, underground, underhanded, hushhush, inly n: dern

n: hiddle
hushthought, hushword
roun(d) (< OE run, 'mystery, secret, rune'), hime (cf. NHG "geheim", Du. "geheim", Swed. "hemmelighet", Dan. "hemmelig")
secret society n - himebind (cf. NHG "geheimbund") stealthfay (cf. Ic. "seynifélagið"), hidden guild
secretary n - inwriter
secrete vb seep, leak, ooze -
sect n block, body afterfollowing (<OE æfterfylgung)
secular adj worldly, of this world, earthly -
secular n worldhood -
secularise/-ize vb - formean, forworlden (cf NHG verweltlichen)
secure adj belayed, fast, steadfast -
secure vb bulwark, shield, ward; ice; fix, more, set mund, fasten
sediment n dregs, silt, draff, dross -
seduce vb fortee, lead on span (<OE spanan), adwell
segregation n -keeping/holding/setting apart beshedding, asunderhood, aparthood, apartness
seize vb hold, hend, clutch, take

fang (<OE fangen)

reack (<OE geræcan)

seizure n fit -
select vb choose, pick, wale core (<OE coren 'elected')
self-effacement n self-naughting
self-esteem n self-worth -
self-restraint n - forhaveness (<OE forhæfnes) pl: forhavenessa (<OE forhæfnessa)
semester n sixmonth, half-year -
seminar n workshop -
sempiternity n - endlessness, unendinghood, alwayness, everlastingness
semi- pref half-, sam-/sand-/some- (<OE sam-) -
semicircle n - halfring, samring
semisphere n - halfball, samball
senate n - eldermoot [elder: <L. senex + moot (council)]
senator n - folkwite (<OE folcwita), elder
senile adj doddery, doddering, elderly, old, doted -
senior citizens n elderly, old folks, eldfolk, eldman -
sensate adj feeling -
sensation n 1. feeling 2. upthrill
sensational adj amazing wuldersome
sense n 1.feeling 2. meaning seave (<OE sefa)
sense vb feel -
sensible vb - feelbere (calque), begetful
sensitive adj feeling, keen, sharp -
sentence n wordset; byword, saw -
sentence vb doom -
sententious adj pithy -
sentience n awareness awaredom (obsolete OED word)
sentient life n wight, being -
sentiment n feeling, thought -
separate vb sunder, split, break, cleave, fork shide (<ME sheden: cf. NHG/Du. scheiden)
separate adj sundry, freestanding, sundered
cleave, cloven
-
separation n splitting betwixgang (OE), asunderhood
September n - Holymonth (which was noted in OE), Sheddingmonth, Harvestmonth
Septuagesima n - Berueingtide (<OE berwosungtid)
sequence n aftermath, backwash, child, outcome, outgrowth, upshot; string; setup gatherbinding
sequential adj back-to-back, straight, through fayed, gatherbinding
series n line, stream -
serious adj earnest, unfunny, heavy, weighty -
seriously adv earnestly, thoroughly, wholeheartedly, with heart & soul, willingly, agoodly, weightily -
serpent n snake wirm (<OE wyrm)
nadder (<OE nædre, cf. ON naðra, OHG natra)
slang (Cf. NHG Schlange, Du. slang, Dan. slange)
servant n

housekeeper, maid (fm.), dey (fm.), bondsman, loaf-eater, knight, shalk, boy

thane (<OE þegn)

ambight (<OE ambiht)
serve vb help, dish, hye

bethane

theen (<NHG, Du. Dienen)

(OE>geambihtan; onþéowian)

service n -

bethanehood

betheening (<NHG bedienung)

session n sitting, stint -
several adj sundry -
severe adj stern, hard, harsh, tough, thorough -
severely adv hardly, roughly, sternly, stiffly; -
sewer n drain, sieve -
sex n folkhalf cun (<OE cyn, cf. Dan. køn, Norw. kjønn, Swed. kön, Ic./Far. kyn)
sex act n - heamedlock (<OE hæmedlac)
swive
fleshly knowledge houghmagandie, bysleep (cf. NHG Beischlaf, DU bijslaap)
sexual reproduction n breeding swiveful matchyielding, swiveful matchbearing
sexy adj hot -
shantytown n tinstow, hutstead, slum -
shark n haye highcarl (cf. O.N. hákarl), dreadfish, sea dog
shingles n tetter -
show mercy vb - orefast/arfast (<OE ārfæstan)
shrapnel n - blastfall, blastrain, blastbits
siege vb beleaguer, (um)beset -
sign n token, shingle -
sign vb - sicker, underwrite
signal n bale-fire -
smuggler n - owler
socialism n - fellowship, fellowdom
socialist adj - fellowshiply, fellowdomish
sociëty n - ġesellshaft (<G Gesellschaft), yroomship, yfellowship
solar adj sun-like, sunly -
solstice n sunstead -
sound n din, clang loud, lide (<OE hlýd, cf. NHG. Laut, Du. luid, Dan. lyd, Swed. ljud, Icel. hljóð)
statue n - standbilth (cf. Ger. Standbild; Du. Standbeeld)
stingray n - roagh (<OE reohhe cf. NHG Rochen, Du. Rog), stingroagh
street n road, roadway wainway, wagonway (to be brooked inborough to tell between the walking path (walkway) and the faring path)
sustain vb underhold, uphold, stay
swastika n fylfot hookedrood (cf. NHG Hakenkreuz)
syllable n
staveset
synonym n - likeword

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