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Staff S of the English Wordbook.

Basic abbreviations:

  • OE = Old English
  • NHG = New High German
  • Du. = Dutch

For a full list of etymological and other abbreviations used in these wordlists, see: Offshortenings.


A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


Chancery English Class Anglish/English
Attested Unattested
sabotage vb cripple, undermine -
saboteur n - crippler
sacred adj holy, hallowed -
Sacrament n holy oath, holy undertaking, hallowing forhallowing, holy-work (<OE haligweorc)
sacrifice vb/n give, give up,  bloot (<OE blotan)
sacrilege n unholiness holishending (cf. Du heiligshennis) (to shend, to defile)
sacrilegious adj unholy, sinful -
sacrosanct adj holy, hallowed -
sacrum n - holybone, roodbone
sadism n fiendishness, heartlessness meanlove, meanlust
sadistic adj heartless, coldhearted overtuly
safe n strongbox -
safe adj sound, fast; white; trusty, good, sheltered, shielded -
safety n shelter, wholeness, soundness, frith (archaic) munding, berg, frith
safe space n haven, hugbox frithyard (<OE friþġeard)
sagacious adj

insightful, wise, witty, foresightful

rede hedging (<OE rǽdhycgende)
hyesnotter (<OE hygesnottor)
redesnotter (<OE rǽdsnotor)
searthinkle (<OE searuþancol)
shedwise (<OE scéadwís)
smighful (<OE sméah)
wisefast (<OE wísfæst)
yarewittle (<OE gearuwitol)

Saint (St.) n Holy -
saint n - holyman, hallow
sainthood n hallowdom -
saliva n spit -
salamander n - landwater athex, land-newt, land-eft
salary n earnings, income, salt toll
sally vb/n outfall
salmon n - lax (<OE leax, cf. NHG Lachs, Yid. לאַקס (laks), ON, Ic. Sw. lax, Dn. Nw. laks)
saltire n Andrew's Rood (cross) -
salutary n friendly, good, helpful, kindly; good, healthy, wholesome -
salutation n greeting, welcome, hail -
salvation n lifeline

redding (<OE hreddung) halwendness (<OE hālwendnes)

salvo n unload, outburst -
sample vb to have a smack of, fore smack -
samurai n -Easternwye dawnlandish knight
sanctify vb hallow, behallow -
sanctuary n haven, grith, holyroom, hallow, holystead, frithhouse, frithstow -
Santa Claus n Father Christmas -
sapient n aware -
sapphire adj/n - bluehurst
sasquatch n Bigfoot -
Satanism n -Heathenish Satandom; Satan-worship
satchel n knapsack, rucksack -
satellite n moon

artificial: ironmoon, swail searsender,

umworld loftvat ("around-world-air-vessel" att'd on the Old English Wikipedia as ymbeworuldlyftfæt) / * NB: 'ump-' as in 'umpteen' = around an amount

satiate vb fulfill, quench, slake -
satire(ist) n heaning, heancraft(er), heanwriting(er) -
satisfaction n gladness

cwemeness (<OE cwemness), eadiness
befrithening (cf. NHG Befriedigung)

itheness (<OE  īeðnes)

satisfy vb gladden, slake, fulfill, sate, quench

queme, afill, befrith, sede (<OE ġesēdan)

saturate vb sop, soak, steep indrench (<OE indrencan)
Saturday n - Lyeday (< OE læg, leag "lye" (cognates: M.Du. loghe, Du. loog, OHG louga). The substance was formerly used in place of soap, hence OHG luhhen "to wash," ON laug "bath". ON laugardagr, Dan. lørdag, Swed. lördag "Saturday," literally "bath day".)
sauce n dip -
sauerkraut n - sourcole, sourkale
sauna n steam room hot-house, hotroom, sweatbath
sausage n pudding, banger swineflesh, meary (<OE mearh)
savage adj/n wild; wilder wildard
savanna; savannah n - sunwendly grassland

barrens

save vb keep, spare nere (<OE nerian, akin to NHG nähren)
redd (<OE hreddan 'to free from recover rescue save take away')
berg/barrow (<OE beorgan 'to save, preserve', Goth bairgan, OHG bergan, ON bjarga)
hain, stow, hoard, heal
saviour n -sparer healand (cf. NHG Heiland, from OHG Heliand 'the healing one')
halend, healer, healant (<OE hælend, in light of MnE 'coolant')

ner(i)gend (<OE, 'the Savior', cf. nerian)

savory adj -smeckfull hearthaft (cf. NHG herzhaft)
defty (cf. NHG deftig)
Saxon n Saxish
Saxony n Sexland

Saxland

Saxes

Saxen

scale vb climb -
scale n layout, frame, framework, mete, setup animal skin: shale (<M. Eng. schale)
scalpel n - leechsax

scapegoat

n - fenman (from Old Dutch thews of offering a man-bloot by either throwing the chosen into a fen, lynching them or throwing them into streams to undo the anger of the gods.)

singoat (cf. Du. zondebok; NHG Sündenbock)

scaphoid bone n - boatbone
scapula n shoulderbone, wingbone -
scar n blight, blotch, flaw, pockmark, wale, weal, wheal, wen, welt
scarabaeus stercoreous n - turd-weevil
scarce adj light, sparing; lacking, low, shy, wanting -
scarcely adv barely, hardly, narrowly, slightly -
scarcity n lack, shortness, seldomness, fewness, dearth -
scarlet adj -bawysbrown wormred (<OE wyrmread)
scatophilia n - dritelust
scatter vb broadcast, cast, deal out, go-off, go through, let go, oversow, overspread, put to flight, spread, strew -
scene n background, setting; blowup, fireworks; footing -
schizoid adj - splitlike (calque of Gk. schizein "split, break, shatter" and -oeides "like")

cleavemindy; mindcleavish

schizophrenia n - splitmindness, shattermindness (calques of Gk. schizein "split, break, shatter" and phrēn "mind, understaing")
kithshatter, kithcleave (cf. Ic. geðclofi)

wit-cleftness

scholar n learner fieldknower, learnand
scholarship n knowledge, learning bookhood, loreship
school n - learnhall
science n lore, wisdom witship (cf. Du. wetenschap, NHG wissenschaft )
scientist n -

witshipper (cf. Du. wetenschapper, NHG wissenschaftler)

loreman

scientific adj -craftly worldkenly, witshiply, lorely
scientific language n -

craftspeech (<OE cræftspræc)

scintillate vb sparkle, flash, shine, leam -
scissors n - shears (Scots cf. NHG. Scheren)
-scope sfx - -seer
scorpion n - stingtail, night-sting
scout n pathfinder foretrekker (< Afr. voortrekker, 'pioneer')
scowling adj - black-browed
screen n - shirm (<PG skirmiz, compare Du. scherm NHG. Schirm)
scribe n writer, logger -
scrotum n ballsack*, sack* (*but "sack" is from Latin saccus) cod (<OE codd)

ballbag (Scots bawbag, OE. beall and ON. baggi)

scrutinize vb - scrut (<OE scrutinan)

gaumgive (<Ic. gaumgæfa)

scrutiny n shroutening (<OE sċrūtnung)
sea monster n merfiend fivel (<OE)
search vb seek, rake, comb, delve, hunt nease (<OE neosan, to search out, find out by enquiry)
speer (<OE spyrian)
search word n - seekword
season n time, tide sele (<ME), yeartime, yeartide (by analogy from German Jahrzeit)
seat of joy n - gleestool (<OE glīwstōl)
sebum n tallow -
secede vb leave, withdraw, cleave, sunder, split off offsplit
secession n withdrawal, breakaway, parting, breakup, cleaving, sundering, splitting off offsplitting
secessionist n - offsplitter
second n moment: tick, eyeblink 

nutlog  (hour: log,  minute: shortlog)

second adj twoth next, other, after (obsolete), twithe (twi- + th as in four-th)
secret adj/n

adj: dern, hidden, withdrawn, unseen, inward, stealthy, untold, unbeheld, underground, underhanded, hushhush, inly n: dern

n: hiddle (<OE hydels), dyle (<ME diȝel, <OE dīegol) hushthought, hushword
roun(d) (< OE run, 'mystery, secret, rune'), hem (cf.NHG. heimlich NHG "geheim", Du. "geheim", Sw. "hemmelighet", Da. "hemmelig")

secret society n - himebind (cf. NHG "geheimbund") stealthfay (cf. Ic. "seynifélagið"), hidden guild
secretary n - inwriter
secrete vb seep, leak, ooze -
sect n block, body afterfollowing (<OE æfterfylgung)
section n bit, block
secular adj worldly, of this world, earthly -
secular n worldhood -
secularise/-ize vb - formean, forworlden (cf NHG verweltlichen)
secure adj

belayed, fast, steadfast

-
secure vb shield, ward; ice; more, set, fasten mound (<OE mundian 'to protect, shelter, guard)
security n - sickerness

sickerhood (NHG. Sicherheit)

sediment n dregs, silt, draff, dross -
seduce vb fortee, lead on spane (<OE spanan), adwell
segment n lith -
segregation n - beshedding, asunderhood
seize vb hold, hend, clutch, take, gripe

fang (<OE fangen), reach (<OE geræcan)

seizure n fit -
select vb choose, pick, wale -
selenium n - moonstuff
self-effacement n - self-naughting
self-esteem n self-worth -
self-restraint n - forhaveness (<OE forhæfnes)
semester n sixmonth, half-year -
seminar n workshop -
sempiternity n - endlessness, unendinghood, alwayness, everlastingness
semi- pref half-, sam-/sand-/some- (<OE sam-) -
semicircle n - halfring, samring
semisphere n - halfball, samball
senate n - eldermoot [elder: <L. senex + moot (council)]
senator n - folkwit (<OE folcwita), elder
senile adj doddery, doddering, elderly, old, doted -
senior citizens n elderly, old folks, eldfolk, eldman, the old -
sensate adj feeling -
sensation n 1. feeling 2. upthrill
sensational adj amazing wuldersome
sense n 1.feeling 2. meaning seave (<OE sefa)
sense vb feel -
sensible vb - feelbere (calque), begetful
sensitive adj feeling, keen, sharp -
sentence n wordset; byword, saw (ety. 2) cwide (<ME, OE cwide)
sentence vb doom -
sententious adj pithy -
sentience n awareness awaredom (obsolete OED word)
sentient life n wight, being -
sentiment n feeling, thought -
separate vb sunder, split, break, cleave, fork shed (<ME sheden: cf. NHG/Du. scheiden)
separate adj sundry, freestanding, sundered
cleave, cloven
shedded
separation n splitting, split shedding, asunderhood
September n - Holymonth (which was noted in OE), Sheddingmonth, Harvestmonth
Septuagesima n - Berueingtide (<OE berwosungtid)
sequel n - afterfollowing, forthsetting (<NHG Fortsetzung)
sequence n aftermath, backwash, child, outcome, outgrowth, upshot; string; setup gatherbinding
sequential adj back-to-back, straight, through fayed, gatherbinding
sequoia n - ettinfirwood (cf. Du. reuzenpijnboom)
series n line, stream -
serious adj earnest, unfunny, heavy, weighty -
seriously adv earnestly, thoroughly, wholeheartedly, with heart & soul, willingly, agoodly, weightily -
serpent n snake, worm  (<OE wyrm), adder slang (cf. NHG Schlange, Du. slang, Da. slange)
servant n besteader

housekeeper, maid (fm.), dey (fm.), bondsman, loaf-eater, knight, shalk, boy, thane (<OE þegn)

thew (obs.)

theener, theen (<OE þēonest cf. NHG Diener)

ambight (<OE ambiht)

serve vb help, dish, hye, bestead

theen (<OE þeġnian cf. NHG/Du. dienen)

thew, ambight (<OE geambihtan; onþéowian)

serf n thrall -
service n besteading

theen (<OE þēnest, cf. NHG Dienst)

betheening (cf. NHG Bedienung)

folgth (OE folgþ, ME, EME)

servile adj - thewly (<OE þéowlic)
session n sitting, stint -
settlement n hem, thorpe/thorp/dorp, wick, town, whistle-stop settlening, hemling, ham
several adj sundry -
severe adj stern, hard, harsh, tough, thorough -
severely adv hardly, roughly, sternly, stiffly; -
sewer n drain, sieve -
sex n kind folkhalf, hade
sex act n lovemaking swiving, heamedlock (<OE hæmedlac)
fleshly knowledge, bysleep (cf. NHG Beischlaf, DU bijslaap)
sexual reproduction n breeding swiveful matchyielding, swiveful matchbearing
sexy adj

hot, steamy,

come-hither

-
shantytown n tinstow, hutstead, slum -
shark n haye highcarl (cf. O.N. hákarl), dreadfish, sea dog
shingles n tetter -
show mercy vb spare orefast/arfast (<OE ārfæstan)
shrapnel n - blastfall, blastrain, blastbits
shrine n - waybed (<OE wigbed)
siege vb beleaguer, (um)beset -
Sierra Leone n - Lein (pr. lee-in) Ridgelands
sign n token, shingle, mark -
sign vb onmark, underwrite undertoken (calque of Ger. speech cf. NHG unterzeichnen, Du. ondertekenen)
signal n bale-fire, beacon -
significant adj weighty markworthy
silence vb hush, make still, soothe bestill, beroo (cf. NHG beruhigen)
silence n stillness forsowing (<OE forsuwung), roo (Eng., ME ro <OE rō, cf. NHG Ruhe )

bestillness

silicon n - flintstuff
similar adj alike akind, samekind
simple adj onefold -
single adj a, one -
sir n - hoar ; hare (ety. 3) (<OE hearra, cf. NHG Herr)
sire n lord hare
Sirius n Dog Star, Brightest Star -
site n stead point, location: 

ord (Eng.)

situate vb lay down, ground -
situation n lay? (cf. lay of the land) -
size n greatness grete (<ME <OE grīetu, cf. NHG Größe)
skateboard n/vb - rollboard

roller board

wheelboard (cf. Ic. hjólabretti)

skeleton n - boneset
slander n/vb n: smear

vb: belittle, defile, smear, sully, tarnish

holen (<ME holen < OE hōlian
slave n thrall theen (OE)
smuggler n - owler
snow globe/snowglobe n - snowkuggle (cf. NHG Schneekugel)
social media n - fellowly means
socialism n - fellowship, fellowdom
socialist adj - fellowshiply, fellowdomish
social/societal adj - -
society n -

small: fellowship, sithership (<OE gesíðscipe, cf. NHG Gesellschaft)
big: theed/thede (<OE þeod), leedship (<OE léodscipe, from lede), theid, landleed, kinrike (<OE), folk, folkstead (<OE), folkship (<OE) folcscipe)

sodium n - saltstuff
solar adj sun-like, sunly -
sole (foot) n - ile (<OE ile, cf. Ic. il), footfolm
solstice n sunstead sunwend (cf. Du. zonnewende, NHG Sonnenwende)

sunstandstill (cf. Du. zonnestilstand)

solve vb answer loose, loosen, lease (calque of Ger. speech)
soporific adj - sleep-giving
sorcery n witchcraft, dwimmer dreecraft, drycraft
sorrel n - sourleaf
sound n reard, cling, ring, loudness din, sough, yar/yer, loude, lidden (<OE hlýd, OE hlýden, cf. NHG. Laut, Du. geluid, Dan. lyd, Swed. ljud, Icel. hljóð)
sound v ring, clink, cling

sound like:

to be heard like...

to sound like: onhear/ hear on (NHG. anhören)
soup n broth, gruel -
source n birthplace, root, begetter, dawn, onset, start -
space n - room

astrology: roomth

spacious adj - roomy
spatial adj - roomthy
special adj - besunder (cf. NHG besondere)

sunderly (<OE sundorlic, cf. NHG sonderlich)

speciality n - besunderhood (cf. NHG Besonderheit)

ownhood/ship (cf. NHG Eigenheit/schaft)

species n - lifekin
specific adj - bestevened (cf. NHG bestimmt) (see steven)
specifically adv just
sphenoid bone n - wedgebone
sphere n - ball, kuggle (cf. NHG Kugel)
spice n - croud (cf. Du. kruid)
spine n backbone backridge
sponge n - swamb (<OE swamm)
sport n lake (ety. 2) -
spy n/vb sleuth: very late borrowing into Old English (near to 1200AD) from The Orrmulum. speer (<OE spyrian)

loosesheerwere (<OE lēassċēawere)

squadron n - sheltron, shieldtrum (<OE scieldtruma); swathe (cf. NHG Geschwader); stafle (cf. NHG Staffel)
square n - fourside (cf. Du. vierkant)
squirrel n acquerne O.E. ācweorna, O.N. loan in O.E. scug; skug. shadow-tail
standard adj stock, mean -
stapes n stirrup earstirrup, stirrupbone
state vb utter -
state n condition: lay? (cf. lay of the land)
polity: moot
-
statue n - standbilth (cf. Ger. Standbild; Du. Standbeeld)
status n rank -
statute n - setness
stay vb belive -
stellar adj starly -
sternum n breastbone -
stingray n - -
stomach n maw -
store vb keep, hoard -
story n tale, yarn -
strange adj outlandish, weird, unwonted, unknown, wild, odd, freakish, eerie fremd
strategy n plot wyecraft
street n road, roadway wainway, wagonway (to be brooked inborough to tell between the walking path (walkway) and the faring path)
stress n burden, weight, load thrutch (cf. NHG Druck)

belasting (cf. NHG belastung, Du. belasting)

strict adj hash, hard, stern, forbidding -
strive/strife vb/n fight -
structure n makeup upmake
study vb/n swot, either usage (up on), thought -
student n learner learningchild (<OE leorningcild)
style n kind -
sub- pref under-

(subsequent) after-

-
subject v - underthrow (cf. Du. onderwerpen, NHG. unterwerfen)
subject n - underthrow (cf. D. onderwerp)
submarine n/adj adj: undersea n: U-boat, diveboat (cf. Du. duikboot)
substance n stuff -
substitute vb swap outtrade (cf. NHG. austauschen)
replace: aset (cf. NHG ersetzen)
subtitle n - undername, understerling
suburb n - underborough (<OE underburg)
succeed vb go after spow (<OE spówan)
success n - spowing, afollowing (cf. NHG Erfolg)
successful adj - spowful, afollowfull (cf. NHG erfolgreich)
succumb vb - undernicken (<OE underhnigan); alie <alying;alay;alain (cf. NHG erliegen)
sudden adj swift, rushing, rash -
suddenly adv swiftly, rushingly, rashly, forthwith, straightaway -
suffer vb - thole (<OE þolian, þrowian)
(transitive) undergo
suffering n harm, ache, sorrow, woe, smarts -
suffix n - word tail, endfastening
sugar n sweethurst (hurst is old english for crystal) sweetcristle (<late OE, denoting ice or a mineral resembling it, from Old French cristal, from Latin crystallum, from Greek krustallos ‘ice, crystal') sweetmote
sugar cane n - sweetreed (cf. Du. suikerriet)
suggest vb imply: hint, infold
offer: bid
imply: ettle, bysay
sulfur n brimstone -
sum (up) vb cast up, tally up -
sunflower n - sunbloom (<NHG. Sonnenblume)
super adj/pfx adj: over, overly

pfx: over-

-
supercalifragilisticexpialidocious adj - overfairnessbrokenliatoneliteachworthy
supercontinent n - overworlddeal
superhero n - overheleth
superhuman adj - overman
supernatural adj otherwordly -
supervillain n - overnithing, overnither
supervise vb oversee -
supervisor n overseer -
supplement n - togive
supply n yield, stock, spring -
supply vb yield, feed, fill -
support vb back up, forward, foster, upbring,

uphold, underprop, upstart, underset

bestaddle, understut (cf. NHG unterstützen) (spoken as "stoot"),

stut
support n back up fultum
suppose vb ween, believe, guess, think, reckon, forethink
sure adj wis -
surface n overlay, layer -
surprise vb stun, astound, overcome overrrush (NHG überrraschen)
surrender vb yield, hand over, give up overgive
surround vb - umgive (cf. Du. omgeven; NHG umgeben)
survive vb outlive (current in some senses) overlive (cf. NHG. überleben Du. overleven Dan. overleve Norw. overleve Swed. överleva)
susceptibility n openness, givenness, helplessness -
susceptible adj given, open; helpless alout (<OE áloten) v. forthlout (<OE forþlútan); onfally (<NHG. anfällig) (see onfall)
suspect vb mistrust, underlook forthink (cf. Du./NHG. verdenken)
suspicion n mistrustfulness, underlook forthought (cf. Du. verdachting, NHG. verdacht)
suspicious adj mistrustful, wary forthoughtful/ forthoughty (cf. Du.
sustain vb underhold, uphold, stay -
suitable adj fit -
swastika n fylfot, gleerune (as a religious symbol) hookrood (cf. NHG Hakenkreuz)
syllable n - staveset
synesthesia n - linked feeling (calque)
synonym n - likeword, selfsame
system n layout, makeup stellelse (cf. Du. stelsel)

outlay, upmake

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