eStaff R of the English Wordbook.

Basic abbreviations:

  • OE = Old English
  • NHG = New High German
  • Du. = Dutch

For a full list of etymological and other abbreviations used in these wordlists, see: Offshortenings.


Chancery English Class Anglish/English
Attested Unattested/Obsolete
rabbit n hare rob (<Flem. or M.Du. robbe "rabbit")
raccoon n washbear -
race n kind, stock strain (<OE strynd) sley (<NHG Geschlächt)
radar n - forereader, far reader, wavereader, wavemeter (with the element "-meter" based on the verb OE - metan)
radiant adj shiny, bright, beaming, glowing, gleaming throughbright (<OE þurhbeorht)
radiate vb shine, gleam, shed, send out, beam -
radio n/adj wireless (gadget) funkbox (<OE funcia "spark" + box, cf. NHG Funkgerät)


radioactive n lightrotting
radiotelegraphy n broadcasting -
radio wave n ringwave funkwave (cf. NHG Funkwelle)
radius n - spoke, halfspan
rage n wrath greme (<OE gremian)
railroad n - ironroad, ironpath, sporroad (<OE spor)
rancid adj rotting, reeking, smelly, stale, foul, dank, rank, taff -
random adj/n hit-or-miss, slay, may-fall, pot shot.

fallenly, tofally (cf. NHG zufällig)

willcury (calque of Du. willekeurig, with the element "-cury" based on OE -cyrge in wælcyrge "Valkyrie") see The word "random".

random page n - willcurrry trammet; may-fall leaf.
range n reach, stretch -
ranger n keeper, warden, overseer upseer (cf. NHG aufseher)
rank n

row, standing, 

hoad (<OE hád)
rankle vb gall, irk -
rape vb/n - needheemed (<OE níedhæmed)
rapid adj fast, quick, speedy, swift snell
rappel vb abseil -
rare adj seldom, seldseen, unlikely, fewsome, seldsome, seldly
rarely adv seldom -
rarified adj fewsome, thin -
rarify vb make seldom beseldom, selden, befew, bedearth, thin
rarity n seldiness,seldomhood, dearth, fewness -
raspberry n -hindberry hindberry (cf. Dn. hindbær)
rate n speed,  runledge, setledge
rational adj well-grounded, wise

shedwise (<OE scéadwís), angetful

rationalism n - anget, shedwiseness
ravage vb - forspill
ravine n chine, gap, ditch, gulch, ghyll crundle (<OE)
ray (of light) n beam streal/streel (<OE strǽl, cf. NHG Strahl; the vowel would be expected to be variable in ME as in speech, seed, deed)
ray (animal) n - reagh (<OE reohhe cf. NHG Rochen, Du. Rog)
razor n shaver -
re- pref with-, gain- and- (obs.) , ed- (obs.) , eft- (obs.)
realise/ realize vb find out, get on, wise up, dawn upon bemark (Du./NHG. bemerken)

beaughten (NHG. beachten)

real adj true, heartfelt; weighty, out-and-out, echt sooth
reality n being, truth,  wareness/warehood (calque), soothness

workliness/worklihood (cf. Du werkelijkheid/ NHG. Wirklichkeit) 

really adv truly soothly, sooth


realm (royal) n kingdom -
realm n world, land,  -
reason n/vb

grounds, wherefore, why, sake

vb: reckon, make out, work out

faculty:  mind, brains, understanding

frum (<OE fruma)

inthing (<OE intinga/inþing)
ontimber (<OE ontimber)
orsake (calque)
reðe (<OE rǣd)
anget (<OE andgiet)
rack (<OE racu)
rightwiseness (<OE rihtwísnes)
shedwiseness (<OE scéadwísnes)
shed (<OE gescéad)
wit (<OE gewitt)
nift (cf. NHG Vernunft, Dn. fornuft)

reasonable adj well-grounded shedwise (<OE scéadwís)

shedly (<OE gescéadlic)

rebel n withstander withercor (<OE wiðercorra) pl: withercorren (<OE wiðercorran); upstander, upstandling (cf. Du. opstandeling)
rebel vb rise up withsee (<OE wiþsēon), withfight (<OE wiþfeohtan)

upstand (cf. Du. opstand; pron. up-STAND)

rebellion n outbreak, uprising upstand (cf. Du. opstand; pron. UP-stand)
rebellious adj - upstandy (cf. Du. opstandig)
rebuke vb threap, chide, tick off; berate, call down strife, threw/threaw (<OE þrēawan)
recall vb withcall, withdraw, bethink withmind, call to mind, think back to
recapitulation n going over again withspelling (<OE eftspellung), withhaul (cf. NHG wiederholen)
receive vb get, win, earn, take beget

thedge (<OE thicgan),  fang (<OE fōn)

receipt n sales slip, sales stub
recently adv lately, newly tidely, shortago
reception n welcoming
recite vb yarn, reel off reich
recline vb lie back, lie down, stretch heel -
recognise vb acknow, acknowledge yeme, onget (<OE ongietan)
recommend vb - ettle, befeal (<NHG. empfehlen)
recompense n - gainyield
reconsideration n afterthought, edsmighing
reconcile vb key braid up
reconciliation n - andweaving
record v log, write down, list
sound or video: tape
fortoken (cf. NHG verzeichnen, Swed. förteckna)
record n log lorekeep
recover vb heal, win back, take back intrans: edworp (<OE edwyrpan)

trans: agive (<OE agifan)

edtake ( using ed+take )

recovery n comeback, pick-up, upwend, upswing, healing edworping (<OE edwyrping), greenshoot
recreätion n 1. fun and games 2. andweaving
recriminate vb - threap, blackblame
recruit vb fledgling, freshman, greenhorn, newcomer inspan
rectangle n - righthook (cf. Du. rechthoek)
rectum n - endtharm (calque, see tharm)
recurrence n comeback, flashback withhauling (cf. NHG wiederholung)
recurrent adj on-and-off andbearing (<OE býrian 'to happen, pertain to, belong to')

withhauled (cf. NHG sich wiederholend)

redeem vb - alease (<OE aliesan)
redemption n - eftleesing (<OE eftlésung)
red ochre (Fe2O3) n - ruddle
redo vb - withdo
reduce n lessen, lower -
redundance n - eftflowing (<OE eftflowung)
refer (to) vb hint forwise (to) (cf. Du. verwijzen; NHG verweisen)

mind, ettle

reference n hint, underlying meaning betug (cf. NHG bezug)
referendum n - folkspoll, folksstevening (Du. volksstemming), folksanswer (NHG. 'Volksentscheid')
refined adj trim, couth -
reflect vb show gain/withleam, gain/withshine
reflection n glance, backshine gain/withleaming, gain/withshining
reflect on vb think over, bethink, think about look back on overthink (<OE oferþencan)
reform vb/n mend, shape up, straighten ameeding, edhuing, forbetter
reformer n - ameeder, edhuer (cf. OE geedhiwod "reformed, given new shape"), forbetterer (cf. NHG Verbesserer)
refractory adj froward, wayward, willful witherhedging (<OE)
refrain n - offbreak
refrain vb forbear -
refrigerator n - coolshap (calque)
refuge n haven, bolt-hole, harbour, shelter lee (<OE hlēo)
refugee n runaway

flightling (cf. Dan. flygtning, Du. vluchteling, NHG Flüchtling), haven seeker, lea(wo)man

refulgent adj shining -
refurbish vb overhaul furb, ednew
refuse n chaff, deadwood, dross, spilth, rubbish, waste -
refuse vb spurn, forbear asake, withquethe, forbid, score (<OE scorian)
refute vb belie

allay (<OE álecgan), forkithe (<OE forcýðan), onsake (<OE onsacan), withshove (<OE wiþscúfan), witherlay (cf. NHG widerlegen)

regard vb cast, eye, peep -
regarding prep about, as for, as to -
regency n - byredom (byrede + -dom)
regenerate adj freshen, make anew withquicken, withbeget (re- "with-" + genero "I beget"), edquicken (OE edcwicken)
regent n - byrede (by- "para-" + rede "ruler")
regicide n kingslayer kyne-murder, king-slay
regime n yoke, rike -
regiment n - fight(ing)thede
region n field; land, neck landship
regret vb rue -
regular adj everyday; steady reghelish (reghel borrowed from Latin to OE)
regulate vb oversee, wield, steer, lead -
regulation n wielding, overseeing, law insetness (<OE insetnes)
regulator n overseer -
reign n kingship, queenship rede, athelingship
reign vb (cf. regulate) rix (<OE rīxian, rīcsian), overbebeed (<OE oferbebēodan)
rein vb/n - tygel (<OE)
reïnforce vb strengthen, trim, gird, bolster, harden up, uphold, make firm, underset -
reject vb/n n: casting off, outcast

vb: nix; cast off, dump, fling off/away, slough off, throw away, toss, unload; spurn

n: forwarp (<OE forweorpan), withchoose (<OE wiþceosan)

vb: forwerp

offlean (cf. NHG ablehnen)

offwise (calque of many germ. languages)

rejoice vb - driem (<OE drīeman)
rejoice with vb - driem with, evenbliss (<OE evenblisan)
rejuvenate vb freshen, youthen edyoung

re- (“again”) +‎ Latin iuvenis (“young”) +‎ -ate

So, Gainyouthen or, Withyouthen

Foryouthen (NHG, verjüngen)

relapse vb backslide -
relate phr vb bond, click; link kithe (<OE cythan)
related adj akin (to), kindred, sibbed to, tosameness forwent (cf. NHG verwandt)
relative(s) n kin, kindred, kinfolk, kinsmen, kinship, sib, sibling, bysib, own flesh & blood

blood-bondling, bloodsib close: hyldenmay (<OE hyldenmǣġ)

murder of: maymurder (<OE mǣġmorðor), kinslaughter

relations n dealings, bond, link up, hook up, tie up, fellowship -
relationship n kinship, bearing; hookup, linkup, tie-up

maythhood (<OE mǣġðhād

relax vb chill (out),  loosen up, mellow out, unwind; ease, loosen, slack unspan (<OE onspannan, cf. NHG entspannen)
relaxation n fun and games; ease

stillness (<OE stillnes/stilnes)
unspan (<OE spannen)

relaxed adj smooth, loose, mellow unspant
release n outlung, loosing -
release vb free, let go, loosen alease
reliable adj trustworthy -
relieve n lighten, soothe, unburden, allay, still (the fears), salve, alight -
religion n worship, troth lief
religious adj worshipful liefbound
relinquish vb

cough up, give up, hand over, yield; step down

upgive, agive (<OE agiefan, cf. NHG ergeben)
reluctant adj chary, unwilling, loath pullbackish
remain vb -

belive (<OE belifan, cf. NHG bleiben, Du. blijven) bide, linger

remainder n - lave, dross, orts
remains n ashes, rubble, wreck; bones, stiff; leavings, leftovers, odds and ends -
remedy n heeling, salve, boot (etymology 3) -
remember vb

hark back, mind, think of, call to mind, bethink, mark, withcall


memorize: bear in mind

edcall, amone (<OE ġemunan), mind back,

umbethink (<dialectal North & Scots English)

inmind, stockmind

remind vb call to mind mane (<OE manian)
reminder n - eftminding, umbethinking (dialectal North & Scots English)
reminisce vb - eftmind
remnant n leftover -
remote adj slight, slim, small; cold-eyed, stadoffish; hidden; deep, far-flung -
remove vb foredo (with immaterial object), unstay, take out, draw out unshrithe
renaissance n - andblowing, agenbirth (agen (Again)+birth)
renal adj kidney -
rename vb - edname, agenclepe, edclepe, ed-deem
render vb cough up, give up, hand over, yield -
renew vb - ednew (<OE edniwian)
renewal n - ednewing
renewed adj - ednewed
renounce vb give up, forsake, step aside, step down; forswear, take back, unsay, withdraw, withsake asake ~ past: asook
renovate vb fix Old French ednew (<OE edniwian)
reorganize vb - edstight
repair vb mend -
repartee n backchat -
repeat vb say again edsay, edledge (<OE edlǽcan)

withhaul (NHG. Wiederholen)

repeater n - electronics: withhauler
repel vb beat off, withdrive; buck, withstand -
repent vb bemoan, rue forthink (cited by William Tyndale), after-think (Lancashire dialect)
repercussions vb - kickback
repetition n - edsaying
replace vb - aset (a- + set, cf. NHG ersetzten)

substitue: outtrade (cf. NHG austauschen) edstowe, right (<OE rihtan)

replenish vb fill up, fill, make full again edfill
reply vb/n answer

andword (<OE andwyrd; cf. NHG Antwort, Du. antwoord)

Andsware (<OE andsware)

report v - bewrite
report n - bewriting
repose n rest -
repository n hoard -
reprehensible adj - forwarply (cf. NHG verwerflich)
represent vb stand for, betoken aspell, fortread (cf. NHG vertreten)
representative n spokes(wo)man

atstandand (<OE ætstandend)

aspellend, fortreader (cf. NHG Vertreter)

repress vb crack down on, crush, slap down, snuff out; hold back, sink, swallow bethryck (<be + OE þryccan, "press down")
reprimand vb upbraid, tell off -
reprove vb chide, tick off: mislike, tut over wite, threap (<OE þréapan)
reproach vb bawl out, berate, call down, flay, rag, upbraid: chide, tick off threigh (<OE þrēagan)
reptile n creeping thing (found in Bibles; translation of Hebrew) creepdeer (cf Nw. krypdyr)
crawldeer (cf Sw. kräldjur)
republic n - ledeward, mootrick
reputation n mark, name namecouth (<OE namcuþ)
request n call, ask (rare) -
request vb ask, put in: beseech, call for, seek -
require vb need, tharf onseek (<OE onsécan)
requirement n need, must -
rescribe vb write back edwrite
rescue vb free, bring off

nere (<OE ánerian, NHG nähren) redd (<OE hreddan “to save, deliver, recover, rescue”, cf. NHG./Du./Dan./Now. retten)

research n delving, groundwork speering, speering

forshing (cf. NHG Forschung) forshening (cf. Dan. forskning)

<PG faurskon

legwork (informal)

underseek (cf. Du onderzoek and NHG. untersuchen)

research vb dig into, look into, delve into speer (<OE spyrian), underseek 
resemblance n alikeness, look, blee, bly suchness
resemble adj seem like, look like -
resemble v belike -
resentment n down; huff, miff hattleness
reservation n booking forebeholding (cf. NHG Vorbehaltung)
reserve n keep, hoard; backup, fill-in berg
reserve vb book; keep, hoard; backup, fill-in berg (<OE beorgan)
reserve adj spare berg, forehold (cf. NHG vorbehalten)
reserved adj character: withdrawn
reservoir n - waterberg
reside vb live, dwell abide, wone, erde, wick
residence n home, dwelling abode, erding, erdingstow
permit: dwell-leave (cf. Ic. dvalarleyfi), abode-leave
residue n ashes, rubble, wreck; leavings, leftovers, odds and ends stufflave
resign vb step down, forlet, bow out -
resilient adj springy, limber wending
resist vb withset, withstand, hinder, stand up to withlay
resistance n withsetting withlaying, backlash
resistant adj steady, steadfast, abiding, withstanding bestandy/bestanding (NHG. beständig)
resolute adj set

one-minded, stith (<OE stiþ)

resonate v - withswing (cf. NHG mitschwingen)
resort vb - brook, betake
resource vb - orshaft
respawn vb - backbirth
respect n heed, aught  onlook (<OE anlec), edsight
respect vb - aughten (<NHG. achten) (see aught)
respectable adj - aughtworthy
respectful adj - aughtful (cf. NHG achtvoll)
respond vb answer -
response n answer, feedback -
responsibility n plight, plighting Foranswering (NHG. Verantwortung)
responsible adj trustworthy, upstanding, bedrock, sound, plighted Foranswerly (NHG. Verantwortlich)

guilt: shildy (OE)

responsive adj quick, awake, sharp, open-minded, quick-minded, willing, answering -
rest (else) n - laf (<OE)
restart vb - edstar, start anew (from scratch)
restaurant n cheap: beanery


mealhall, reardhall (OE reordan 'to feast')

restore(ation) n freshen(ing)

ednew(ing) (<OE edniwung) edstow(ing), edstall(ing)

restored to life pt phr - edcwickened (<OE edcwic)
restrain vb bridle, fetter belean (<OE)
restraint n bridle, fetter beleaning
restrict v betighten
restriction n betightening
result n outcome, outfollow, upshot, aftermath offleading (<Ic. af-leiðing), edspring (calque), eftspring (calque), fint (< OE finta, meaning 'consequence, result' also 'tail')
resurrect vb gainrise (Cheke) edsty/edstie (<OE stīgan)
resurrection n gainrising (Cheke) -
retail vb deal in, sell, put up fordrive (cf. NHG vertreiben)
retain vb keep, withhold; hire athave
retaliate vb hit back, strike back, take an eye for an eye yield back, wend upon
retard n dimwit, dolt dwease (<OE dwæs)
retard vb break, slacken -
retardation n slowing, latening -
retardation n - backwardness, beslowedness
retina n nethide (calque of German Netzhaut)
retire vb withdraw, yield, pull out
retirement n - forleaving, withdrawing
retort n yieldback, wisecrack, backlash -
retract vb take back, withdraw -
retreat vb withdraw -
retrieve vb - withfind
retrograde adj backward -
return n comeback; earnings, incoming

andcome, gainfare (<OE geanfær)

return vb come back edwhirve (<OE edhwirfan), edwend, andgive
reveal vb bare, unsheath, unfold, unlock yondshow, unhele, swettle
revel vb bathe, wallow, frolic -
revelry n merry-making -
revenant n - andcomer
revenge vb yieldback, get back, get even with -
reverberation n - withercling
revenge n wrack, wreak -
revenge porn n wrackful whoreshowing
revere vb worship -
reverend adj hallowed -
reverie n daydreaming, woolgathering sweven
reverse/reversal n knock, setback; flip-flop -
revert vb - andwharve
revive vb freshen, breathe life back into

edquicken (<OE edcwician)

revolution n - ywhorft (<OE gehwyrft), overhaul, overthrow, overthrowing, uprisin

turning: whorft (<OE hwyrft), umbewrithing

revolve vb spin umbwerve
reward n -

meed (obs); afterlean (<OE æfterléan)

reward vb -

meed; afterlean (OE léanian)

rhetoric n wind mathelcraft (OE maðelung), speechcraft
rhinoceros n - nosehorn (calque of Gk. rhinokeros (rhinos "nose" + keras "horn")

hornpig, hornhog, hornswine

rhombus n - roit (cf. Du. ruit; Ger. raute)
rhyme n rime -
rhythm n riff -
ridiculous adj chucklesome, sidesplitting, silly laugtherly (<OE hleahterlic)
rifle n - scratchgun, shattergun, shouldershooter (<OE sculdorscēota), furrowgun (<OE furhscēota)
righteous(ness) adj - rightwise(ness) (<OE rihtwís(nes))
rigid adj stiff, hard -
rigorous adj thorough -
riot/revolt/rebellion n - crowdburst
risk n gamble, long shot -
risky n gamblesome unsound
river n

ea, aa, stream, flow, flood

estuary: fleet (<OE fleot, ?Ebbsfleet)

flood (<OE flōd)

rite n - right, geright (<OE gerihte)

onsayedness (<OE onsægednes)

ritual n/adj ae (<OE æ)right (<OE gerihte)
river course n flow  ?fleetway
rivulet n

brook, stream, runnel, rith, sike

rindle small water course or gutter

small stream: riþ (word still found in N Frisian ride, rie 'bed of running water')

burn, bourn (<OE burna 'brook, stream, spring or well water')

rob (though it first came from french the word is germanic, from frankish "robon" ) v sneaky filch

violent bereave, steal

robbery n sneaky filching

violent reaving

robin n redbreast ruddock
robust adj fit, hale, hearty, sound, whole; flush, lusty, ful-blooded: big, full, plush, rich; strong -
rocket n - rock, rocker (OHG. rocko "distaff," ON. rokkr)
rodent n gnawer gnawdeer (cf. Du. knaagdier)
rogue n/adj - shirk
role n playwork, deedwork -




vb: trundle

skins (attested), smoking-skins



roller skates n - rollshoes (cf. NHG Rollschuh)

roller shoes

rollercoaster n big dipper, switchback eightway (cf. Du. achtbaan; NHG Achterbahn)
roman adj - romish
romanticism n - lovecraft

storm-and-throng (cf. H Du. Sturm und Drang)

rooster n cock (but "rooster" is also from a native root) -
rose (flower) n - loveblossom, lovebloom
rotate vb spin werve
rotund adj wheelshaped -
round adj wheelshaped trind (shaped from OE trinda and NE trindle)
route n pathway, way -
royal adj kingly, cweenly -
royalty n kingship -
ruby adj/n - redhurst
rude adj unbehaved, uncouth -
ruin vb/n wreck, mar, downfall -
rule vb lead, look over, oversee, rix (att'd <OE rīxian, rīcsian), overwatch rede, hold sway
rule n - -
ruler n drighten, leader, overseer, overwatcher reder
ruling adj leading, lordly -
rumour n hearsay -
rural adj outburg, fieldly lundly
Russia n - Russland
rustic n backwoodsman, boor, bumpkin, bushwhacker, clodhopper, churl, crofter, greenhorn, hayseed, hind, hillbilly, husbandman, plowman, redneck, share-cropper, swain, woodsman -

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