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Staff P of the English Wordbook.

Basic abbreviations:

  • OE = Old English
  • NHG = New High German
  • Du. = Dutch

For a full list of etymological and other abbreviations used in these wordlists, see: Offshortenings.


A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z



Chancery English Class Anglish/English
Attested Unattested
pabulum n fodder, food of thought -
pace vb/n speed; step, walk, stride, tread -
pacifist n dove frithweaver
package n wrapping -
paddle n oar -
pædophile n - childluster
pædophilia n - childlust
pagan n heathen -
page n side, sheet, leaf

trammet (<OE tramet), leafside
servant: theen 

pacify vb allay smolten, befrith
pain n smart(ing), soreness, acheness, sorrow, care, teen(e) (obsolete), warch/wark (obsolete; k-form may be due to influence from Norse), woe
painful adj acheful, nasty, sore, harsh, harrowing, smarting -
paint vb/n mete (obsolete, but in the OED)

meal (<OE mǽlan)

n: farbe (<OE færbu) v. fay (<OE fǽgan) v. mete/meet (< OE (á)métan)

painting n meting (obsolete) mealwork (cf. Ic. málverk)
pair n twain, twin, set -
palace n hall kingshouse, kingshome

kinghove (<OE cynehof), king's dwelling

palate n roof of the mouth

goome (<OE góma)

palatine bone n - goomebone, roofbone
pale adj bleach, dull, fallow, light, washed-out; ashen, doughy, mealy, wan -
pale n wall, weir -
paleo- pfx ur-, or- -
paleography n - ur-/orwritelore
paleolithic adj - ur-/orstonely, orstonish
paleontology n - ur/orwightlore
palindrome n - crabword, drowword
palisade n - stakehedge, stakewall, stakework
boardwall (<OE bredweall)
palliate vb whitewash; ease, soothe -
pallid adj ashen, doughy, mealy, wan, ghastly, grey, bleak, white, sickly, ill -
palmtree n - folmtree, handtree
palpitate vb throb -
pamphlet n flyer, folder, leafling leafel
panaceä n heal-all (not common, but in OED) allheal (calque)
pancreas n - sweet kernel
pancreas (when used as a food) n gut bread -
panda bear n - eastern bear, eyeshadowbear
Pangaea n - Alland (all + land; calque)
pangolin n - scaledeer (calque)
panic n fright -
panorama n - allsight; roundsight (cf. NHG Rundblick)

umsight (see um-)

Panthalassa n - Alsea (all + sea; calque)
pant(aloon)s n breeches, britches, shorts, leggings, hosen, trouser -
pants, under- n undies, underwear, drawers netherlings, underkegs
papaya n - blasterapple (calque of Cuban Spanish "fruta bomba")
paper n

leaf, sheet, looseleaf

blade,


  • 'paper' in OE (from Latin) means papyrus*
para- suffix over-
parable n likeness, byword -
parachute n -

fallward (calque of French parachute, para (defense against) + chute (a fall)

fallshirm (cf. NHG. Fallschirm, Du. valscherm)

fallscreen [calque of German Fallschirm, Fall (fall) + Schirm (screen) ]

paraclete n - forverghost (<OE forforgast)
paradise n heaven, the afterlife, neorxnawang narxenwong (newtiding of OE neorxnawang; c.f. dark < OE deorc)
paradisiacal adj heavenly heavenlike, narxenwongly
parallel adj akin, matching getherwended, withstraight
parallelogram n - akinside
paralysed(ysis) adj/n lame(ness), lamed -
paramour n lover leman
paranoia n mistrust mad mistrust
paranoid n - mad misgiver, overmistruster
paranormal adj otherwordly overmean
paraphrase n/vb - n. edwording

vb. edword

parasite n bloodsucker, free rider sidefeeder (calque of Gk. parasitos, para (beside) + sitos (food)
parasitism n bloodsucking, freeriding sidefeeding
parasol n sunshade -
parchment n bookfell -
parent n elder; father or mother, childrearer may (<OE mǣġ)
parenting n elderhood, childrearing, raising children/a child -
parenthesis n - breeches
parents n elders, folks mays (<OE mǣġas)
pariah n outcast, castoff, black sheep -
parietal bone n - skullwall
parish n - bedeshire
park n - parrock, eddish (not exact: yard, field)
parliament n - ledeward, lawmoot
parrot n - redemouthe (OE < rēodmūða)

chatterbird

parsimonious adj mean, stinting, tightfisted flint-skinning
parsley n - crispleaf
part n deal, share, bit -
part vb split, break, sunder -
partake vb have bytake, dealnim; thy (<OE þicgan; c.f. lie < licgan, buy < bycgan)
partial n - bent (on), slanted (toward)
participate vb - dealnim (<OE dælniman)
participation n -

dealnimhood

in the Eucharist:  mansomeness (<OE ġemænsumnes)

participant n - dealnimmer
participle n - dealnimmand (<OE dælnimand)
particle n mote, bit, crumb, mite, nip, shed; fleck, flyspeck, snip wordling grammar
particularly adv namely, above all, all the more, at length, ever so, in the main, more than ever hure (<OE huru), sunderly
partition n wall, wough -
partner vb/n mate

in crime: wisithe (<OE wīġesīþ)

parturition n childbirth, birthing -
party n gathering, fungathering, merrymaking, bash -
parvenu n upstart -
pascal adj - tholing
pass vb overtake, overstep

hand over, give

-
passage n path, way, pathway, footway, footpath extract: plucking
passage of time n flow of time timeflow
passenger n faregoer byfarer
passive adj idle throwendly (<OE þrowiendlic)
passport n - wayleave, fareford, trekford
past n/adj bygone, forgone, former, last forthwist (<OE forðgewitan), forganghood (<NHG vergangenheit), forgonehood / forgoneness
pasta n noodle -
pasture n grassland, lea, meadow leasow
patella n kneecap -
paternal adj fatherly -
Paternoster n Our Father Lord's Bead
pathetic adj rueful, ruthful, sad -
pathos n sadness -
patience n forbearing(ness) thild (<OE geþyld, cf. NHG Geduld)
moodthwearness (<OE módþwǽrnes)
patient adj forbearing thildy (<OE þyld, cf. NHG geduldig)
patria n homeland, fatherland, motherland -
patriarch n elder, eldfather highfather (<OE hēahfæder)
patriarchy n - fatherwield
patrician n - highholder (<OE héahealdor)
patricide n - fatherslaughter, fathermurder
patrimony n fathersland -
patriotic n home-loving landtrothen, fatherlandish (calque)
patriotism n home-love, flag-waving (pejorative) landtrothenness, fatherlandloving, motherlandtrothness
patron n backer, bestower -
patronage n business, trade -
pattern n cut, doing, doings, folkway, goings-on, layout, outline, setting, shape, set-up, warp & woof, way, ways, weave, web, yardstick model: 

Forelay (NHG. Vorlage)

pause n break, let-up -
paucity n lack, fewness -
pavement n sidewalk, footpath, walkway -
pay vb yield, buy (it) betale (cf. NHG bezahlen, Du. betalen)
payment n fee betaling (cf. Du. betaling, NHG Bezahlung)
peace n frith, bliss sib (<OE sibbe)
peaceful adj dovish frithsome (cf. NHG. firedsam, Du vreedzaam)
peach n - perseapple (ancient Greek calque)
peal vb ring, toll -
peanut (OE from Latin) n earthnut, groundnut -
pearl n - seahurst (OE meregrot 'sea particle'; OE hyrst 'gem'), sandhurst
peasant n churl, boor, yeoman, husbandman, landman -
peasant farmer n bour (<OE būr) pl: bours (<OE būras); cf. neighbour
peculation n thefting -
peculiar adj freak, unwonted markingly (cf. Nw. merkelig)
pedagogue n teacher -
pedal n footkey -
pedal adj foot(ed) -
pedantic n/adj

inkhorn(y), know-it-all,  nitpicking, teachy;

n: dryasdust

-
pedestal n - footstone (<OE fótstán)
pedestrian n walker footman, footfarer, footgoer
peel n husk, rind, shell, skin -
peel vb rend, skin, shell, tear, pull off, slough off -
peep vb/n

cast, eye

slang: gander

-
pegasus n - winged horse
pejorative adj slighting -
pelican n -

wanfoot

dive-dapper or dive-dopper (<OE dūfedoppa; the first element is related to the verb "dive", not the noun "dove"; see OED entries "dive-dap|dive-dop" and "dive-dapper")

pellucid adj unclouded -
pelt n fell, hide -
pen n marker writler, writingfeather, writingiron (< OE wrítung-ísen), writsax (< OE writ-seax), reed, quill (uncertain origin)
penance n bote -
penchant n leaning, fondness -
pencil n - leadstick, graystick, writingstick
penetrate vb thrill, bore -
peninsula n arm, foreland, headland, ness, spit -
pentagon n - fiveside, fivenook, fivedge
Pentecost n Whitsunday -
penultimate adj last- but-one, next-to-last, forelast -
penis n

pizzle, dick/cock (both slang; both vulgar), pintle (<OE), yard, shaft (slang), manhood (slang)

brine hose (slang), bockler (Old Norse "bqllr")
penitence n rueness (<OE hreonisse), ruefulness, ruth -
penurious adj stingy -
people n

folk; throng (group of people)

lede (<OE lēod, cf. NHG Leute, cf. Du. lieden)
perceive vb see, smell, smack, fang, wit, witness; make out

yeme, onget

bemark (cf. NHG./Du. bemerken)

upmark (cf. Du. opmerken)

percent n - hundredth(s)
perception n insight, grip, hold yeming, onget
undergetting, understanding, truetake, soothtake
percolate vb leach -
perdition vb forelornness -
peregrine falcon n duck hawk

duckhawk, wanderfalk (cf. Dn. vandrefalk, NHG. Wanderfalke)

perfect adj flawless; all-out, blank, blooming, clean, sheer, flat-out

bild-board, swotel

fulmade (cf. Du. volmaakt)

perfect vb hone, fullcome -
perfidious adj unfaithful, untrustworthy -
perforate vb riddle, thrill, stick, thirl/thurl (< OE thyrel; now obsolete or dialectal)
perform vb do forth, do, behave, work, play

uptread (theatrical; cf. Du. optreden)

theen (<OE ġeþēon)

perfume n -

duft, cride

athelstench (<OE æðelstenċ)
wortbreath (<OE wyrtbrǣþ)

perfunctory adj halfhearted, careless -
period n while, timespan, time frame, spell -
perish vb forfare, forworth, swelt (dialectal) -
perjure vb/ n forswear, lie under oath, oathbreach, oathbreaking

-

perhaps adv maybe, mayhap byhaps, weenings (<OE wenunga)
perimeter n brim, hem, rim, skirt mireline
permanent adj everlasting, eche (archaic), timeless, lasting

highfast (<OE hēahfæst), foreversome

permafrost n - everfrost
permission n letting, leave, green light, furlough letship, thave (<OE þafian), tholing
tithe financial, lethood, letship
permit vb/n

green-light, leave, let, go-ahead

thave (<OE þafian), thole
tithe (<OE tiðian)
pernicious adj baleful, baneful -
pernio n chilblain -
perpendicular adj straight, upright -
perpetually adj everlastingly, aye, unendingly -
perpetuity, in adv forevermore -
perplex vb bewilder bewonder
persecute vb ail,  hound -
persecution n witch hunt, hounding -
perseverance n sticktoitivenesss -
persistence adj steadfastness -
persistent adj steadfast, dogged, bound -
person n

being, body, fellow, man, soul, wight, bloke

lede/leed(e) (<OE lēod, cf. NHG Leute, cf. Du. lieden)

mennish (cf. Du. mens; NHG Mensch)

grammar: sway (<OE swég)

personal adj selfly, monnly, self, own; inner, innermost, inmost; belittling; near; of oneself mennishly
personality n egg, mood, selfhood -
personnel n staff, men, ware -
perspective n outlook, ken view, opinion: onsight (cf. NHG ansicht),

outsight (Eng., cf. Du uitzicht, NHG aussicht)

wist (native English kin to 'view' and 'vista'), wholesight

perspicacious adj insightful, keen, shrewd mindswotel
perspicacity n insightfulness, keenness, shrewdness -
persuade vb bring, talk into, win over beswipe (<OE beswapan)
pursue vb follow

a new path: tread, beat,

forfollow (cf. NHG verfolgen, Du. vervolgen)

a new path:beshrithe (cf. NHG beschreiten)

(see shrithe)

pertinacious adj headstrong, strong-willed -
peruse vb look through, read through -
pervade vb wade (archaic), go through, spread through, fill with  forwade (calque), yond-sprout? (< geondsprútan), throughthrust (off of NHG durchdringen)
perverse adj overthwart forchared, bewarped, thirtover, lewd, wayward, thrawn, forcouth, untoward
pervert n - lewdster (Shakespeare), rakehell
pervert vb - bewarp, offset, froward
petition vb/n bene, beseech, beg, ask -
pet-name n nickname ekename
petrify vb - stun (<OE stunian)
petroleum n black gold rock-lime (calque), stonesap
petticoat n - smallpode (<"small" + OE "pād", cloak, coat, and calque of ME pety coote, from pety (<Fr. Petit) + coat (<Fr. cote)
petulant adj sour, moody, waspish -
pessimism n naysaying, gloomthinking -
pessimistic adj downbeat, hopeless -
phantasm n dream; shade, shadow, wraith -
phantom n ghost -
phalanx n - speerlining
Pharisee n - Sunderholies (cf. OE 'sundor-halgan')
pharaoh n king (of Egypt) Sunking
phenomenal adj outstanding, astounding -
phenomenon n happening -
-philia sfx -lust -
philistine adj uncouth -
philological adj - speechwritlorish
philology n - speechwritlore
philosophy n wisdom, world outlook witlore, lorelief, wittinglove (calque)
phimosis n - throttling
phlebotomy n bloodletting -
phloem tube n - wortrowel
-phobia sfx -fear
phobia n fear, misfear, fright, dread -
phobic adj fearful -
phoenix n - firefowl
phone n/vb

n: blower, dog and bone, farspeaker

vb: tinkle

speechlore (linguistics): speechlimb, speechwhit (see whit)
phonetic adj - dinly
phonological adj - loudlorish, loudlore-
phonology n - reardwork, reardlore, loudlore (cf. NHG Lautlehre), clanglore
phosphorescent adj - lightshedding
phosphorus n - lightstuff
photograph n shot lightbild (<Ic. ljósmynd),lightwrit
photography n - lightbildwrit, lightwritcraft
photon n - lightmote, lightbit, lightgang (calque)
phrasal adj (grammar) bound, having many words but being one wordstringly, quide (obs.)
phrase n - wordstring, quide (obs.)
phylum n stem, stock, kind -
physics n - worldken
physical adj bodily, bodylike, wordly, earthly lichly, lundsome
physician n leech -
piano(forte) n - beatharp/beat-harp (cf. Ic. slagharpa)
pickaxe n pike -
picture n likeness, drawing bild (<OE biliþ, cf. Sw. bild, NHG Bild; <Scots/Du.)
picturesque adj fair wlitty (<OE wlitig)

elfsheen (<OE ælfsciene)

pie n - rindcake
piece n bit, snead, shtick (as in my piece/gimmick)

of silver: silverling pl: silverlingen (<G, the Dschinghis Khan song, Judas, specifically)

steck (<OE stycce, cf. NHG Stück)

piecemeal adv little by little, step by step, bit by bit steckwise (cf. NHG stückweise)
pier n landing, wharf, breakwater -
pierce vb bore, hole; gore, spear -
pigeon n dove towndove, mean dove
pile n heap, hill, mound, mow (hay), swath (corn) -
pillage vb sack reave
pillar n mast, pole, stake -
pilot n lodeman, skyship boss, foreflyer, loftman skyward
pilot whale n - grindwhale (calque)
pimple n wheal -
piñata n - wonderbag (cf. NHG "wunderhüte")

sweetpot

piña colada n - mashed firapple (Spanish calque)
pinch vb nip, squeeze, steal, scrimp, nab -
pine n fir, firtree, evergreen (more general) furrowwood (<OE furhwudu)
pineapple n - firapple (cf. Ic. ganaldin)
pinecone n - firtap (cf. NHG Kiefernzapfen)
pioneer n groundbreaker, waymaker, pathfinder foretrecker (cf. Du. Voortrekker)
pioneering adj groundbreaking, waymaking foremoving, foretrecking (<Du. Voortrekker)
pious adj godly arefast (<OE arfaest)
pip n

seed; bee's knees, day's eye

kern
pipe n leat, reed (in some contexts) rear (<PG *rauza-; cf. Sw. rör, NHG Rohr; cf. "red" = NHG "rot" < PG *raudaz)
pirate n -

seareaver, shaythman (<OE scegthmann)

pirate captain n - highseareaver, highseathief (<OE héahsæþéof)
pisiform bone n - peabone, peashapebone
piston n - sucker (cf. Du. zuiger)

pity

n shame; kindheartedness, ruth eärming (<OE earmung)
pivotal adj key -
pizza n - flatcake, clampcake
place vb lay, put, stow, put down -
place n spot, berth ord, stead, stow, lough (<OE lóh)
place, special n - sunderstow (<OE sundorstow)
placenta n afterbirth mothercake (cf. NHG Mutterkuchen, Sw. moderkaka)
plagiarism n thought-theft -
plague n outbreak folkbane, blightdom, mancwalm/manqualm (from OE "mancwalm")
plan vb forethink, plot (origin unknown), draft, hatch howe (<OE hogian)
plan n layout, outline, draft howe
plank n board, sill -
plankton n - drifter moss
planning n frame, layout, shape; look, mean howing
planet n wanderstar, world, (heavenly) body tungel (<OE tungol), wanderer (<calque from the Greek)
plantation n - wortfield, seed farm, sowing field
plasma n - state of matter: stirloft (cf. Ic. rafgas)

blood: bloodslime

plaster n/vb

stickum; besmear

limecoat
plastic n - newclay, hardclay
plateau n dish; headland flatberg
plate of metal n - clout (<OE clút), fat/fet (<OE fæt)
platform n deck, staddle; soapbox -
platinum n white gold -
platitude n hackneyed saying flatness (calque)
platypus n watermole, duckbill, duckmole billwight (cf. NHG schnabeltier)

flatfoot (calque of Greek platypus)

birdnose (calque of Greek ornithorhynchus)

pleasant adj blessed, darling, dreamy, good, grateful, heavenly, sweet, welcome lief/ liefsome (Eng, NHG. lieb, Du. lief, calque of all Ger. speech) faining, listing,
please interj kindly, gladly, fain, bid (cf. NHG bitte), liever (from lief)
please vb gladden, list queme
pleased adj blissful, thankful eady, quemed
pleasing adj grateful, welcome quemely (<OE cwémlic)
pleasure n lust, gladness

quemeness (satisfaction), itheness (<OE  īeðnes)

plebiscite n - folkfrain, folkcast, folksay

folkspoll, folksstevening (Du. volksstemming), folksanswer (NHG. 'Volksentscheid')

plectrum n pick harpnail (<OE hearpenægel)
pledge n plight -
pledge vb swear, sicker -
plentiful adj rife, teeming, manyful -
plenty adv enough/enow, many weal
plethora n overflow overmuchness
-plex suf -fold -
plumage n feathers, featherware, hackles -
plumber n - leatfitter, bogfitter, johnman (slang), leadworker
plumbing n - leadwork
plumbline n - wall-thread (<OE weallþrǽd)
plunder vb - stroud (<OE strūdian)
plunge vb dip, dunk, dive -
plural adj - manifold(ly) (<OE manigfealdlic), manysome 
plutocracy n - gelddom, goldwield
pluvial adj rain indicator: watergall
pneumatic adj of a woman: shapely thringlofty
poem n lay, yed (in OED, < OE giedd) leeth (<OE leoð), leethsong (<OE leoðsang), adight (NHG gedicht)
poet n writer, dighter shop (<OE scop) leethwright (<OE leoþwyrhta)
poetry n dighting leethcraft (<OE leoðcræft), wordcraft, shopcraft
point n tip, tine, nib,

point out sth: betoken, forewarn, make smb aware of

Ord (Eng./NHG. but seldom)
point v token at
pointless adj - sakeless
poison n bane, gall, atter (obsolete or dialectal)
pole (land/ physics) n axle
polar (land/physics) adj - axled
polar bear n - ice bear (NHG Eisbär, Dan. isbjørn, Du. ijsbeer, Ic. ísbjörn, Norw. isbjørn, Swed. isbjörn, W.Fris. iisbear), white bear (Far. hvítabjørn, Ic. hvítabjörn)
polar zone n land of the midnight Sun everfrost belt
pole n - shot <OE sceāt "corner, angle, nook," cognate of skaut)
worldshot (cf. Ic. heimskaut)
polecat n - thummart
polemic n/adj rant -
police n law, watchmen warden
political adj mootish
party: mootband
-
politician n lawmaker -
politics n - mootsmanship, kingspeak
pollute vb foul, befoul, make dirty smear, besnit, besmut
poltergeist n - dinghost, rumbleghost
polycephaly n - manyheadedness
polygamist n - maniwed
polyglot n - tonguesmith, manytongue
polygon n - manihern
polyhedron n - manineb
polytheïsm n - sundertroth
pomegranate n - seedapple (calque)
pompous adj showy, overbearing; high-flown, boastful -
ponder vb wonder, eye, think, weigh, wrestle with hiler, smigh
pontoon n card game: twenty one sundstall
pony n - horseling
poor adj in need, on the breadline; wretched, ill-stared, needy arm (<Eng dialectal ety. 2, ME, <OE earm)

armthy (see armth)

pop (music) n folk -
pope n Holy Father

Romish headrunner (runner = bishop, cf. NHG Läufer, Sw. löpare)

Highfather (<OE héahfæder)

popular adj folkly, folkish -
popularity n - allthede-love (cf. Ic. alþýðu-lof)
populate vb - befolk (cf. NHG bevölkern, Du. bevolken)
population n - population: befolking (cf. NHG bevölkerung, Du. bevolking)

inhabitants: inwoners (cf. NHG einwohnern, Du. inwoners)

indwellers, folk,erdeners, allfolks (allhallows), dwellerscore, ledescore,

population density n - huddlemete
populous adj - folkful, folkrich (calque of German)
populus assembly n - folkforsaming (calque of many germanic languages)

folkgathering

porcelain n - midricware (chinaware)
porcine adj piggish, swinish, boarish, hoggish
porcine n pig, boar, hog, swine, sow, yelt -
porcupine n - quillpig
pore n hole, hidehole, skinhole thirl, sweathole
pork n pig, swine farrow (<OE fearh)
pornography n - whoreshowing
porous adj holey, seepsome siftful, thirl (< OE thyrel)
porpoise n mereswine -
porridge n mush -
port n harbour, haven ford, hythe
portable adj - ferryworth
portmanteau n - word: mingleword (cf. Du. mengwoord)
portal n doorway, door, gate, gateway

rother (<OE rodor)

portend vb bode, by-sen, forerun, ill-bode, foreshadow, forewarn -
portent n - foretoken, boding
portentous adj

doomy, foreboding, ill-boding, threatening; awesome, stunning, wonderful

-
portion n deal, lot, share, dole -
portrait n likeness (of) bild, mealing
position n berth steadholding
positive (aspect) n upside -
positive adj - mathematics: overnaught
possess vb

own, owe; devilsicken, bewitch, take, take over

-
possessed adj devilsick, owned, ought, owed, own, giddy, bewitched, deviltaken, deviled (Sir John Cheke) -
possession n ownership, belonging, ought ownedness (<OE anwædnesse)
possibility n likeliness maylihood, mightliness, maybehood, acendliness (<OE ácendlicnes), acumendliness (<OE ácumendlicnes)
possible adj likely mayly (cf. Fr. mooglik)
maybesome, doughtbefall, dowedbefall, hapsome, mightsome, within reach, acumendly (<OE ácumendlic)
possibly adv maybe, likely mayly
post- pref after- -
posterior n rump, back(side) -
posteriority n afterness -
posterity n offspring

-

post-existence n afterlife, afterbeing, the beyond, the great beyond, the next world, other world, the great unknown -
posthuman n - afterwere, gearwere, beyond mankind
posthumanism n - afterweredom, gearweredom
postpone vb forestall, put off, call off forshove (for- "away" + shove, cf. NHG verschieben), forslow
post script (p.s.) n afterthought afterword, afterwrit (a.w.)
potassium n - potash (pot-ash)
potato n spud, tater, tatty earthapple (cf. NHG Erdapfel, Pl. ziemniak, N.Pers. سیب‌زمینی)
nightshade runner ('solanum tuberosa'), shaderoot, breadroot
potential adj likely, maybe mayly
potential n strength, fitness, wherewithal
potion n - tiverdrink (cf. Du. toverdrank)
pouch n - pung (<OE pung, cf. Sw., Dn. pung)
poultry n fowl, barnyard birds, bird meat -
pour vb teem, skink, shink, sie

yeat; birle drink

poverty n need, want; dearth, drought, armth, armhood
powder n/vb

dust; beat, crush, grind

power n

grip, sway, strength, brawn, might

thrith (<OE thryth)

wield/wold/wald (<OE weald)

special: sundercraft (<OE sundorcræft)
supreme: douthmight (<OE duguþmiht)

power vb drive, feed -
power line n - spark rope
powerful adj heavy, mighty, strong

thrythswythe (<OE þrȳþswȳð)

practical adj working; earthy, down-to-earth -
practically adv about, all-but, fair, fairly, more or less, nearly, well-nigh -
practice vb/n - n: oving (cf. NHG Übung, Du oefening)

vb: ove (<PG ōbijaną cf. NHG üben, Du oefenen/ LG. öven)

pragmatic adj hardheaded, down-to-earth -
praise n -

heriness (<OE herenes), hering (<OE herung), lof (<OE) 

praise vb - herry (<ME heryan)
pram n buggy push-wainling (Barnes)
prayer n bead ben, boon
beadred (<OE bedræden), forben
prayerful adj - beadful
pre- pref fore- -
preamble n foreword, inleading, forespell -
precaution n forecare -
precede vb herald, forerun -
precinct n space: pen
pedestrian zone: walkway
-
precipitation n rainfall, snowfall, downsheet, breefall downsheet
precious adj dear, dearworth, dearworthly -

preciousness

n dearworthiness -
precise adj - -
precisely adv well -
preclude vb forestall, foreclose -
precocious adj ahead rathe-ripe, rathish
precognition n foreknowledge, foreboding -
precursor n forerunner, forebear -
predator n hunter (in some contexts) reavedeer (cf NHG. Raubtier, Du. roofdier), flesheater
predecessor n forerunner; forebear, forefather foreling (by analogy to afterling)
predestination n wyrd/weird, doom weird, coring, foreteeing (<OE foreteohhung)
predetermine vb foredoom -
predicament n swamp, catch 22, sticky wicket hardfettle
predict vb foretell, foresay, foresee, forecast, soothsay, foreshow -
prediction n foretelling, foresight, foretelling, forecast, soothsaying, foreshowing -
predominant adj overweighing -
preëminent adj foremost elderdomly (<OE ealdordomlice)
preëxistence n aforeness, beforeness, forebeing -
prefabricated adj ready-made, ready-built, forewrought fore-timbered(houses)
preface n foreword throughlook(ing) (OE þurhlōcung)
prefect n - fyrdenhighshireman
prefer vb forechoose, (would) rather beliken
preferable adj - liever, as lief (Eng. NHG. lieber, Du. liever)
preference n - beliking, forechoosing
prefigure vb foreshadow, foreshow -
prefix n - forefastening
pregnant adj with child, heavy (with child) bearing
prehistoric adj - yesteryorely
prehistory n - yesteryore

study: forewritlore

prejudice(al) n/adj foredeem(ing) -
prejudge vb foredeem -
prelude n foreword, warm-up forspell
premature adj untimely, unripe foreripe
prematurely adv beforehand, oversoon -
premeditated adj forethought -
premier adj foremost, first -
premise n

given, if; toft (building site')

forehedging
premonition n forefeeling, foreboding -
preoccupy vb

-

forebusy
preparation n -

reening, readying, foregearing, gearwing (<OE gearwung)

prepare vb taw, fit, fix, groom, lay, ready; draft, draw up, frame; lay out, foreready, forework reen (<OE renian),
prepared adj ready, tawed, neat, foreworked, forereadied -
preposition n - foreput, foresetness (< Ælfric's OE calque 'foresetnes')
prepuce n foreskin -
prequel n - forefollow, forebook
prerequisite n - foreneed
prescience n foreknowledge; farsightedness, foresightedness, forethought forewisdom
prescient adj farseeing, farsighted, forehanded, foreseeing, forethoughtful, forward -
prescribe vb lay down forewrite
presence n sight; look, outside bybe (cf. Du. bijzijn), onbe-hood, theresomeness
present adj in; ongoing, nowaday, today's, now's, nowadays', running, nowen onbe-ish, andward (<OE andweard), gainward (cf. NHG gegenwart), nowa
present n

here and now, today; gift, handsel

nowtide, nowtime, nonce, time being, now, grammar: andward (<OE andweard)
present vb show; give, bestow, furnish, put forth, set forth, bring forth foredraw/foredrag (calque of all Ger. speeches), forthset, forthput,

submit: forelay (cf. NHG vorlegen)

Presentation of the Lord n Candlemas -
presentiment n forefeeling -
preserve vb forlast, hain, keep, uphold, aspare
preside vb steward, overlook foresit over
president n'" - foresitter (calque), kithhead, stoolman
press vb thring, thrutch -
press down vb - bethryck (<OE beþryccan)
pressure n - thringmight, thryck
presume vb foreguess, daresay athrist (<OE áthristian)
presumably adv likely, seemingly
presumptuous adj uppity, overweening, daring -
presuppose vb - forettle, forise (<OE rǣswian)
pretender n would-be -
pretense n

put-on, show; high horse

-
pretentious adj showy, hoity-toity, over the top, kitsch -
prevail vb hold up, keep up, last throughswithe (<OE þurhswiðan)
prevent vb hinder, forcome, forbid, forestop, forestall, forehinder let (<OE lettan), forstand
preview vb/n forelook, forepeek, foreshow, foreshowing -
previous adj former, last, latter, foregoing, earlier, yester -
previously adv afore, already, before, beforehand, earlier, formerly -
prey n (the) hunted (in some contexts) feng (<OE)
price n outlay, worth
pride n - unmoodness (<OE unmōdnes)
prima donna n leading lady -
primacy n - foremostness, elderdom (<OE)
primary adj foremost, first, erst, main -
primer n - futhorc writ, firstbook
primeval adj hoary, olden -
prince n atheling, highness high earl, kingling, first (cf. NHG Fürst, Du. vorst)
princess n highness queenling, high earlin, fo(u)rstin (cf. NHG Fürstin, Du. vorstin)
principality n - frimdom (<OE fruma), high earldom
principle n - howing, eldertruth
principle adj main, foremost, first, head -
print vb -

thrick (<OE þryccan), forlau, outlay

printing press n - thrycker, thringing thryck calque
prior adj before(hand) -
priority n right-of-way forerank, foreweight, oreness, beforeness
prism n block andleamer
prison n clink, lockup dung [plural ding] (<OE dung)
prisoner n inmate haftling (<OE hæftling, cf. NHG Häftling)
pristine n earliest, firstness, spotless, yoreness, orhood -
private adj hushed dern, onelepy (<OE anlipig), sunder
privilege n right, freedom sunderfreedom (<OE), sundergift (cf. OE sundorgiefu)
privileged adj gifted -
privy n outhouse dern
pro n craftsman
probable adj likely -
probably adv likely, in all likelihood, likely enough, maybe, most likely, belike trueshinely (cf. Du. waarschijnlijk, NHG wahrscheinlich)
probity n uprightness -
problem n worry, kinch, bugbear, reck, hang-up, hitch, snag, rub -
procedure n - forsetting (cf. Da. fortsætte, Sw. fortsätta)
forfareld
proceed vb go forward, go forth, go on yede, forfare (cf. NHG verfahren), forthfare,

forthgo

proceeding n - foregoing, foregang (cf. NHG Vorgang)
process vb - forework, forthfaring, forfare (cf. NHG verfahren), taw
process n - foregang (cf. NHG Vorgang), workway
processor n computer: mainframe telcruncher, reckoner
proclivity n forelike, forelove towardbend
procrastinate vb forresten
procreäte vb beget, breed -
procurator n - highshireman (<OE hēahscīremann)
procure vb - beshape (cf. NHG beschaffen)
product n ware -
productive n waresome, thrifty, yoelding -
prodigy n - wonderchild
prodigal adj spareless unbridled, feespilling
produce vb/n

vb: beget, breed, bring about, bring forth, draw on, work, yield

n: handiwork, output, thing, work, yield, outcome 

forthbring
production n yield, output, handiwork forthbringing
productive adj - forthbear (<OE forþbære)
proem n foreword -
professional adj skilled -
professional n worker, craftsman -
professor n lorespeaker, loregiver -
profit n gain, boot, yield, winnings, earnings -
profitable adj worthwhile -
proficiency n skill -
profound adj underlying, deep -
profoundly adv underlyingly, deeply, groundly -
profusely adv phr flow thickly, running overly, teemingly -
profusion n beteeming -
progenitor n begetter, elder(s), father(s), forebear(s), forefather(s), fore-elder(s), Forerunner(s) -
program n - foredraught, broadcast, sending (see source code)

language: draft writ

progress n inroads, headway forthship (<OE forþscype)

forthstride

progressive adj forward, late; broad-minded; cutting-edge forblowing
prohibit vb forbid, forfend -
project n work howe, goalwork
projector n beamer -
prokaryote n - forenut, forekern (calque)
prolific adj fat, lush, rich birthy, broodful, birthful
prologue n foretale -
promise n behight, oath, troth, foreword, -
promise vb behight, swear; forebode forspeak (NHG. Versprechen)
promontary n headland, foreland, ness, hoe -
promote vb uprear, (up)further, boost -
prone adj given, open; helpless alout (<OE áloten) v. forthlout (<OE forþlútan); onfally (<NHG. anfällig) (see onfall)
pronghorn antelope n - tinedeer, outrunning tinehorner
pronoun n - byname (<OE binama), forename (<OE forenama)
pronounce vb - speak out/ outspeak (cf. NHG

aussprechen, Du. uitspreken)

pronunciation n -

wordway

loudcarve (<Icl. hljóðkerfi)

outspeech (cf. NHG aussprache, Du. uitspraak)

how to say [it]

proper/correct:' rightsteven (<OE rihtstefn) 

proof n witness shedding
reckonedness (<OE gerecednes)

bewise (calque of many germanic languages)

propel vb thrust, drive, drive forth -
proper adj fitting, meet, seemly, right, true, echt bedavenly (<OE gedafenlic)
property n ownings, holdings; hallmark, belongings

ownhood, owndom (<NHG. eigentum)

private: sunderfee (<OE sundorfeoh), landgood (Du. landgoed)

eaght <span style="background-color:transparent;font-size:95%;">(<OE æht)

prophesy vb foretell, foresee, soothsay -
prophesy n foresight, boding, foretelling, soothsaying -
prophet n seer
soothsayer, foresayer (Sir John Cheke)
-
proposal n forthput -
propose vb put forth, forthsay -
propriëtor n householder, owner, landlord/lady -
propulsion n thrust -
proscribe vb forbid -
prosecute v - forfollow (cf. Du. vervolgen, NHG. verfolgen)
prosecution n - forfollowing (cf. Du. vervolging, NHG verfolgung)
proselyte n freshman (Sir John Cheke) -
prosopagnosia n - neb blindness
prosper vb thee -
prosperity n theedom forblowing (<OE blowan)
prosperous n lush theely
prostitute vb whore -
prostitute n hooker, whore, streetwalker, hustler -
prostrate adj aground -
prostrate oneself (to) vb lay aground before hien (<OE hīenan, lit. "to lie prostrate")
protagonist n - headfellow (cf. Dan. hovedperson)
protarchæopteryx n - foreorfowl, first orbird
protect vb ward, shield, forstand -
protection n shield, ward lewing (<OE hleowung)
mundwist (<OE mundwist)
protective adj - mundly (<OE mundian), wardly
protector n warden holdand (<OE healdend)
protégé n ward -
protein n - eggwhite (cf. NHG Eiweiß, Du. eiwit)
protest n/vb

uproar, outcry

wrangle, gainsay

forstride

Protestant adj - gainstish, fortrothen
Protestant n -

gainsayer, fortrothen

proto- pref or-, ur- -
Proto-Germanic n - ortheedish
proton n - firstbit
protoplasm n - orslime

protrude

vb stick out, jut -
protuberance n outgrowth, -
proud adj showy, overbearing, lofty, stout

rank (<OE ranc)

stolt (<OE stolt, cf. NHG stolz)

prove vb show soothe (OE 'soþian,' ME 'sothen')

bewise (Calque of many germanic Lanuages)

proverb n byword, saying, saw, folksay(ing) -
provide vb feed, give, hand over beheft
province n - landshare; outland, folkshire (<OE folcscearu)
provocation n - greming (<OE gremung)
prow n foreship -
prudence n forewit, sparefulness, wariness, wisdom flackheadedness (flack 'level' <Fr, Du.)
prune n plum -
pruning n shredding/shreading (in OED, obsolete; <OE scrēadung)
Prunus Spinosa n blackthorn, sloe sloethorn (<OE slāhþorn)
Prussia n Pruceland, Leatherland
pry vb 1. key-hole 2. uproot -
prying n/adj key-holeing -
pseudo- n fake, -like lease-
psychedelic adj - soulkithing, mindopening, mindrooming,
soulopening (cf. Sw. "själsöppnande")
psychiatrist n shrink mindhealer, soulkithler, mindlore(wo)man
psychiatry n - soulkith (cf. Du. seelkunde), mindkith
psychic n - soulsman, mindsman
psychic adj - soulish, mindish
psychologist n shrink mindlorer, mindloreman
psychology n - mindlore
psychopath adj - mindsick, mind-ill
psychotropic/psychoactive adj - mindwending
pubic bone n - shamebone
pub(lic house) n inn, alehouse, boozer -
public n - openlihood (cf. NHG Öffentlichkeit)
public adj open, mean -
public servant adj - theen, onbidsman
public toilet n - outhouse
publication n - foropening (cf. NHG veröffernlichung)

abaning

publish vb forthset, bring out; forthsend lay down: forlay (cf. NHG verlegen),

outlay

foropen (cf. NHG veröffenlichen) 

aban (<OE abannan)

publisher n - forlayer, forlay house (cf. NHG verlag)

abaner

pulsate vb beat, throb -
pulse n 1. beat, throb 2. bean -
pumice n - foamstone
pumpkin n marrow tillberry, harvestball
punch vb clout handstrike, fiststrike
punctuation n - tokenmark, tokensetting (cf. NHG Zeichensetzung, Dan. tegnsætning)
punish vb strafe witten (<OE wítnian)
punishment n strafe wittening (<OE wítnung)
pup n whelp -
pupil n of the eye: strale -
puppet n cat's paw -
purchase vb buy, take -
pure adj clean, sheer, white swotel (<OE sweotol)
Purgatory n - Sweepfire (cf. NHG Fegefeuer), Otherworld
purge vb cleanse furb
purify vb cleanse beswotel
purple n -

bawse (<OE basu), fishdye (<OE fiscdēah), tiver (<OE teafor), woaden (<OE wæden), redblee, bleerëd (<OE blēorēod), clamhue, clam

purple dye n - welktallow (<OE weoloctælg)
purple martin n - bawseswallow, bleeswallow
purpose n sake, goal -
pursue vb follow, shadow, tail -
pursuit n following, shadowing, tailing woath (<OE wāþ)
purveyor n monger -
pus n atter -
push vb shove, thrust, thrutch outarm
pustule n pock, w(h)eal, whelk
putrefaction n rot(ting) addleness
puzzle n/vb brainteaser, riddle -
pygmy n dwarf; Tom Thumb -
pyramid n - fourflat (cf. Du. viervlak)
pyromania n - firemadness
pyromaniac n - firesetter
pyrophobia n -

fireawe, baleyse (<OE bælegsa)

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