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Staff M of the English Wordbook.

Basic abbreviations:

  • OE=Old English
  • NHG=New High German
  • Du.=Dutch

For a full list of etymological and other abbreviations used in these wordlists, see: Offshortenings.


A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z



Chancery English Class Anglish/English
Attested  Unattested
macabre adj gruesome, grisly -
macerate vb soak, steep -
machine n

vehicle: horseless, wheels slang

gearware, searshaft, workware, workrig
machine gun n - shacklegun
magazine n daily (some contexts), weekly (other contexts), slick (some contexts) timewrit (cf. Du. tijdschrift, NHG Zeitschrift)
magic n/adj bad: spellcraft, witchcraft

dwimmer, galder (<OE galdor)

galder(craft) chanting magic
spell a chant

gale to do galder

seethe(craft), seith(craft), or seeth(craft) magic concerning changing fate, seen in the Weird Sisters where it is depicted as actually boiling (seething) in a cauldron

spae seer magic

magician n wizard, witch, warlock hag, dwimmerman
magistrate n deemer, deemster(Female) reeve
magnesium oxide n - bitter earth
magnate n - mickman
magnet n loadstone/lodestone (< lode (ME guide) + stone) sailstone (cf. Ic. segull)
magnify n blow up, make bigger

bemickel (<be + OE miclīan)

in wonderment: wonderleak (<OE ġewundorlæcan)

glorify: dome (<OE dōmian)

magnitude n weight, greatness, micklehood.
magnolia n - beaverbloom
maggot n worm, grub maddock, mathe (<OE maþa; cf. Scots mathe)
mail (armor) n - mesh, burne (<ME)
maim vb cripple -
maintain vb keep up, uphold, hold -
maintenance n upkeep -
maître d'hôtel n - houserede
majestic adj high-flown, lofty hovely, thrymfast (<OE þrymfæst)
majesty n highness, lordship, loftiness

oreworthness (<OE arweorþnes), douthness, thrim (<OE þrymm), kineship (<OE cynescipe)

major n overling thane
major adj higher, overling -
majority n - morehood
maladjusted adj misfit -
malady n sickness, illness, unwellness addle, cothe
malapert adj brazen unbeshamed (cf. Du. onbeschaamd)
male adj

manly, manlike; pref: he-

he-kind, hesome
male n man, buck, chap, fellow, lad
state: manhood
-werman (O.E wermann)
malefactor n sinner, wrongdoer: crook, lawbreaker -
malevolence n hatefulness, meanness -
malevolent adj bad, mean, evil -
malfeasance n misdoing, wrongdoing -
malfunction n flaw, glitch -
malfunction vb misbehave miswork
malice n cattiness, hatefulness, meanness nithecraft
malicious adj wicked nithe
malign adj evil, harmful, baleful nithe
malnourish vb misfeed, underfeed -
maltose n - maltsweet
maltreat vb

manhandle, rough up
mess over slang

illbrook
malware n - badware, evilware
mammal n - milkwight, suckledeer (NHG. Säugetier)
mammary n breast, tit -
mammoth n - furelp (cf. Ic. loðfíll Far. loðfílur)

earthhorn (calque of Proto-Mansi *mē̮ŋ-ońt)

manage vb handle, run, deal with, fare, keep, keep up -
manager n foreman besteerer (cf. Dn. bestyrer)
manatee n sea cow -
mandrake n - skinroot
mandrill n - hueleer ape, rainbow ape, huemug ape
manga n - dawnlandish talestrips
manger n trough -
mango n - cuckoo's bliss (cf. Eng. cuckoo's joy)
mangrove n - shrubmarsh; tree: loftroot
mania n madness -
maniac adj mad, crazy -
manifest(ed) adj bald, ringing, straightforward, marked sweetel (<OE sweotol)

obvious: opensightly (cf. NHG offensichtlich)

manifest vb bespeak, give away

indicate: betoken

sweetel
manifestation n - sweetling, betokening
manifesto n - sweetling
manner n way erd (<ME <OE eard, cf. NHG Art)

lund

manna n - whitecorn (<OE hwītcorn)
mansion n hall hireyard (cf. Sw. herrgård) hire = mister
mansuetude adj tameness, mildness -
manta ray n - mantlerigh
mantis n - beadbug
mantle n wrap; hood, shroud -
manual n handbook -
manual adj handly -
manually adv by hand -
manufacture vb frame, beframe, make up, think up, make -
manure n dung -
manuscript n handwrit -
Maoism n -

Mao Zedong Thought/Mao Tsetung Thought/Mao Cetung Thought  (Calque of the Ch. 毛澤東思想, Máo Zédōng Sī'ǎng/Mao2 Tze2tung1 Sih1ang3/Máŭ Cétǖng Sīh-ǎng/ㄇㄠˊㄗˊˇ), Maodom

map n - mete (<OE metan: to measure "to scale") landsheet (cf. Ic. landakort)
marble n - shinestone (Greek)
march n/vb headway, onrish; stride

rim land: mark

-
March n -

Miremonth, Rethmonth (<OE Hreðmonað)

marijuana n hemp
street talk: grass, weed
-
marine adj sea-, mer(e)- -
marine n - shipyæger
marine park n - water-frith
maritime adj sealike -
marjoram n - kingswort (<OE cyningeswyrt)
market n - chepstow (town on the Welsh border)f\\
marquess n - athelman
marriage n wedding, handfast, wedlock gathership (<OE gaderscipe)
marry vb wed, tie awn
marsupial n - pursedeer (cf. Dn. pungdyr)
martyr n - bloot (<OE (ge)blot, 'sacrifice'), rood-bearer, cyther (<OE cyðere), witness (Gr. martyreo means 'I witness, I tell about'; Ar. also uses same root for witness and martyr)
martial art(s) n - wyecraft(s)
marvel n/vb wonder, wilder -
marvelous adj wonderful, wulderly, selcouth -
mask n/vb hide grime (<OE grīma), mesh
masochism n achelove, achelust -
masochist n seeksorrow, achelover, acheluster -
mason n stonecutter stonewright, wallwright
masonry n stonecraft, stonework wallwork
masque n - meshplay
masquerade n - meshtumb
mass n bulk, inweight, lot, deal,  -
massacre n slaughter -
masticate vb chew -
master n head, lord reeve
mastodon n - breasttooth (calque of Greek)
masturbate vb frig (OE: frygian (“to rub, caress”)), wank -
match n

game, tie, head-to-head; mate, fellow; twin, lookalike; light (stick)

-
material adj weighty bodilike
maternal adj motherly -
mathematics n - rimecraft (<OE rīmcræft), tellcraft, reckonlore
matrimony n wedlock -
matrix n womb; listing; spreadsheet feedingbottom (Du. voedingsbodem); yetshape (calque of Du. gietvorm)
matter n - andwork (<OE andweorc), inting (<OE intinga)
mature adj grown, ripe -
maximum n/adj uttermost, utmost, most -
May n - Threemilkmonth, (<OE Þrimeolce, Þrimilcemonað), Merrymonth
mayhem n crippling,  -
mayonnaise n yolkdip -
mayor n burgomaster (cf. Dutch) boroughreeve, burgreeve, townreeve
measure

n/vb

beat, mete   meal (<OE mǣl)
mechanics n - workcraft (<OE weorccræft)
mediate vb - formiddle (cf. NHG vermitteln)
mediate adj halfway, midmost -
mediator n - formiddler, makefrith, middleman
medicine n healing leechwort, leechdom (field of.), leechcraft (field of.), leechlore (field of.)
medieval adj - middle eld
mediocre adj middling, halfway -
meditate vb -

hedge, huy (<OE hycgan)

sin/sun (<OE sinnan) 'sun' by analogy to 'run' - <OE rinnan to avoid, negative connotation with "sin")

smigh (<OE smeagan)

smy (<OE smean)

threed (<OE þreodian)

forsink (calque of NHG versenken, senken "to lower" being a causative form of sinken "to sink" akin to OE sencan)

Mediterranean Sea n - Wendlesea (<Vandal seafarers)
medium adj - evenspan, midbulky
mega- p

fx

- mickle (<OE micel)
megalodon n - mickletooth (calque of Greek)

great-haye, great-highcarl, great dog fish

megalopolis n - mickleborough
megaphone n bullhorn, loudhailer -
meiosis n - frumecleaving
melancholy adj dreary, heartbreaking, heartrending, mournful, saddening, teary; cast down, down in the-mouth, forlorn, gloomy, woebegone, sorrowful -
melee n tussle -
melody n - gleestaff (<OE gliwstæf)
lin (OE hlynian; cf. Ic. hljómr), earworm
melon n - rindberry, shellberry, barkberry
member n limb, fellow, belonger, link belongand
membrane n film -
memory n mimor, mind's eye, mind's ear eftminding, bemindings, inmind
meningitis n - brimshell addle
menstrual adj monthly -
menstruate vb monthbleed moonbleed
mental adj mindly, inward, mindlike, mind- -
mentality n mindset, outlook -
mention vb name, speak of, say something of, bring up, hint at -
menu n - walelist, mealsheet
mercenary n - hireling
merchant n chapman, trader -
merchandise n wares, goods, stocks -
merchandising n - (direct to public): delling
merciful adj forgiving, mildhearted -
merciless adj ruthless
mercy n kindness, ruth milts (<OE)
merge vb blend, meld -
meridian n high noon, high-water line -
merit n meed, worth theen, winst (cf. Du. winst)
Mesolithic n - Middle Stoneseldth
Mesopotamia n - Bearithland (shortening of bear 'fertile' + rith 'stream')Twixtrith (meso = between)
meson n - midmote
message n earful, tiding, wire, word errandwrit, boding, errandbook (<OE ǽrendbóc)
meta- pref over- after-
metal n - bloom (<OE blóma), orestuff
metamorphosis n - forwandling (cf. NHG Verwandlung)
metaphor n kenning -
metaphoric(al) adj - kenningly, kenning
meteor n falling star, shooting star strealer
meter (poetry) n - tal (<OE getæl 'rhythm, harmony')
methane n - firedamp
method n way, means thewline, shedding (cf. OE gescéad)
metropolis n - mickleborough
Mexico n - Moonsnavel
mezozoicum n - midlife eldth
micro- pref small- -
microscope n - speckseer
Midgard n - Midgarth, Midyard
migrate vb - outwander (cf. NHG auswandern)
militarist(ic) n/adj hawk(ish) -
military n/adj landmight(ly) campdom, expedition: axfaring (<OE æxfaru)
militia n fyrd folkward
millennium n yearthousand thousandyear
millimeter n - twisandbeat (Anglish "twisand" (million) + "beat" (measure)), twisandmeter(<E mete 'to measure', meter 'that which measures')
million n -

micklered (<OE mycel 'much, great' cognate to Gk. megas, "mega-" being the SI prefix for "million" + '-red, as in 'hundred')

twisand (<Anglish twi- 'two' + -sand, as in 'thousand') 

mince vb - hack
mine (weapon) n - delf: explosive: stillblaster
mine (place from which ore is extracted) n - groove (cf. Ger. Grube; Du. Groeve)
mine vb delve -
mineral n ore -
minimize vb lessen, downplay, belittle -
minister n - rede, ambighter
Ministerium für Staatssicherheit (Stasi) n - Ambight for Ricksickerhood (calque)
ministry n - ambight
minstrel n gleeman, folksinger -
minor adj - youngling
minority n - lesserness, lesserhood (cf. NHG Minderheit)
minus conj min, less than, take away
minotaur n - mazebull, bullman
minute n - mete, shortlog (cf. Latin minuta 'short note')
miracle n flash, wonder craftwork (<Ic.), wonderwork, tacen
mirror n looking-glass -
misandrist n man-hater -
misappropriate vb steal -
misappropriative guest n - stealguest (<OE stælġiest)
misappropriation n stealing, theft -
miscellany(eous) n/adj clatter, jumble, kitchen-sink, mishmash, mixed sundry
misdemeanour n wrongdoing -
miser n tightwad, skinflint, niggard -
miserable adj black, bleak, cheerless, dark, forlorn, glum, godforsaken, grey, sullen; downcast, hangdog, woeful; wreatched; ratty, run-down, threadbear yomer (<OE geomor)
misery n angst, weakness, woe, sorrow, gloom, hardship jermth (<OE iermðu)

wanshaft (<OE wansceaft)

unlithe (<OE unlæþu)

unseel (<OE unsælþ)

wearing (<OE weargung)

misfortune n mishap, harm illfare, wanluck
mismanage vb mishandle -
misogynist n - woman-hater
misotheïsm n - mistroth, god-hating, hatred of god(s)
misplace vb mislay misstead, mis-stead
missile n - shot (<OE gescot, cf. NHG Geschoss)

warp

mission n errand, undertaking, goal -
missionary n sendling, errander winfridsman, winfridster, winfridingman cf. Saint Boniface
mitigate vb soften -
mitochondrium n - mightcorn
mitosis n - brickdealing
mobile (phone) n handset, handcaller handblower, handy (cf. NHG Handy)
mock vb/adj man-made, sham; send up -
mockery n hoker (ME, <OE hōcor) -
model n - pattern: forelay (cf. NHG Vorlage) dummy, forebeing
modern adj newfangled nowtide (cf. Sw. nutida), nowalike
modernise vb - benew
modest adj down-to-earth, meek cush (<OE cúsc)
modesty n beshedness/ beshedhood (cf. NHG bescheidenheit, Du. bescheidenheid)
modify vb wend awend
modification n wending awentness, awendedness

awending

modulation n -stringbending sparkwave

(music): wavebending

moist adj damp, wet, watery -
molar n - wongtooth (<OE wangtoð)
grindtooth (<OE grindetoð)
molasses n - sweetsap
mold vb build, make, shape -
moment n eyeblinck, flash, heartbeat, twinkling

nutlog, eyeblinck, flash, heartbeat, twinkling, thraw (<ME þraw(e), <OE þrāg) pl: thrawü

monarch n king onewleld (<OE anwealda), self-reder
monarchism n kingdom self-reding
monarchy n kingship sunderwield (<OE sundoranweald), self-rede kineship
monastery n bedestow
monasticism n - brotherlife
money n

gelt, geld (native), fee, brass, mint, silver, sterling, penny, tradeworth,

slang: kale, dough, buck

shat (<ME schat)
moneybag n sead (OE seod)
monitor vb watch, oversee -
monk n - brother (<OE), lonelord
monologue n - lonespeech
monopoly n onesell (calque) -
monster n fiend; dreadnaught nicker (<OE nicor)
Montenegro n - Blackhill, Blackberg
monument n keepsake, token; gravestone, headstone thinktoken (cf. W.Fr. tinkteken)
monumental adj overwhelming awe-inblowing
moor n heath -
moose n (greater) elk -
moral adj - sidely, sideful (OE sideful), thewfast (<OE geþéawfæst), thewful
morality n uprightness sideliness, thewfastness, douthness
morbid adj cheerless, forlorn -
mordant adj biting -
morgue n deadhouse -
moribund adj dying, deathbound -
mortal n/adj deadly deathling
mortality n death, end, ending, endless sleep, forthfaring, bane, Grim Reaper -
mortgage n wadset, homeloan -
mother nature n - Lady Lund, motherkin
mortuary n - deadhouse, undertaker's, bodyroom, bodyhouse
mosaic n - shardbild
mosquito n gnat, midge, midgy bloodfly
moth (native) n - nightflinder (cf. NHG Nachtfalter)
motion n - shrithing, beweighing (cf. NHG bewegung, Du. beweging)
motionless adj stock-still -
motive n -

rethe, frume

ulterior: hinderthought (cf. NHG Hintergedanke)

motor n - wheels, drivework
motorcycle n - halfwain, halfwagon
motorway n highway -
motto n - pithword
mound n drift; heap; highland, rise, upland -
mount n hill barrow, berry
mounted adj on horseback beriden (<ME beriden <OE berídan)
mountain n barrow, berry berg, highberg (not to mistake it for "burg"), fell

peak (OE pīc, Du. piek, Dan. pik)

moustache n kemp overbeard, snor (cf. Du. "snor", NHG "Schnurrbart"), gran (<OE "granu"), lipbeard
move vb

shift; drive; stir; sway; set off; wade; rock (cf. NHG rücken)

peel off

wander: shrithe (<OE scriþan 'to go, take one's way)
lake (fast)
besteal (stealthily)

beweigh (Du bewegen, be- + wegen)

away: upshove (<OE oþscūfan)

movement n shift, stir; drive shrithing

pol: beweighing (cf. NHG bewegung, Du. beweging)

movie n film, flick -
Mr, Sir n Lord

Hire (<OE hearra, cf. NHG Herr)

Mrs, Miss n Lady

Frow (<OE frówe, cf. NHG Frau)

mucus n slime, snot -
muffle vb shroud -
multiculturalism n - felemenning (cf. Ic. fjölmenning)
multiple adj many, manifold -
multiply vb manifold -
multi- pref cluster-, mani- fele- (<OE fela-), fay (<OE fag fah brightly multicoloured)
multi-language word n wanderword -
multi-purpose adj all-in-one -
multitude n crowd, throng, flock, folk, cluster, wave, mow, manifoldness -
mummy n - linwrapped body
municipality n - meanth (cf. NHG Gemeinde)
muscle n brawn, thew, sinew mousock (Latin ​musculus​: 'little mouse')
muscular n brawny, thewy, sinewy, thewsome -
muse vb mimmer/mammer -
museum n - crafthall, yorehall; lorestead.
mushroom n toadstool mosswort, mosswamb
music n glee

swin, swincraft (<OE geswin "song" + craft)

gleamlist (cf. Ic hljómlist), song

musical adj - songly, gleamwise (cf. Ic hljómvís)
musician n gleeman, player, songwright

swinsmith, dreamer (<OE dreamere)

musicology n - swinlore, gleelore
mustard n - sennep (<OE senep)
muster n/vb gather(ing) fay
mussel n - ran (<OE hran)
mutate vb - shrithe, yondshape, wandle
mute adj dumb, hushed, speechless -
mutilate n/vb - overcripple
mutton n sheepflesh -
mutual adj evenway -
mycelium n - net (cf. Ic neti), swambnet
mystery n wonder, brain twister, beyond man's ken, hidden thing rune (<PG)
ghost-wonder (cf. OE gástgeryne)
hiddle, mist hearing
myth n misth (shortening of mist + th); dreamtale, wondertale
mythology n folklore, dreamlore, wonderlore.

mistlore

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