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Staff I of the English Wordbook.

Basic abbreviations:

  • OE=Old English
  • NHG=New High German
  • Du.=Dutch

For a full list of etymological and other abbreviations used in these wordlists, see: Offshortenings.


A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


Chancery English Class Anglish/English
Attested Unattested
ibex n - firgenbuck (<OE firgenbucca), stonebuck (<NHG Steinbock)
-ic/ -ical sfx -ish, -some, -ly -
iceberg n - icebarrow, iceberry
icthyology n - fishlore
idea n mind's eye; dream, mark; understanding, belief, thought, clue thought-drop.

ettling; plan: howe (OE hogian)

identical adj alike, selfsame, same; even -
identify vb finger, betoken -
identity n sameness; selfhood whoness, whohood
ideology n belief thoughtset, thoughtthede
idiosyncrasy n quirk -
idolize vb worship, look up to, bow down before -
idiom n - folkword, folkwording
idiot n blockhead, clot, dumbbell, half-wit, fathead, meathead, thickhead dwease (<OE dwæs)
idol n god wigh (<OE. wīġ)
offgod (cf. NHG Abgott, OE. afgod)
idolatry n worshipping wighworthing (<OE wīġweorþung)
idolize vb worship, look up to, bow down before -
i.e. abbrev. t.i. ~ that is -
-ify afx be-, -en -ledge (<OE -læcan)
igloo n - icebergh, icehouse
ignis fatuus n will-o-the-wisp wander light (cf. Du dwaallicht)
ignite vb fire, tend, set alight latch fire
ignorance n benightedness, shunning, heedlessness, thoughtlessness, carelessness shunhood, nitenness (<OE nytennes)
ignorant adj benighted, unaware, unlearned, unread, untaught -
ignore vb unheed, forget, overlook, slight, slur over, -
iguana n - comb athex (cf. Du. "kamhagedis")
ill-conceived adj - ill-howed
illegal adj unlawful, lawless, outlawed unlet
illegalise vb outlaw -
illegitimate adj misbegotten, unfathered, born out of wedlock, ill-gotten, unrightful -
illuminate vb/n brighten, shed light on; bathe, beacon, inlighten; unriddle; foreground, highlight belighten, onlight, forlighten
illusion n daydream; misbelief, old wives' tale dwild, dwimmer, brainshade (cf. Du. hersenschim)
illustrious n - thrymfast (<OE þrymfæst)
image n look alike, ringer, twin: likeness; mind's eye bilth (<OE biliþe, cf. NHG. Bild, Du.

beeld), seen

imagination n mind's eye, fathoming moodseave (<OE módsefa), fathomhood

inbilthing (cf. NHG Einbildung)

imaginative adj thoughtful weenful, infinding
imagine vb fathom, see reckon (dialect), ween (<OE wénan)
imitate vb

ape; copy: follow on the footsteps of, take a leaf out of (someone's) book

pinchbeck, enliken
imitation n - likeness, fakery
immanent adj inbuilt, handwired, inbred -
immature adj youthful, green, flaw, unripe, childish -
immediately adv forthwith, headlong, straight away, at once, now, right now swithsoon, ayenow, rath(er)

eyeblinkly (cf. NHG augenblicklich) (see Eng. eyeblink)

immense adj - eorm (<OE eormen)

unametely (<OE unámetenlic)

immigrant n comer, incomer, newcomer, settler inwanderer (Eng., cf. NHG. Einwanderer, Nw. invandrare)
immigration n inwandering (cf. NHG Einwanderung)
imminent adj one the way, near-at-hand, nearing, forthcoming, oncoming, upcoming; threatening unfrothering (cf. Du. onveranderlijk, NHG. unveränderlich)
immoral adj dark, evil, rotten, sinful, wicked, wrong, unripe, unfledged, babyish

thewless, gyltsome 

immortal adj deathless; everlasting, undying -
immutable adj fixed, hard-and-fast unwending
impact n crash, strike, wallop: mark, sway. hit thrack
impair vb break, cripple, harm, hurt, maim -
impale vb jab -
impartial adj evenhanded, fairminded unswayed
impasse n deadlock, halt, standstill -
impassive adj cold-blooded; deadpan, empty, numb -
impede vb hinder, hold back, hold up, thwart, shackle, stop -
impenetrable adj - evertight, unthursome
imperative adj needed case: bebidendly (<OE bebeodendlic, cf. Du. gebiedend, NHG. gebieterisch)
imperialism n - anwield, overlordship, rikedom
impertinent adj bold; ill bred ill-thewed
implicate adj 2. inweave, twist, writhe 1. inmeld
implicit adj 1. unspoken, wordless, unsaid 2. couth
implode vb - cleave in
implore vb beseech, bid, beg -
imply vb hint, infold ettle, bysay
impolite adj rough, lewd, ill-bred, uncouth, ill-mannered, uncalled-for ill-thewed
import vb - inferry (calque from Latin in + carry)
importance n heft, weightiness, pith, greatness -
important adj big, far-reaching, foremost, outstanding, weighty, earthshattering, great pithy
importune adj - maghely (<OE ġemāhlīc)
importunity n - magheliness (<OE ġemāhlīcnes) pl: maghelinessa (<OE ġemāhlīcnessa)
impose vb lay, put onset (<OE onsettan)
impossible adj hopeless, beyond bearing unmightly, unmayly (refer to German unmöglich=impossible; "mögen" is the German ethymological correspondence to "may")
impress vb gladden, stun intrutch (<OE onþryocau, NHG eindruck, cf. Dan. indtryk, Swed. intryck)
impression n reckoning intrutching
imprint n mark, stamp inthrick
imprison vb lock up haft (<OE hæftan)
impromptu adj offhand -
improper adj uncomely, unfit, untoward, unright, wrong, unbecoming unright
improve(ment) vb/n shape up, grow better, help; breakthrough, bettering forbetter (cf. NHG verbessern)
improvised adj makeshift, offhand twoth-rigged
impudence n cheek -
impudent adj shameless, cheeky -
impulse n boost, goad, yeast; bone, leaning, want -
impurity n lewdness, unfreshness, unswotelness
in spite of prep. notwithstanding -
inadvertent adj unwitting -
inalienable adj - samefast
inane adj mindless -
inanimate adj heedingless, still unbesouled (cf. Du. onbezield)
inappropriate adj unbecoming, unfit, untoward unbeseeming
inaudible adj - unhearsome, swanless, unheard
incalculable adj untold unreckonly
incantation n - galdercwide (<OE galdorcwide)
incarnate vb inflesh -
in case conj lest, for fear that, the less -
inception n birth, dawn, outset, kickoff -
incest n - siblair, siblay, inbreeding, bloodshame (calque)
incident n hap, happening, befall -
incise(sion) vb/n cut, slit snithe(ing) (<OE sniþan, cf. NHG. schneiden)
incisive adj cutting snithing
incite vb spur, goad, egg fuse (<ME fusen)
inclination n

leaning, tilt, bowing

desire: wish, need, craving, yearning

-
incline vb sway, lower, bow, stoop, tip, lean -
inclined adj given, likely, willing, ready swayed towards
include vb inhold
incompassionate adj ruthless, heartless, cold, hard-hearted, cold-hearted -
incomplete n underdone, less than whole, unwhole, underwhole, unfullworked -
inconsiderate adj thoughtless, uncaring, unthinking, careless, ruthless, reckless -
incorporate vb knit, meld, mingle, mix -
incorrect adj wrong, wide of the mark; unfit, untoward; off, unsound, untrue -
increase vb swell up; rise, snowball, oker, build up wooker (<OE wōcor) formoren (cf. NHG vermehren)
increasingly adv more and more, risingly -
incredible adj - unlieveful
incursion n raid, inroad -
incus n anvil -
indebted adj owing, beholden
indecent adj shameless, unseemly, shameful, unsightful -
indecisive adj wavering, in two minds, swithering, halting, half-hearted, half-minded unmeting
indelicate adj heavy handed, stern, gruff -
independent adj free, selfstanding unonhanging (cf. NHG unabhänig, Du. onafhankelijk)
independence n freedom,

individuality: selfhood

selfstandingness, unonhangness
India n Indland

Ealand (India is ultimately named after the Indus river; Indus comes from Sanskrit síndhu meaning river)

indicate vb bespeak; flag up, betoken, show ward to
indication n hint, clue, mark, inkling betokening, waywarding
indifference n onesideness
indifferent adj/adv adj: careless, onesided

adv: fairly

indigent adj needy, down at heel -
indignity n brickbat, slap, slight, slur -
indiscriminated adj swoopstake, wholesale, hit-or-miss allwardly, manywardly
indisposed adj 2. unsound, unwell, laid up 1. unleaning
individual adj indirectly: asidely

selfstanding

onelepy (<OE ánlípe, ánlípig)
individual n - onelepy, onelepling (<OE ánlípe "individual" + -ling, cf. the general form of Ic./Far. einstaklingur), one, yea-one
individualism n selfdom -
indocrinate vb brainwash mindwash
indolent adj idle, shiftless, slothful, lazy lat (<OE læt)
induce vb beget, breed, draw on, set off, give rise to, make, bring out, bring, lead to, enkindle, whip up beweigh (cf. NHG bewegen/ Du. bewegen) 
indulgence  n kindness

milts, foregiveness (<OE); religion: offlet (cf. NHG Ablass)

industry n - bulkbuildship, worksomeness
industrial action n strike -
industrious adj yielding, working -
inebriated adj drunk, smashed, blasted, baked, half-cut, hopped up -
ineffable adj nameless, unspeakable -
ineffective adj hamstrung, bad, unworksome, unhardworking,
inept adj clueless, unhandy, clumsy, bad -
inert adj still, lifeless, idle, undoing, bloodless unshrithing (shrithe)
inexperienced adj unfledged, callow, raw, green -
infamous adj shameful, ill-named, unworthy -
infamy n shamefulness, lowstanding, ill-name, bad name are (<OE ár 'honour')
infancy n bairnhood, childhood -
infant n newborn, cradle-child, suckling -
infanticide n - bairnslaughter
infantile adj childish bairnsome
infantilize vb - bechild
infatuate vb makes one lust -
infatuation n lust -
infect vb - smittel
infection n -

insmiting

of the ear: earcothe (<OE ēarcoðu)

infectious adj catching, spreading smittelsome
infer vb deem, gather, make out, see ettel
inferior n/adj lower, nether; mean; shoddy, worse -
infernal adj fiendish, hellish, wicked, underhanded, evil, ill, hateful, all-fired -
inferno n hell, hellfire, fire -
infertile adj barren, unbearing geld, unteeming, untudderfast
infidelity n backstabbing, sellout, two-timing wedbreach
infinite adj boundless, endless, everlasting, never-ending, timeless, unbounded, unmetely, unrim, untold, without end unendly (Eng., cf. NHG unendlich), allish
infinitive n - unendingly (<OE ungeendigendlic)
infinity n everlasting, foreverness, unendingness unendlihood (cf. NHG unendlichkeit)
infirmed adj sickly, unhealthy, wanhale -
inflammation n burning, redness, soreness, swelling, itch betindering (cf. Dn. 'betændelse')
inflate vb blow up, fill forblow, andblow (cf. Ic. and-blásinn)
influence vb/n n: inflood

vb: inflow, sway, shape

-
inflict vb lay on, wreak, meat or deal out, deal -
influx n inflow -
infographic n - knowbilthish (knowledge + Yiddish 'bilderish')
informal adj loose -
informant n deep throat, fink, nark, snitcher, telltale, whistleblower teller
information n knowledge, tidings knowhood
infringement n lawbreaking
infuriate adj foaming, shirty, teed-off, wroth, madden -
infuse vb inset, input, inlay inbirl
ingenious adj clever orthankly (<OE orþanclic), overmindle
ingenuity n cleverness orthink, overmind
ingest vb tuck, down, swallow -
inhabit vb dwell, abide, wone in, inwone, live in alive, erde, bewone, ern
inhabitance n abode, dwelling erding (erding in sorrow), erdingstow, inwoning, erning
inhabitant n dweller, abider

indweller (Scots)

erd-folk, bewoner, inwoner, ern-folk (<OE ærn 'house, habitation')

inhale vb breathe in, draw in, suck -
inherent adj built-in, inborn, inbred, indwelling -
inherit vb get erve (<OE ierfian)
inheritance n birthright erve (<OE ierfe), ervewardness (<OE ierfeweardnes), earf, earfdeal, ervedeal, birthright, birthdom, birth-hood
inimical adj foesome, harmful, unfriendly -
initial adj first, beginning, early -
initiate vb start, begin, bring on, bring up, goad, spur -
injection n jab inshot, needleprick
injure vb harm, hurt, wound dere (<OE derian, archaic ME dere)
ink n dyestuff

black (It's attested, the color was "swarth", and it is still used in Scandenavia for "ink")

-
innate adj built-in, hardwired, inbred -
innocence n greenness, guiltlessness, youth bilewitness
innocent adj sinless, white unshildy, bilewit (<OE bile-wit)
innocuous adj white, hurtless -
innovation n brainchild newmaking
innovative adj clever, groundbreaking infinding
innovator n groundbreaker, trendsetter newmaker
inquire vb into: dig into, delve into, delve into, ask frayn (<OE fregen)
insane adj bats, mad, unsound, crazed, brainsick, thoughtless, brainless, crank, having a screw loose, out of one's mind, waning away, Braincranky, Brainsickened, Braincranked
insanity n thoughtlessness, brainlessness, crankiness, unsoundness, madness,
inscribe vb inwrite, write -
insect n bug midge (<OE mygg, mycg)
widge, wig (<OE wicga, cf. earwig)
carvedeer (<OE ceorfdēor, NHG kerbtier, LG karvdeer)
insecure adj - Unsicker (NHG. Unsicher)
insecurity n - Unsickerhood (NHG. Unsicherheit)

Unwishood (NHG. Ungewissheit) (see wis )

insensitive adj unfeeling, unfeelsome, heartless -
inseparable adj bound (up), hand-in-hand, forever one, thick unshedsome
insert vb input, inset, put, put in, place -
insincere adj hollow, hollow-hearted, unsoothfast, unsoothful, untruthfast, untruthsome unluter (OE hlutor)
insist vb stand one's ground bestand (cf. NHG bestehen)
insomnia n sleeplessness -
inspect(ion) vb/n inlook(ing) speering
inspiration n brainchild, brainwave inblowing
beghastness, inbreath, insouling
inspire vb beghast inblow (<OE inblowan)
instance n hap, byfall, befall, happening eyeblink
instantly adv at once, forthwith, swith, now, right now Eyeblickly (NHG. Augenblicklich)

or Eyeblinkly

instigate vb fire up, goad, kindle, rouse, stir up, spur fuse (<ME fusen)
institute vb set up stight, onstall
institution n body -

instruct

vb teach; wise up, tell what to do beleer

instruction(s)

n behest, word

wiseheedings, forewritings

outlay (cf. Du uitleg)

instrument n tool, means harp (<OE)
insult v beskimp (cf. beschimpfen) (see schimpfen)
insult n slight, slur, lambast, roast heash

beskimping (cf. NHG beschimpfung)

insurance n - healing (<OE helan 'to cover')

munding (<OE mundian 'to protect, shelter, guard')

berging (<OE beorgan ' to save, preserve')

insurgent n/adj red, upriser -
insurrection n uprising, outbreak -
integer n whole tel; being -
intellectual n egghead, highbrow, longhair -
intellectual adj highbrowed, long-haired capacity: anget
intelligence n brains; keenness, wit, braininess, brightness, cleverness

anget (<OE andgiet)

forwittleness (<OE forwitolnes)

moodcraft (<OE módcræft)

orthank (<OE orþanc)

rede (<OE rǽd) (reason)

snitter (<OE snyttru)

intelligent adj brainy, bright, clever, nimble, keen, sharp-witted, gaumish andgetful (<OE andgitful)

moodcrafty (<OE módcræftig)

wisefast (<OE wísfæst)

intelligible adj - fathomsome
intend vb look, mean, want, will mint, ettle

offsight (cf. NHG beabsichtigen)

intense adj fearful; warm-blooded, frought -
intention/ intent n -

ettling, offsight (cf. NHG absicht)

ontighting (<OE ontyhtung)

inter vb lay, put away -
inter- pfx in-, between- middle- (<OE "middel")
tween-
interact vb/n n: dealings withwork
intercede vb - inbreak
intercept vb block, pick off

fang off (cf. NHG abfangen), forride (<OE forrīdan)

interdict vb forbid -
interfere vb nose, pry inbreach
intergovernmental adj - tweenredeshiply
interjection n inset tweenlaying (cf. Ælfric's OE betwuxlegednes)
interest vb grip

indraw, inwrap, intryst (phonosemantic calque)

interest n share, stake; weal, well-being; business, outfit, reck, lean fascination: wastomschat (<OE wæstmsceatt), intryst (phonosemantic calque), indrawnness, indraw
interesting n gripping heeding, indrawing, mindwheting

intrysting (phonet. calque)

interim/interval n midtime, (long) far-between, midwhile -
interior n inside, inner, inliness -
intermediary n go-between -
intermission n break tweentide, tweenforletness (OE)
intern n inworker -
internal adj inland, inner, inner-bodily, inside twixfack (OE)
international n/adj lands amongst

altheedish

Internet n the World Wide Web, Web, the Wired twixtnet
interpol n worldwatcher -
interpret vb 1. unriddle 2. play 1. sweetle
interrogate vb ask (about) befrain (cf. NHG befragen) see frain, meanask
interrupt vb break in, cut in break off (cf. Fr. ôfbrekke, Sw. avbryta, Dn. afbryde)
interruption n breather -
intervention n - inbreak
interview n - frainspeak (cf. Du. vraagesprek), see frain
intestine n tharm, gut -
intimacy n warmth, warm friendship, near friendship -
intimidate vb besmallen, scare, frighten, overawe -
intoxicate vb - bedrunken (cf. NHG betrunken)
intoxicating adj heady, breathtaking, heart-stopping, stirring -
intoxication n drunkenness; cloud nine bedrunkenhood (cf. NHG Betrunkenheit)
introduce vb bring up, set forth, put forward; lead in; make known, propose: foreset

forestell (calque of Ger. speeches)

introduction n lead-in -
introverted n - ingoing, inwardsome
inundate vb flood, whelm, overwhelm beyeat (<OE begieten)
invade vb - infall, overrun, inthring, thrust upon
invader n - overrunner
invaluable adj - yealief, yeadear, uncheap, forworthy
invariably adv always -
invasion n raid infall, herefare, inslaught, streaming, inthrong, inthronging
invent vb make up, make

infind

afind (calque of NHG erfinden)

invention n -

findle (<OE findel), fyndelle (<OE fyndele)

inventor n -

infinder, afindand (<OE onfindend)

inventory n goodslist -
invertebrate vb unbackboned -
invest vb plough into -
investigate vb sift, delve into

speer (cf. OE spyrian "make a track, go, pursue; ask about, investigate"), nease, unwhelm,

Underseek(Du. onderzoeken and NHG. Untersuchen) or underseech (regarding beseech)

investigator n - speeriand (cf. OE spyrigend "investigator, inquirer"), underseeker
investigation n - speering, neasing, underseeking
investor n shareholder, stakeholder -
inveterate adj abiding, deep-rooted, deep-seated, hardened, lifelong, long-lived, settled -
inviolable adj hallowed, holy -
invisible adj - unseen
invitation n - lathing (<OE laðung, cf. NHG Einladung)
invite n/vb call for, call upon (cf. Ar دعى) n: inlath

vb: inlath (<OE inlaðian, cf. NHG einladen)

involve vb take in, whelm inhold
ion n - streammote
ionosphere n - streamlayer
iota n beans, whit -
ipseity n ass, selfhood -
irascible adj prickly, feisty, edgy, churlish, bearish, outburstish, highly-strung, wrathy, wrongheaded, crankisome uncweming
ire n wrath -
iris n eyebow -
irony n - wry witherweening (logical combining of wither "anti" and weening "expectation"), wrying
irregular adj broken, uneven wending, frothering
irrelevant n/adj without bearing, bearingless, unakinly unbearing
irresponsible adj reckless, heedless, careless, thoughtless, unmindful, unthinking, unanswerly -
irrigate vb - beflow, bewater
furrow: waterleat
irritate (vex) vb irk, gall -
irritating adj irksome, swinksome -
ischium n sea-bone -
-ise sfx ledge (<OE -læcan), -ly, make — -
isle n island, holm iland, aitland, ait, eyot, ealand
islet n ait, eyot, iling holm
-ism sfx - general abstractum: -dom

general belief system or school of thought: -belief (cf. NHG -glaube)

political doctrine/policy: -belead (cf. Du. beleid)

belief system associated with a person, place, etc.: -ishness, -ish belief

belief system as a religious or political establishment/realm: -dom

belief as faith: -troth

isobar n - Evenweight (iso-even + bar-weight)
isocracy n - evenship
isolate vb cut off, sunder cleave off
isolation n loneliness, alonehood, asideness forlethood (cf. NHG Verlassenheit), only-edoffness, offonly-edness
issue n - inting (<OE intinga)
italic (font) n -

Slantwrite

item n thing -
itinerary n - forebook (<OE fōrbōc/forbōc) pl: forebeek (<OE fōrbēc/forbēc)
ivory n tusk elpbone (cf. NHG Elfenbein,)
Ivory Coast n - Windward Shore
-ize sfx be-, -en -ledge (<OE -læcan)

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