Staff I of the English Wordbook.

Basic abbreviations:

  • OE = Old English
  • ME = Middle English
  • PG = Or-theedish
  • SC = Scots
  • SW = Swedish
  • Dan. = Danish
  • ON = Old Norse
  • OS = Old Saxon
  • NHG = New Hightheech
  • IC = Icelandish
  • H.IC = High Icelandish
  • Du. = Netherlandish
  • Fris. = Freesish

For a full list of etymological and other abbreviations used in these wordlists, see: Offshortenings.


Chancery English Class Anglish/English
Attested Unattested
ibex n - stonebuck (<NHG Steinbock)
firyenbuck (<OEfirgenbucca)
-ic/ -ical sfx -ish, -some, -ly -
ice age n - ice eld
ice skates n - sleighshoes/sledshoes/shritheshoes/slideshoes (cf. NHG Schlittschuh)
iceberg n - icebarrow, iceberry
icthyology n - fishlore
idea n mind's eye; dream, mark; understanding, belief, thought, clue thought-drop
thinkbilth (<Du. denkbeeld)

ettling; plan: howe (<OE hogian)

identical adj alike, selfsame, akin, same; even -
identify vb finger, betoken -
identity n sameness; selfhood whoness, whohood
ideology n belief thoughtset, thoughtthede
idiosyncrasy n quirk -
idolize vb worship, look up to, bow down before -
idiom n - folkword, folkwording
idiot n

blockhead, clot, dumbbell, half-wit, fathead, meathead, thickhead, dumbarse, dumbass, egg head, dumb (all informal), witless

dwease (<OE dwæs),
idol n god wigh (<OE. wīġ)
offgod (cf. NHG Abgott, OE. afgod)
idolatry n worshipping wighworthing (<OE wīġweorþung)
idolize vb worship, look up to, bow down before -
i.e. abbrev. t.i. ~ that is -
-ify afx be-, -en -ledge (<OE -læcan)
igloo n - icehouse
ignis fatuus n will-o-the-wisp wander light (cf. Du dwaallicht)
ignite vb fire, tend, set alight latch fire
ignorance n benightedness, carelessness, heedlessness, shunning, thoughtlessness, unknowing shunhood, nitenness (<OE nytennes), unwit
ignorant adj benighted, unaware, unlearned, unread, untaught unwitty
ignore vb unheed, forget, overlook, slight, slur over, -
iguana n - combask (cf. Du. "kamhagedis")
ilium n - flankbone
ill-conceived adj - ill-howed
illegal adj unlawful, lawless, outlawed unlet
illegalise vb outlaw -
illegitimate adj misbegotten, unfathered, born out of wedlock, ill-gotten, unrightful -
illuminate vb/n brighten, shed light on; bathe, beacon, inlighten; unriddle; foreground, highlight belighten, onlight, forlighten
illusion n daydream; misbelief, old wives' tale dwild, dwimmer, brainshade (cf. Du. hersenschim)
illustrious n - thrymfast/thrimfast (<OE þrymfæst)
image n look alike, ringer, twin: likeness; mind's eye, frame bilth (<OE biliþe, cf. NHG. Bild, Du.

beeld), seen

imagination n mind's eye, fathoming moodseave (<OE módsefa), fathomhood

inbilthing (cf. NHG Einbildung)

imaginative adj thoughtful weenful, infinding
imagine vb fathom, see reckon (dialect), ween (<OE wénan)
imitate vb

ape; copy: follow on the footsteps of, take a leaf out of (someone's) book

hure (<OE hȳrian)

pinchbeck, enliken

imitation n - likeness, fakery
immanent adj inbuilt, handwired, inbred -
immature adj callow, youthful, green, flaw, unripe, childish -
immediately adv anon, forthwith, headlong, straight away (straightaway), henceforth, at once, now, right now swithsoon, ayenow, rath(er)

eyeblinkly (cf. NHG augenblicklich) (see Eng. eyeblink)

immense adj - earm (<OE eormen)

unametely (<OE unámetenlic)

immigrant n comer, incomer, newcomer, settler inwanderer (Eng., cf. NHG. Einwanderer, Nw. invandrare)
immigration n inwandering (cf. NHG Einwanderung)
imminent adj one the way, near-at-hand, nearing, forthcoming, oncoming, upcoming; threatening unfrothering (cf. Du. onveranderlijk, NHG. unveränderlich)
immoral adj dark, evil, rotten, sinful, wicked, wrong, unripe, unfledged, babyish

thewless, gyltsome 

immortal adj deathless; everlasting, undying -
immune (to) adj unfazed (by) -
immutable adj fixed, hard-and-fast unwending
impact n crash, strike, wallop: mark, sway. hit thrack
impair vb break, cripple, harm -
impale vb jab -
impart vb bequeath, bestow, give, share, make known, show, tell formiddle (cf. NHG vermitteln), forlend (cf. Du. verlenen), inshare (calque)
impartial adj evenhanded, fairminded unswayed
impasse n deadlock, halt, standstill -
impassive adj cold-blooded; deadpan, empty, numb -
impede vb hinder, hold back, hold up, thwart, shackle, stop -
impenetrable adj - evertight, unthursome
imperative adj needed case: bebidendly (<OE bebeodendlic, cf. Du. gebiedend, NHG. gebieterisch)
imperialism n - anwield, overlordship, rikedom
impertinent adj bold; ill bred ill-thewed
implicate adj 2. inweave, twist, writhe 1. inmeld
implicit adj 1. unspoken, wordless, unsaid 2. couth
implement v. set
implode vb - cleave in
implore vb beseech, bid, beg -
imply vb hint, infold ettle, bysay
impolite adj rough, lewd, ill-bred, uncouth, ill-mannered, uncalled-for ill-thewed
import vb - inferry (calque from Latin in + carry)
importance n heft, weightiness, pith, greatness -
important adj big, far-reaching, foremost, outstanding, weighty, earthshattering, great pithy
importune adj - mowly (<OE ġemāhlīc)
importunity n - mowliness (<OE ġemāhlīcnes)
impose vb lay, put, set onset (<OE onsettan)
impossible adj hopeless, beyond bearing unmaily (refer to German unmöglich=impossible; "mögen" is the German etymological correspondence to "may")


impress vb gladden, stun intrutch (<OE onþryocau, NHG eindruck, cf. Dan. indtryk, Swed. intryck)

undrask (<ON undrask)

impression n reckoning intrutching
imprint n mark, stamp inthrick
imprison vb lock up haft (<OE hæftan)
impromptu adj offhand -
improper adj uncomely, unfit, untoward, unright, wrong, unbecoming unright, unhende
improve(ment) vb/n shape up, grow better, help; breakthrough, bettering forbetter (cf. NHG verbessern)
improvised adj makeshift, offhand twoth-rigged
impudence n cheek -
impudent adj shameless, cheeky -
impulse n boost, goad, yeast; bone, leaning, want -
impurity n lewdness, unfreshness, unswotelness
in spite of prep. notwithstanding -
inadvertent adj unwitting -
inalienable adj - samefast
inane adj mindless -
inanimate adj heedingless, still unbesouled (cf. Du. onbezield)
inappropriate adj unbecoming, unfit, untoward unbeseeming
inaudible adj - unhearsome, swanless, unheard
incalculable adj untold unreckonly
incantation n - galdercwide (<OE galdorcwide)
incarnate vb inflesh -
in case conj lest, for fear that, the less -
incapable adj - undowly (cf. NHG untauglich)
inception n birth, dawn, outset, kickoff -
incest n - siblair, siblay, inbreeding, bloodshame (calque)
incident n hap, happening, befall -
incise(sion) vb/n cut, slit snithe(ing) (<OE sniþan, cf. NHG. schneiden)
incisive adj cutting snithing
incite vb spur, goad, egg fuse (<ME fusen)
inclination n

leaning, tilt, bowing

desire: wish, need, craving, yearning

incline vb sway, lower, bow, stoop, tip, lean -
inclined adj given, likely, willing, ready swayed towards
include vb inhold yin (<OE geinnian)
incompassionate adj ruthless, heartless, cold, hard-hearted, cold-hearted -
incomplete n underdone, less than whole, unwhole, underwhole, unfullworked -
inconsiderate adj thoughtless, uncaring, unthinking, careless, ruthless, reckless -
incorporate vb knit, meld, mingle, mix -
incorrect adj wrong, wide of the mark; unfit, untoward; off, unsound, untrue -
increase vb swell up; rise, snowball, oker, build up, forthwax (w)ooker (<OE wōcor) formoren (cf. NHG vermehren)
increasingly adv more and more, risingly -
incredible adj - unlieveful
incursion n raid, inroad -
incus n anvil earanvil, anvilbone
indebted adj owing, beholden
indecent adj shameless, unseemly, shameful, unsightful -
indecisive adj wavering, in two minds, swithering, halting, half-hearted, half-minded unmeting
indelicate adj heavy handed, stern, gruff -
independent adj free, selfstanding unonhanging (cf. NHG unabhänig, Du. onafhankelijk)
independence n freedom,

individuality: selfhood

selfstandingness, unonhangness
inferior nasal concha n - lower nosely spinner
India n Indland

Ealand (India is ultimately named after the Indus river; Indus comes from Sanskrit síndhu meaning river)

indicate vb bespeak; flag up, betoken, show ward to
indication n hint, clue, mark, inkling betokening, waywarding
indifference n onesideness
indifferent adj/adv adj: careless, onesided

adv: fairly

indigent adj needy, down at heel -
indignity n brickbat, slap, slight, slur -
indiscriminated adj swoopstake, wholesale, hit-or-miss allwardly, manywardly
indisposed adj 2. unsound, unwell, laid up 1. unleaning
individual adj indirectly: asidely


onelepy (<OE ánlípe, ánlípig)
individual n - onelepy, onelepling (<OE ánlípe "individual" + -ling, cf. the general form of Ic./Far. einstaklingur), one, yea-one
individualism n selfdom -
indocrinate vb brainwash mindwash
indolent adj idle, shiftless, slothful, lazy lat (<OE læt)
induce vb beget, breed, draw on, set off, give rise to, make, bring out, bring, lead to, enkindle, whip up beweigh (cf. NHG bewegen/ Du. bewegen) 
indulgence  n kindness

milts, foregiveness (<OE); religion: offlet (cf. NHG Ablass)

industry n - bulkbuildship, worksomeness
industrial action n strike -
industrious adj yielding, working -
inebriated adj drunk, smashed, blasted, baked, half-cut, hopped up -
ineffable adj nameless, unspeakable -
ineffective adj hamstrung, bad, unworksome, unhardworking,
inept adj clueless, unhandy, clumsy, bad -
inert adj still, lifeless, idle, undoing, bloodless unshrithing (shrithe)
inertia n - idlehood (cf. Du. traagheid; NHG Trägheit)
inevitable adj - unformithely (cf. NHG unvermeidlich)
inexperienced adj unfledged, callow, raw, green -
infamous adj shameful, ill-named, unworthy -
infamy n shamefulness, lowstanding, ill-name, bad name are (<OE ár 'honour')
infancy n bairnhood, childhood -
infant n newborn, cradle-child, suckling -
infanticide n - bairnslaughter
infantile adj childish bairnsome
infantilize vb - bechild
infatuate vb makes one lust -
infatuation n lust -
infect vb - smittel
infection n -


of the ear: earcothe (<OE ēarcoðu)

infectious adj catching, spreading smittelsome
infer vb deem, gather, make out, see ettel
inferior n/adj lower, nether; mean; shoddy, worse -
infernal adj fiendish, hellish, wicked, underhanded, evil, ill, hateful, all-fired -
inferno n hell, hellfire, fire -
infertile adj barren, unbearing geld, unteeming, untudderfast
infidelity n backstabbing, sellout, two-timing wedbreach
infinite adj boundless, endless, everlasting, never-ending, timeless, unbounded, unmetely, unrim, untold, without end unendly (Eng., cf. NHG unendlich), allish
infinitive n - unendingly (<OE ungeendigendlic)
infinity n everlasting, foreverness, unendingness unendlihood (cf. NHG unendlichkeit)
infirmed adj sickly, unhealthy, wanhale -
inflammation n burning, redness, soreness, swelling, itch betindering (cf. Dn. 'betændelse')
inflate vb blow up, fill forblow, andblow (cf. Ic. and-blásinn)
influence vb/n n: inflood

vb: inflow, sway, shape

inflict vb lay on, wreak, meat or deal out, deal -
influx n inflow -
infographic n - knowbilthish (knowledge + Yiddish 'bilderish')
informal adj loose -
informant n deep throat, fink, nark, snitcher, telltale, whistleblower teller
information n knowledge, tidings, insight knowhood
infringement n lawbreaking -
infuriate adj foaming, shirty, teed-off, wroth, madden -
infuse vb inset, input, inlay inbirl
ingenious adj clever orthankly (<OE orþanclic), overmindle
ingenuity n cleverness orthink, overmind
ingest vb tuck, down, swallow -
inhabit vb dwell, abide, wone in, inwone, live in alive, erde, bewone, ern
inhabitance n abode, dwelling erding (erding in sorrow), erdingstow, inwoning, erning
inhabitant n dweller, abider

indweller (Scots)

erd-folk, bewoner, inwoner, ern-folk (<OE ærn 'house, habitation')

inhale vb breathe in, draw in, suck -
inherent adj built-in, inborn, inbred, indwelling -
inherit vb get, take, come into erve (<OE ierfian)
inheritance n birthright erve (<OE ierfe), ervewardness (<OE ierfeweardnes), earf, earfdeal, ervedeal, birthright, birthdom, birth-hood
inimical adj foesome, harmful, unfriendly fiendly (cf. Germanic "feindlich")
initial adj first, beginning, early forme (obsolete; < OE forma)
initiate vb start, begin, bring on, bring up, goad, spur -
injection n hypodermic: shot, other: jab inshot, needleprick
injure vb harm, wound, break dere (<OE derian, archaic ME dere), forwound
ink n dyestuff

black (It's attested, the color was "swarth", and it is still used in Scandenavia for "ink")

bookblack (<OE bócblæc)
innate adj built-in, hardwired, inbred -
innocence n greenness, guiltlessness, youth bilewitness
innocent adj sinless, harmless, white unshildy, bilewit (<OE bile-wit)
innocuous adj white, harmless -
innovation n brainchild newmaking
innovative adj clever, groundbreaking infinding
innovator n groundbreaker, trendsetter newmaker
inquire vb into: dig into, delve into, delve into, ask frayn (<OE fregen)
insane adj bats, mad, unsound, crazed, brainsick, thoughtless, brainless, crank, having a screw loose, out of one's mind, waning away, Braincranky, Brainsickened, Braincranked
insanity n thoughtlessness, brainlessness, crankiness, unsoundness, madness,
inscribe vb inwrite, write -
insect n bug midge (<OE mygg, mycg)
widge, wig (<OE wicga, cf. earwig)
carvedeer (<OE ceorfdēor, NHG kerbtier, LG karvdeer)
insecure adj unsafe: naked, bare, careless, uncareful; unshielded, badly shielded, unwarded, badly warded; unconfident/suspicious: careful, wary, watchful, mindful Unsicker (NHG. Unsicher)
insecurity n bad protection: nakedness, carelessness, bad shielding, bad warding;

suspicion: care, carefulness, wariness, watchfulness, mindfulness

Unsickerhood (NHG. Unsicherheit)

Unwishood (NHG. Ungewissheit) (see wis )

insensitive adj unfeeling, unfeelsome, heartless, hard -
inseparable adj bound (up), hand-in-hand, forever one, thick unshedsome
insert vb input, inset, put, put in -
insincere adj hollow, hollow-hearted, unsoothfast, unsoothful, untruthfast, untruthsome, untruthful, untrue unluter (OE hlutor)
insist vb stand one's ground bestand (cf. NHG bestehen)
insomnia n sleeplessness -
inspect(ion) vb/n inlook(ing) speering
inspiration n brainchild, brainwave inblowing
beghastness, inbreath, insouling
inspire vb beghast inblow (<OE inblowan)
install vb put in, set up, fit onstell (<OE onstellan)
instance n hap, byfall, befall, happening eyeblink
instantly adv at once, forthwith, swith, now, right now Eyeblickly (NHG. Augenblicklich)

or Eyeblinkly

instigate vb fire up, goad, kindle, rouse, stir up, spur fuse (<ME fusen)
institute vb set up stight, onstall
institution n body -


vb teach; wise up, tell what to do beleer


n behest, word

wiseheedings, forewritings

outlay (cf. Du uitleg)

instrument n tool, means harp (<OE)
insulin n - oelib (<ME. oe, ME. lybb) (see islet.)
insult v slight beskimp (cf. beschimpfen) (see schimpfen)
insult n slight, slur, lambast, roast heash

beskimping (cf. NHG beschimpfung)

insurance n - healing (<OE helan 'to cover')

munding/mounding (<OE mundian 'to protect, shelter, guard')

berrying (<OE beorgan ' to save, preserve')

insurgent n/adj red, upriser -
insurrection n uprising, outbreak -
intact adj unharmed, whole unrined (cf. Eng. untouched)
integer n whole tel; being -
intellectual n egghead, highbrow, longhair -
intellectual adj highbrowed, long-haired capacity: anget
intelligence n brains; keenness, wit, braininess, brightness, cleverness, insight

anget (<OE andgiet)

forwittleness (<OE forwitolnes)

moodcraft (<OE módcræft)

orthank (<OE orþanc)

rede (<OE rǽd) (reason)

snitter (<OE snyttru)

intelligent adj brainy, bright, clever, nimble, keen, sharp-witted, gaumish andgetful (<OE andgitful)

moodcrafty (<OE módcræftig)

wisefast (<OE wísfæst)

intelligible adj that can be understood, that can be fathomed fathomsome
intend vb look, mean, want, will; be of (a) (good) mind (to) mint, ettle

offsight (cf. NHG beabsichtigen)

intense adj fearful; warm-blooded, frought -
intention/ intent n -

ettling, offsight (cf. NHG absicht)

ontighting (<OE ontyhtung)

inter vb lay, put away -
inter- pfx in-, between- middle- (<OE "middel")
interact vb/n n: dealings withwork
intercede vb come/go between/betwixt inbreak
intercept vb pick off, stop, thwart, latch on to, run in to, shut off

fang off (cf. NHG abfangen), forride (<OE forrīdan)

interdict vb forbid -
interfere vb nose, pry, thwart inbreach
intergovernmental adj - tweenredeshiply
interjection n inset tweenlaying (cf. Ælfric's OE betwuxlegednes)
interest vb grip

indraw, inwrap, intryst (phonosemantic calque)

interest n share, stake; weal, well-being; business, outfit, reck, lean fascination: wastomschat (<OE wæstmsceatt), intryst (phonosemantic calque), indrawnness, indraw
interesting n gripping heeding, indrawing, mindwheting

intrysting (phonet. calque)

interim/interval n midtime, (long) far-between, midwhile -
interior n inside, inner, inliness -
intermediary n go-between, middleman -
intermission n break, stop-over/stopover tweentide, tweenforletness (OE)
intermittent(ly) adj/adv fitful(ly), broken(ly), stop-and-go, shifting(ly), sometimes, hit-or-miss, on and off inbetweenish(ly)
intern n inworker, helper -
internal adj inland, inner, inner-bodily, inside twixfack (OE)
international n/adj worldwide, lands amongst


Internet n (World Wide) Web, Net, Wired tweennet, twixtnet, alseer
interpol n worldwatcher -
interpret vb 1. unriddle 2. play 1. sweetle
interrogate vb ask (about) befrain (cf. NHG befragen) see frain, meanask
interrupt vb break in, cut in break off (cf. Fr. ôfbrekke, Sw. avbryta, Dn. afbryde)
interruption n breather, break -
intersection n - thwarsing (cf. Eng. crossing)
intervention n - inbreak
interview n talk, hearing, meeting, call frainspeak (cf. Du. vraagesprek), see frain
intestine n tharm, gut, innards -
intimacy n warmth, warm friendship, near friendship -
intimidate vb besmallen, scare, frighten, overawe -
intoxicate vb - bedrunken (cf. NHG betrunken)
intoxicating adj heady, breathtaking, heart-stopping, stirring -
intoxication n drunkenness; cloud nine bedrunkenhood (cf. NHG Betrunkenheit)
introduce vb bring up, set forth, put forward; lead in; make known propose: foreset

forestell (calque of Ger. speeches)

introduction n lead-in -
introvert n - ingoer
introverted adj - ingoing, inwardsome
intuition n gut-feeling inner knowing
inundate vb flood, whelm, overwhelm beyeat (<OE begieten)
invade vb - infall, overrun, inthring, thrust upon
invader n - overrunner
invaluable adj (most) dear yealief, yeadear, uncheap, forworthy
invariably adv always -
invasion n raid infall, herefare, inslaught, streaming, inthrong, inthronging
invent vb make up, make, come up with


afind (calque of NHG erfinden)

invention n -

findle (<OE findel), fyndelle (<OE fyndele)

inventor n -

infinder, afindand (<OE onfindend)

inventory n goodslist -
invertebrate vb unbackboned -
invest vb plough into -
investigate vb sift, delve into

speer (cf. OE spyrian "make a track, go, pursue; ask about, investigate"), nease, unwhelm,

Underseek(Du. onderzoeken and NHG. Untersuchen) or underseech (regarding beseech)

investigator n - speeriand (cf. OE spyrigend "investigator, inquirer"), underseeker
investigation n - speering, neasing, underseeking
investor n shareholder, stakeholder -
inveterate adj abiding, deep-rooted, deep-seated, hardened, lifelong, long-lived, settled -
invincible adj - unbeatsome (cf. Eng. unbeatable)
inviolable adj hallowed, holy -
invisible adj - unseesome
invitation n - lathing (<OE laðung, cf. NHG Einladung)
invite n/vb welcome, bring in, call for, call upon (cf. Arabic دعا) n: inlath

vb: inlath (<OE inlaðian, cf. NHG einladen)

involve vb take in, whelm inhold
ion n - streammote
ionosphere n - streamlayer
iota n beans, whit -
ipe/ipê n - (Rudwoodish) bow-wood (calque of Portuguese pau d'arco"

greenheart (cf. Du. groenhart)

ipseity n ass, selfhood -
irascible adj prickly, feisty, edgy, churlish, bearish, outburstish, highly-strung, wrathy, wrongheaded, crankisome uncweming
ire n wrath -
iridescence n shimmering; glistening; gleaming -
iris n eyebow -
irony n - witherweening (logical combining of wither "anti" and weening "expectation"), wrying
irrational adj groundless, unfounded, ill-founded, silly, -
irregular adj broken, uneven wending, frothering
irrelevant n/adj without bearing, bearingless, unakinly unbearing
irresponsible adj reckless, heedless, careless, thoughtless, unmindful, unthinking, unanswerly -
irrigate vb water beflow, bewater
furrow: waterleat
irritate (vex) vb irk, gall -
irritating adj irksome, swinksome -
ischium n - seatbone
-ise sfx ledge (<OE -læcan), -ly, make — -
isle n island, holm, oe iland, aitland, ait, eyot (small island, key), ealand, -ey (used as a place name suffix)
islet n ait, eyot, iling holm
-ism sfx - general abstractum: -dom

general belief system or school of thought: -belief (cf. NHG -glaube)

political doctrine/policy: -belead (cf. Du. beleid)

belief system associated with a person, place, etc.: -ishness, -ish belief

belief system as a religious or political establishment/realm: -dom

belief as faith: -troth

isobar n - evenweight (iso-even + bar-weight)
isocracy n - evenship
isolate vb cut off, sunder cleave off
isolation n loneliness, alonehood, asideness forlethood (cf. NHG Verlassenheit), only-edoffness, offonly-edness
isotone n - evenghtell (evenstell = firstbit; evenghtell = naughtbit)
isotope n - evenstell (iso-even + tope-stell)
issue n - inting (<OE intinga)
italic (font) n -


item n thing -
itinerary n - forebook (<OE fōrbōc/forbōc) pl: forebeek (<OE fōrbēc/forbēc)
ivory n tusk elpbone (cf. NHG Elfenbein,)
Ivory Coast n - Windward Shore
-ize sfx be-, -en -ledge (<OE -læcan)