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Staff I of the English Wordbook.

Basic abbreviations:

  • OE = Old English
  • ME = Middle English
  • PG = Or-theedish
  • SC = Scots
  • SW = Swedish
  • Dan. = Danish
  • ON = Old Norse
  • OS = Old Saxon
  • NHG = New Hightheech
  • IC = Icelandish
  • H.IC = High Icelandish
  • Du. = Netherlandish
  • Fris. = Freesish

For a full list of etymological and other abbreviations used in these wordlists, see: Offshortenings.


A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


Chancery English Class Anglish/English
Attested Unattested
ibex n - stonebuck (<NHG Steinbock)
firyenbuck (<OEfirgenbucca)
-ic/ -ical sfx -ish, -some, -ly -
ice age n - ice eld
ice skates n - sleighshoes/sledshoes/shritheshoes/slideshoes (cf. NHG Schlittschuh)
iceberg n - icebarrow, iceberry
icthyology n - fishlore
idea n mind's eye; dream, mark; understanding, belief, thought, clue athought (<OE geþóht)

thought-drop
thinkbilth (<Du. denkbeeld) ettling; plan: howe (<OE hogian)

ideology n - athoughtdom, athoughthood, athoughtlore
identical adj alike, selfsame, akin, same; even -
identify vb finger, betoken -
identity n sameness; selfhood whoness, whohood
ideology n belief thoughtset, thoughtthede
idiosyncrasy n quirk -
idolize vb worship, look up to, bow down before -
idiom n - folkword, folkwording
idiot n

blockhead, clot, dumbbell, half-wit, fathead, meathead, thickhead, dumbarse, dumbass, egg head, dumb (all informal), witless

dwease (<OE dwæs),
idol n god wigh (<OE. wīġ)
offgod (cf. NHG Abgott, OE. afgod)
idolatry n worshipping wighworthing (<OE wīġweorþung)
idolize vb worship, look up to, bow down before -
i.e. abbrev. t.i. ~ that is -
-ify afx be-, -en -ledge (<OE -læcan)
igloo n - icehouse
ignis fatuus n will-o-the-wisp wander light (cf. Du dwaallicht)
ignite vb fire, tend, set alight latch fire
ignorance n benightedness, carelessness, heedlessness, shunning, thoughtlessness, unknowing shunhood, nitenness (<OE nytennes), unwit
ignorant adj benighted, unaware, unlearned, unread, untaught unwitty
ignore vb unheed, forget, overlook, slight, slur over, -
iguana n - combask (cf. Du. "kamhagedis")
ilium n - flankbone
ill-conceived adj - ill-howed
illegal adj unlawful, lawless, outlawed unlet
illegalise vb outlaw -
illegitimate adj misbegotten, unfathered, born out of wedlock, ill-gotten, unrightful -
illuminate vb/n brighten, shed light on; bathe, beacon, inlighten; unriddle; foreground, highlight belighten, onlight, forlighten
illusion n daydream; misbelief, old wives' tale dwild, dwimmer, brainshade (cf. Du. hersenschim)
illustrious n - thrymfast/thrimfast (<OE þrymfæst)
image n look alike, ringer, twin: likeness; mind's eye, frame bilth (<OE biliþe, cf. NHG. Bild, Du.

beeld), seen

imagination n mind's eye, fathoming moodseave (<OE módsefa), fathomhood

inbilthing (cf. NHG Einbildung)

imaginative adj thoughtful weenful, infinding
imagine vb fathom, see reckon (dialect), ween (<OE wénan)
imitate vb

ape; copy: follow on the footsteps of, take a leaf out of (someone's) book

hure (<OE hȳrian)

pinchbeck, enliken

imitation n - likeness, fakery
immanent adj inbuilt, handwired, inbred -
immature adj callow, youthful, green, flaw, unripe, childish -
immediately adv anon, forthwith, headlong, straight away (straightaway), henceforth, at once, now, right now swithsoon, ayenow, rath(er)

eyeblinkly (cf. NHG augenblicklich) (see Eng. eyeblink)

immense adj - earm (<OE eormen)

unametely (<OE unámetenlic)

immigrant n comer, incomer, newcomer, settler inwanderer (Eng., cf. NHG. Einwanderer, Nw. invandrare)
immigration n inwandering (cf. NHG Einwanderung)
imminent adj one the way, near-at-hand, nearing, forthcoming, oncoming, upcoming; threatening unfrothering (cf. Du. onveranderlijk, NHG. unveränderlich)
immoral adj dark, evil, rotten, sinful, wicked, wrong, unripe, unfledged, babyish

thewless, gyltsome 

immortal adj deathless; everlasting, undying -
immune (to) adj unfazed (by) -
immutable adj fixed, hard-and-fast unwending
impact n crash, strike, wallop: mark, sway. hit thrack
impair vb break, cripple, harm -
impale vb jab -
impart vb bequeath, bestow, give, share, make known, show, tell formiddle (cf. NHG vermitteln), forlend (cf. Du. verlenen), inshare (calque)
impartial adj evenhanded, fairminded unswayed
impasse n deadlock, halt, standstill -
impassive adj cold-blooded; deadpan, empty, numb -
impede vb hinder, hold back, hold up, thwart, shackle, stop -
impenetrable adj - evertight, unthursome
imperative adj needed case: bebidendly (<OE bebeodendlic, cf. Du. gebiedend, NHG. gebieterisch)
imperial adj - rikish
imperialism n - anwield, overlordship, rikedom
impertinent adj bold; ill bred ill-thewed
implicate adj 2. inweave, twist, writhe 1. inmeld
implicit adj 1. unspoken, wordless, unsaid 2. couth
implement v. set
implode vb - cleave in
implore vb beseech, bid, beg -
imply vb hint, infold ettle, bysay
impolite adj rough, lewd, ill-bred, uncouth, ill-mannered, uncalled-for ill-thewed
import vb - inferry (calque from Latin in + carry)
importance n heft, weightiness, pith, greatness -
important adj big, far-reaching, foremost, outstanding, weighty, earthshattering, great pithy
importune adj - mowly (<OE ġemāhlīc)
importunity n - mowliness (<OE ġemāhlīcnes)
impose vb lay, put, set onset (<OE onsettan)
impossible adj hopeless, beyond bearing unmaily (refer to German unmöglich=impossible; "mögen" is the German etymological correspondence to "may")

unmightly

impress vb gladden, stun intrutch (<OE onþryocau, NHG eindruck, cf. Dan. indtryk, Swed. intryck)

undrask (<ON undrask)

impression n reckoning intrutching
imprint n mark, stamp inthrick
imprison vb lock up haft (<OE hæftan)
impromptu adj offhand -
improper adj uncomely, unfit, untoward, unright, wrong, unbecoming unright, unhende
improve(ment) vb/n shape up, grow better, help; breakthrough, bettering forbetter (cf. NHG verbessern)
improvised adj makeshift, offhand twoth-rigged
impudence n cheek -
impudent adj shameless, cheeky -
impulse n boost, goad, yeast; bone, leaning, want -
impurity n lewdness, unfreshness, unswotelness
in spite of prep. notwithstanding -
inadvertent adj unwitting -
inalienable adj - samefast
inane adj mindless -
inanimate adj heedingless, still unbesouled (cf. Du. onbezield)
inappropriate adj unbecoming, unfit, untoward unbeseeming
inaudible adj - unhearsome, swanless, unheard
incalculable adj untold unreckonly
incantation n - galdercwide (<OE galdorcwide)
incarnate vb inflesh -
in case conj lest, for fear that, the less -
incapable adj - undowly (cf. NHG untauglich)
inception n birth, dawn, outset, kickoff -
incest n - siblair, siblay, inbreeding, bloodshame (calque)
incident n hap, happening, befall -
incise(sion) vb/n cut, slit snithe(ing) (<OE sniþan, cf. NHG. schneiden)
incisive adj cutting snithing
incite vb spur, goad, egg fuse (<ME fusen)
inclination n

leaning, tilt, bowing

desire: wish, need, craving, yearning

-
incline vb sway, lower, bow, stoop, tip, lean -
inclined adj given, likely, willing, ready swayed towards
include vb inhold yin (<OE geinnian)
incompassionate adj ruthless, heartless, cold, hard-hearted, cold-hearted -
incomplete n underdone, less than whole, unwhole, underwhole, unfullworked -
inconsiderate adj thoughtless, uncaring, unthinking, careless, ruthless, reckless -
incorporate vb knit, meld, mingle, mix -
incorrect adj wrong, wide of the mark; unfit, untoward; off, unsound, untrue -
increase vb swell up; rise, snowball, oker, build up, forthwax, biggen, greaten, (w)ooker (<OE wōcor) formoren (cf. NHG vermehren)
increasingly adv more and more, risingly -
incredible adj - unlieveful
incursion n raid, inroad -
incus n anvil earanvil, anvilbone
indebted adj owing, beholden
indecent adj shameless, unseemly, shameful, unsightful -
indecisive adj wavering, in two minds, swithering, halting, half-hearted, half-minded unmeting
indelicate adj heavy handed, stern, gruff -
independent adj free, selfstanding unonhanging (cf. NHG unabhänig, Du. onafhankelijk)
independence n freedom,

individuality: selfhood

selfstandingness, unonhangness
inferior nasal concha n - lower nosely spinner
India n Indland

Ealand (India is ultimately named after the Indus river; Indus comes from Sanskrit síndhu meaning river)

indicate vb bespeak; flag up, betoken, show ward to
indication n hint, clue, mark, inkling betokening, waywarding
indifference n onesideness
indifferent adj/adv adj: careless, onesided

adv: fairly

indigent adj needy, down at heel -
indignity n brickbat, slap, slight, slur -
indirect object (grammar) n selfstanding ware, asidely ware
indiscriminated adj swoopstake, wholesale, hit-or-miss allwardly, manywardly
indisposed adj 2. unsound, unwell, laid up 1. unleaning
individual adj indirectly: asidely

selfstanding

onelepy (<OE ánlípe, ánlípig)
individual n - onelepy, onelepling (<OE ánlípe "individual" + -ling, cf. the general form of Ic./Far. einstaklingur), one, yea-one
individualism n selfdom -
indocrinate vb brainwash mindwash
indolent adj idle, shiftless, slothful, lazy lat (<OE læt)
induce vb beget, breed, draw on, set off, give rise to, make, bring out, bring, lead to, enkindle, whip up beweigh (cf. NHG bewegen/ Du. bewegen) 
indulgence  n kindness

milts, foregiveness (<OE); religion: offlet (cf. NHG Ablass)

industry n - bulkbuildship, worksomeness
industrial action n strike -
industrious adj yielding, working -
inebriated adj drunk, smashed, blasted, baked, half-cut, hopped up -
ineffable adj nameless, unspeakable -
ineffective adj hamstrung, bad, unworksome, unhardworking,
inept adj clueless, unhandy, clumsy, bad -
inert adj still, lifeless, idle, undoing, bloodless unshrithing (shrithe)
inertia n - idlehood (cf. Du. traagheid; NHG Trägheit)
inevitable adj - unformithely (cf. NHG unvermeidlich)
inexperienced adj unfledged, callow, raw, green -
infamous adj shameful, ill-named, unworthy -
infamy n shamefulness, lowstanding, ill-name, bad name are (<OE ár 'honour')
infancy n bairnhood, childhood -
infant n newborn, cradle-child, suckling -
infanticide n - bairnslaughter
infantile adj childish bairnsome
infantilize vb - bechild
infatuate vb makes one lust -
infatuation n lust -
infect vb - smittel
infection n -

insmiting

of the ear: earcothe (<OE ēarcoðu)

infectious adj catching, spreading smittelsome
infer vb deem, gather, make out, see ettel
inferior n/adj lower, nether; mean; shoddy, worse -
infernal adj fiendish, hellish, wicked, underhanded, evil, ill, hateful, all-fired -
inferno n hell, hellfire, fire -
infertile adj barren, unbearing geld, unteeming, untudderfast
infidelity n backstabbing, sellout, two-timing wedbreach
infinite adj boundless, endless, everlasting, never-ending, timeless, unbounded, unmetely, unrim, untold, without end unendly (Eng., cf. NHG unendlich), allish
infinitive n - unendingly (<OE ungeendigendlic)
infinity n everlasting, foreverness, unendingness unendlihood (cf. NHG unendlichkeit)
infirmed adj sickly, unhealthy, wanhale -
inflammation n burning, redness, soreness, swelling, itch betindering (cf. Dn. 'betændelse')
inflate vb blow up, fill forblow, andblow (cf. Ic. and-blásinn)
influence vb/n n: inflood

vb: inflow, sway, shape

-
inflict vb lay on, wreak, meat or deal out, deal -
influx n inflow -
infographic n - knowbilthish (knowledge + Yiddish 'bilderish')
informal adj loose -
informant n deep throat, fink, nark, snitcher, telltale, whistleblower teller
information n knowledge, tidings, insight knowhood
infringement n lawbreaking -
infuriate adj foaming, shirty, teed-off, wroth, madden -
infuse vb inset, input, inlay inbirl
ingenious adj clever orthankly (<OE orþanclic), overmindle
ingenuity n cleverness orthink, overmind
ingest vb tuck, down, swallow -
inhabit vb dwell, abide, wone in, inwone, live in alive, erde, bewone, ern
inhabitance n abode, dwelling erding (erding in sorrow), erdingstow, inwoning, erning
inhabitant n dweller, abider

indweller (Scots)

erd-folk, bewoner, inwoner, ern-folk (<OE ærn 'house, habitation')

inhale vb breathe in, draw in, suck -
inherent adj built-in, inborn, inbred, indwelling -
inherit vb get, take, come into erve (<OE ierfian)
inheritance n birthright erve (<OE ierfe), ervewardness (<OE ierfeweardnes), earf, earfdeal, ervedeal, birthright, birthdom, birth-hood
inimical adj foesome, harmful, unfriendly fiendly (cf. Germanic "feindlich")
initial adj first, beginning, early forme (obsolete; < OE forma)
initiate vb start, begin, bring on, bring up, goad, spur -
injection n hypodermic: shot, other: jab inshot, needleprick
injure vb harm, wound, break dere (<OE derian, archaic ME dere), forwound
ink n dyestuff

black (It's attested, the color was "swarth", and it is still used in Scandenavia for "ink")

bookblack (<OE bócblæc)
innate adj built-in, hardwired, inbred -
innocence n greenness, guiltlessness, youth bilewitness
innocent adj sinless, harmless, white unshildy, bilewit (<OE bile-wit)
innocuous adj white, harmless -
innovation n brainchild newmaking
innovative adj clever, groundbreaking infinding
innovator n groundbreaker, trendsetter newmaker
inquire vb into: dig into, delve into, delve into, ask frayn (<OE fregen)
insane adj bats, mad, unsound, crazed, brainsick, thoughtless, brainless, crank, having a screw loose, out of one's mind, waning away, Braincranky, Brainsickened, Braincranked
insanity n thoughtlessness, brainlessness, crankiness, unsoundness, madness,
inscribe vb inwrite, write -
insect n bug midge (<OE mygg, mycg)
widge, wig (<OE wicga, cf. earwig)
carvedeer (<OE ceorfdēor, NHG kerbtier, LG karvdeer)
insecure adj unsafe: naked, bare, careless, uncareful; unshielded, badly shielded, unwarded, badly warded; unconfident/suspicious: careful, wary, watchful, mindful Unsicker (NHG. Unsicher)
insecurity n bad protection: nakedness, carelessness, bad shielding, bad warding;

suspicion: care, carefulness, wariness, watchfulness, mindfulness

Unsickerhood (NHG. Unsicherheit)

Unwishood (NHG. Ungewissheit) (see wis )

insensitive adj unfeeling, unfeelsome, heartless, hard -
inseparable adj bound (up), hand-in-hand, forever one, thick unshedsome
insert vb input, inset, put, put in -
insincere adj hollow, hollow-hearted, unsoothfast, unsoothful, untruthfast, untruthsome, untruthful, untrue unluter (OE hlutor)
insist vb stand one's ground bestand (cf. NHG bestehen)
insomnia n sleeplessness -
inspect(ion) vb/n inlook(ing) speering
inspiration n brainchild, brainwave inblowing
beghastness, inbreath, insouling
inspire vb beghast inblow (<OE inblowan)
install vb put in, set up, fit onstell (<OE onstellan)
instance n hap, byfall, befall, happening eyeblink
instantly adv at once, forthwith, swith, now, right now Eyeblickly (NHG. Augenblicklich)

or Eyeblinkly

instigate vb fire up, goad, kindle, rouse, stir up, spur fuse (<ME fusen)
institute vb set up stight, onstall
institution n body -

instruct

vb teach; wise up, tell what to do beleer

instruction(s)

n behest, word

wiseheedings, forewritings

outlay (cf. Du uitleg)

instrument n tool, means harp (<OE)
insulin n - oelib (<ME. oe, ME. lybb) (see islet.)
insult v slight beskimp (cf. beschimpfen) (see schimpfen)
insult n slight, slur, lambast, roast heash

beskimping (cf. NHG beschimpfung)

insurance n - healing (<OE helan 'to cover')

munding/mounding (<OE mundian 'to protect, shelter, guard')

berrying (<OE beorgan ' to save, preserve')

insurgent n/adj red, upriser -
insurrection n uprising, outbreak -
intact adj unharmed, whole unrined (cf. Eng. untouched)
integer n whole tel; being -
intellectual n egghead, highbrow, longhair -
intellectual adj highbrowed, long-haired capacity: anget
intelligence n brains; keenness, wit, braininess, brightness, cleverness, insight

anget (<OE andgiet)

forwittleness (<OE forwitolnes)

moodcraft (<OE módcræft)

orthank (<OE orþanc)

rede (<OE rǽd) (reason)

snitter (<OE snyttru)

intelligent adj brainy, bright, clever, nimble, keen, sharp-witted, gaumish andgetful (<OE andgitful)

moodcrafty (<OE módcræftig)

wisefast (<OE wísfæst)

intelligible adj that can be understood, that can be fathomed fathomsome
intend vb look, mean, want, will; be of (a) (good) mind (to) mint, ettle

offsight (cf. NHG beabsichtigen)

intense adj fearful; warm-blooded, frought -
intention/ intent n -

ettling, offsight (cf. NHG absicht)

ontighting (<OE ontyhtung)

inter vb lay, put away -
inter- pfx in-, between- middle- (<OE "middel")
tween-
interact vb/n n: dealings withwork
intercede vb come/go between/betwixt inbreak
intercept vb pick off, stop, thwart, latch on to, run in to, shut off

fang off (cf. NHG abfangen), forride (<OE forrīdan)

interdict vb forbid -
interfere vb nose, pry, thwart inbreach
intergovernmental adj - tweenredeshiply
interjection n inset tweenlaying (cf. Ælfric's OE betwuxlegednes)
interest vb grip

indraw, inwrap, intryst (phonosemantic calque)

interest n share, stake; weal, well-being; business, outfit, reck, lean fascination: wastomschat (<OE wæstmsceatt), intryst (phonosemantic calque), indrawnness, indraw
interesting n gripping heeding, indrawing, mindwheting

intrysting (phonet. calque)

interim/interval n midtime, (long) far-between, midwhile -
interior n inside, inner, inliness -
intermediary n go-between, middleman -
intermission n break, stop-over/stopover tweentide, tweenforletness (OE)
intermittent(ly) adj/adv fitful(ly), broken(ly), stop-and-go, shifting(ly), sometimes, hit-or-miss, on and off inbetweenish(ly)
intern n inworker, helper -
internal adj inland, inner, inner-bodily, inside twixfack (OE)
international n/adj worldwide, lands amongst

altheedish

Internet n (World Wide) Web, Net, Wired tweennet, twixtnet, alseer
interpol n worldwatcher -
interpret vb 1. unriddle 2. play 1. sweetle
interrobang n shrieking askmark, striking frainmark, ask-bang/ ask-shriek (calque)
interrogate vb ask (about) befrain (cf. NHG befragen) see frain, meanask
interrupt vb break in, cut in break off (cf. Fr. ôfbrekke, Sw. avbryta, Dn. afbryde)
interruption n breather, break -
intersection n - thwarsing (cf. Eng. crossing)
intervention n - inbreak
interview n talk, hearing, meeting, call frainspeak (cf. Du. vraagesprek), see frain
intestine n tharm, gut, innards -
intimacy n warmth, warm friendship, near friendship -
intimidate vb besmallen, scare, frighten, overawe -
intoxicate vb - bedrunken (cf. NHG betrunken)
intoxicating adj heady, breathtaking, heart-stopping, stirring -
intoxication n drunkenness; cloud nine bedrunkenhood (cf. NHG Betrunkenheit)
introduce vb bring up, set forth, put forward; lead in; make known, inbring propose: foreset

forestell (calque of Ger. speeches)

introduction n lead-in -
introvert n - ingoer
introverted adj - ingoing, inwardsome
intuition n gut-feeling inner knowing
inundate vb flood, whelm, overwhelm beyeat (<OE begieten)
invade vb - infall, overrun, inthring, thrust upon
invader n - overrunner
invaluable adj (most) dear yealief, yeadear, uncheap, forworthy
invariably adv always -
invasion n raid infall, herefare, inslaught, streaming, inthrong, inthronging
invent vb make up, make, come up with, fangle

infind

afind (calque of NHG erfinden)

invention n fangleness

findle (<OE findel), fyndelle (<OE fyndele)

inventor n fangler

infinder, afindand (<OE onfindend)

inventory n goodslist -
invertebrate vb unbackboned -
invest vb plough into -
investigate vb sift, delve into

speer (cf. OE spyrian "make a track, go, pursue; ask about, investigate"), nease, unwhelm,

Underseek(Du. onderzoeken and NHG. Untersuchen) or underseech (regarding beseech)

investigator n - speeriand (cf. OE spyrigend "investigator, inquirer"), underseeker
investigation n - speering, neasing, underseeking
investor n shareholder, stakeholder -
inveterate adj abiding, deep-rooted, deep-seated, hardened, lifelong, long-lived, settled -
invincible adj - unbeatsome (cf. Eng. unbeatable)
inviolable adj hallowed, holy -
invisible adj - unseesome
invitation n - lathing (<OE laðung, cf. NHG Einladung)
invite n/vb welcome, bring in, call for, call upon (cf. Arabic دعا) n: inlath

vb: inlath (<OE inlaðian, cf. NHG einladen)

involve vb take in, whelm inhold
ion n - streammote
ionosphere n - streamlayer
iota n beans, whit -
ipe/ipê n - (Rudwoodish) bow-wood (calque of Portuguese pau d'arco"

greenheart (cf. Du. groenhart)

ipseity n ass, selfhood -
irascible adj prickly, feisty, edgy, churlish, bearish, outburstish, highly-strung, wrathy, wrongheaded, crankisome uncweming
ire n wrath -
iridescence n shimmering; glistening; gleaming -
iris n eyebow -
irony n - witherweening (logical combining of wither "anti" and weening "expectation"), wrying
irrational adj groundless, unfounded, ill-founded, silly, -
irregular adj broken, uneven wending, frothering
irrelevant n/adj without bearing, bearingless, unakinly unbearing
irresponsible adj reckless, heedless, careless, thoughtless, unmindful, unthinking, unanswerly -
irrigate vb water beflow, bewater
furrow: waterleat
irritate (vex) vb irk, gall -
irritating adj irksome, swinksome -
ischium n - seatbone
-ise sfx ledge (<OE -læcan), -ly, make — -
isle n island, holm, oe iland, aitland, ait, eyot (small island, key), ealand, -ey (used as a place name suffix)
islet n ait, eyot, iling holm
-ism sfx - general abstractum: -dom

general belief system or school of thought: -belief (cf. NHG -glaube)

political doctrine/policy: -belead (cf. Du. beleid)

belief system associated with a person, place, etc.: -ishness, -ish belief

belief system as a religious or political establishment/realm: -dom

belief as faith: -troth

isobar n - evenweight (iso-even + bar-weight)
isocracy n - evenship
isolate vb cut off, sunder cleave off
isolation n loneliness, alonehood, asideness forlethood (cf. NHG Verlassenheit), only-edoffness, offonly-edness
isotone n - evenghtell (evenstell = firstbit; evenghtell = naughtbit)
isotope n - evenstell (iso-even + tope-stell)
issue n - inting (<OE intinga)
italic (font) n -

Slantwrite

item n thing -
itinerary n - forebook (<OE fōrbōc/forbōc) pl: forebeek (<OE fōrbēc/forbēc)
ivory n tusk elpbone (cf. NHG Elfenbein,)
Ivory Coast n - Windward Shore
-ize sfx be-, -en -ledge (<OE -læcan)