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English Wordbook/E

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Staff E of the English Wordbook.

Basic abbreviations:

  • OE=Old English
  • NHG=New High German
  • Du.=Dutch

For a full list of etymological and other abbreviations used in these wordlists, see: Offshortenings.


A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


Chancery English Class Anglish/English
Attested Unattested
eager adj keen, hungry, yearnsome -
each n ern (<OE earn)
earphone(s) n headset, earspeaker(s) earset, earswan
ease n lightheartedness eath (Scots)
ease vb allay (alay), unburden, unlade, smoothen, sooth, quell -
easy adj smooth, downhill, hands-down, light, not hard eathy
eau de toilette n - duft, cride water
ebony adj/n blackwood -
ebullition n outburst, flare-up, blowup, frothing -
eccentric adj far-out, crazy, kooky, offbeat, off-the-wall, outlandish, queer, way-out, weird, wild sparky
eccentric n - sunderling (cf. Du. zonderling, NHG Sonderling)
Ecclesiastes n - The Preacher (Calque of the Heb. קֹהֶלֶת‎, qōheleṯ)
ecclesiastical adj churchly, church -
echo n wannabe; shadow witherclank, woodmar, windmar (<OE wudu-mær, windu-mær)
eclipse vb/n outshine forshadowing
economics n trade, dealing, husbandry wealthlore, houselore/householdlore (partial calque of Greek)
economy n wealthdom; cutback householding (cf. Du. huishouding)
ecosystem n - lifeweb, lifeworld
ecstatic adj athrill, upbeat, beside oneself, blissful -
ectoplasm n - outerslime
ecumenopolis n - worldborough
edda n hoard, book, lore weth (<OE woþ), lorebook
edelweiss n silver star athelwhite
edible adj eating, fit to eat eatskilled, eatworthy
edifice n building, house outwork (<OE geweorc)
edify vb - intimber (<OE intimbrian)
edifying adj teaching, uplifting, mindworthy -
edit vb - bework (cf. Du. bewerken), by-draft, write
edition n - forlaying, outlaying
educate vb teach, lere (<OE læran, cf. Du. leren, NHG lehren; in OED but obsolete, alt. spelling lear, Scottish leir/leyr); learn (dialectal, stigmatized)

tee (<OE ateon; cf. NHG erziehen)

belearn

educated adj learned, well-read -
education n learning, teaching, book-learning lorecraft, lore

bilding (cf. NHG Bildung)

educator n teacher teer (cf. NHG Erzieher), lorer
educe vb outbring, outdraw, draw out, bring out bespell
-ee sfx -end, -ling, -ed
effect n aftermath, backwash, outcome, upshot; mark, sway -
effective adj handy, good overtful
effeminate adj womanlike, womanly, unmanly she-like
effervescent adv bubbling, bubbly, lively, frothing -
efficacious adj handy, working -
efficacy n handiness -
effort n sweat, while, work onstronging (calque of many germanic languages)

elbow fat

effrontery n shamelessness, brazenness -
e.g. abbr. - f.b., 'for busen' or 'for byspell' (cf. NHG z.B., zum Beispiel)
egalitarianism n - evenhood, flackhood
ego n bighead, pride -
egocentric adj selfish -
egoïsm n selfishness self-mindedness
egotistic adj bigheaded, overweening, proud, stuck-ip self-minded
egregious adj gross, striking -
egressive adj outflowing -
Egypt n - Two Narrows, Egipt (<OE)
Ancient: Blackland, Bankland
ejaculate vb jizz (slang), cum/come (slang, vulgar) indrive (<OE indrífan)
eject vb cast out, kick out, throw out, turf out -
elaborate adj thorough swotel, overwrought
elastic adj rubbery, springy, stretchy, whippy stretchingly
elate vb uplift, stir up -
elect vb choose, wale -
election n choosing corenness, chosenness (cf. OE corennes)
electric adj - sparkwork (an electrician is often called a 'sparky')

glarum (<OE glærum ... dat. pl. for amber)

electrician n - sparksmith
electricity n - sparkflow, wattflow, thunderflow, thundermight, thundersprack, ghostfire (Ic.), faraday's candle.
electro-mechanical adj - sparkworkcraftly
electron n - amberling, glarumod (glarum+od ... see talk)
elegant(ce) n/adj trim(ness), handsome smicker (<OE smicer)
element n - firststuff, shaftroot, dealock (<deal, a part, + -ock, diminutive ending, <OE -uc)
elephant n tusker elp, armnoser, limbnoser
elevate vb uppen, hoist, lift, lift up, heave up, raise aloofen
elevation n height, loftiness, heaving -
elevator n lift, lifter -
elite n best (social elite:) swelldom
elite adj picky -
ellipse n - ringshadow, wheelshadow
elocution n - talecraft (OE talu)
elongate vb lengthen, stretch -
eloquent adj silver-tongued, well-spoken cwethel (<OE cwedol)
email n/vb - wirewrit
emanate vb cast, give out, send out outstreal (cf. NHG ausstrahlen)
emasculate vb unman -
embarrass vb faze -
embody vb inbody, inflesh -
embrace vb fathom hug, beclip, bearm, umgripe, ymbclip (<OE ymbclyppan)
embroidery n needlework, needlecraft -
embryo n - wightbloom, womb-berry
emerge vb come up, crop up, spring up kythe, forthkythe
emergency n need needstand, needfall (cf. NHG Notstand, Notfall)
emigrant n - outgoer, outwanderer
eminence n hill, knoll, link, mound, barrow, hurst, down, wold -
emissary n - offsent (cf. NHG Abgesandte)
emit vb forthsend, give out, send out, shine, give off, outsend -
emotion n warmth, white heat, feeling -
emotional adj heartfelt, overwrought, worked up -
empathy n fellow-feel, samefeel -
emperor n king of kings highking (cf. Manx ard-ree), Kiser, overlord, highcaser (<OE)
emphasize vb underscore, highlight -
empire n - richdom (<OE ricedom, cf. OHG rihhituom), anweald (<OE), rich, caserdom
empiricism n - fandlieving
employ vb hire -
employee n underling, hireling, worker, staff -
employer n hirer workgiver (cf. Du. werkgever, Af. werkgewer)
employment n - hirehood, swinkhood
empress n - highqueen (cf. Manx ard-venrein)
emulate vb ape, underfollow -
emulsion n forblending -
en- pref

um/em-, in-, on-, be-

ymb(e)-
enable vb let indow
enact vb - umdo
en masse adv in bulk -
en route phrase on the way -
enchant vb spellbind; wile, bewitch -
enchantment n bliss; spell, witchcraft -
enchantress n witch -
encircle vb begird, beclip, beset, gird umwreathe, umring (cf. NHG umringen)
enclose vb bound, wrap, pound, pen, hedge, hem in, wall in umfold
enclosure n haw, pen, paddock, field, yard -
encompass vb hold, deal with, take in; ring, girdle inwreath, ymbhold, bethring (<OE beþringan)
counter vb meet, live through, undergo -
encourage vb hearten on, mood on, foster, upprop, help, egg on, goad, spur, will on bield (<OE bieldan), elne < OE elnian)
encouragement n - elning (<OE elnung)
encroachment n inroads -
encryption n - forkeying
encumber vb block, burden, hinder -
encumbrance n burden, hindering -
encyclopedia n - wisdombook, lorebook
encyclopedic n all-in, in-depth, thorough -
endeavour vb undertake, seek inbework
endeavour n - ettel
endoplasmic reticulum n - lifebrick net, lifebrick web
endow vb gift; underwrite, give -
endowment n knack -
endure vb hold out, thole, dree, abear, withstand, undergo, bear, keep on, put up with, hold through, stand through, bear through dree (<OE drēogan), thole, raven (<OE ræfnian)
edurance n strength, doggedness; lastingness dreeing, tholing, throughholding, throughbearing, throughstanding
enemy n foe, fiend, the other side

fiendsheathe (<OE fēondsceaða)

scathe (<OE scaða)

boastful: yelpsheathe (<OE ġielpsceaða)

energy n

beans, drive

feel energetic: feel one's oats

dodrive, inwork (calque), spring, go, might, workfire
enervate vb unman, weaken, unsettle, faze -
enforce vb helmstand -
engaged adj working, busy, tied up; betrothed, pledged
engine n means, gearwork gearwork, iron horse
engineer n wright -
enigma n riddle, brainteaser -
enjoyment n fun, gladness, happiness, use brooking (<OE brucan), neeting (<OE neotan, cf. NHG genießen)
enlarge vb swell, greaten forgreaten (cf. NHG vergrößern)
enmity n hatred, bitterness, ill will feaghth/feaght/faught (<OE fæhþ) pl: feaghthe (<OE fæhþa) fiendship (cf. NHG Feindschaft)
ennui n boredom, tiredness, listlessness wanfeeling
enrich vb make wealthy, richen ("rich" was semantically influenced by French, but from a native Germanic root) wealy (<OE weligian "to enrich", derived from welig "rich, wealthy")
enrichment n - wealying (see above)
ensnare vb grin (obsolete or dialectal, < OE noun grin akin to grīn "snare") swarl
ensue vb follow, come after -
ensure vb see to it couthen, forberrow (for + berrow <OE beorgan "to save"; cf. NHG verbürgen), sifer
enter vb go into, come into, begin, in fare
data entry: key in, input
feed (cf. Fin. syöttää)
enterprise n business, undertaking; readiness, get-up-and-go thede
entheogen n holyspring
enthusiasm n white heat; keenness, warmth bedrivenness, listfulness, lustfulness, fele(lust/list)
entice vb draw to, spur, goad, wheedle, sweet talk forlead (<OE forlǽdan, cf. NHG verleiten)
entire adj whole, full; sound, unharmed, without a scratch -
entirely adv fully, thoroughly, outright, wholly, altogether -
entirety n whole, fullness all-hood
entrance n key, doorway, in faring
vb: bewitch, spellbind
-
entreat vb -
entreaty n -
entrepreneur n business(wo)man -
entry n threshold, way in, gateway, infaring -
enumerate vb - tell out (cf. NLG uttellen, NHG auszählen), sum up (cf. Du. opsommen)
envelop vb shroud, wrap, hide, swaddle bewrap, inshroud, inwomb, overfathom (<OE oferfaðman) 
envelope n - kite <US prison slang, wrapper
envious adj - evestful, andy jealous (<OE andig)
environment n setting umbworld, umsetting
umwerve (<OE 'ymbhwyrft')
lifeworld (cf. Du. levenswereld)
envision vb foretell, foresee mindsee
envoy n - gesend (cf. Du gezand, NHG Gesandter)

offgesend (cf. Du afgezand, NHg Abgesandter)

envy vb - evest (<OE æfest)
andy jealous, nithe hatred
enzyme n - yeaster, yeastuff
ephemeral adj fleeting, short-lived dwimmerly, dwimmerlike
epic n/adj adj:lofty, high-flown held (<OE hæleþ)
epicentrum n - heart, middleord
epiglottis n - Over-tongue (calque from greek)
epilepsy n falling sickness -
epilogue n afterword end-speech, endwrit, afterthought, aftertale, afterword, last words, end tale
epiphany n - sweetling (<OE sweotolung), atewing
Epiphany n - Sweetlingday (<OE sweotolungdæg), Atewmas (after Christmas, Candlemas, etc.)
episode n follow (cf. NHG. Folge)
epistemology n - orwitlore
epistle n - errandwrit (<OE ærendġewrit) pl: errandwriotu (<OE ærendġewriotu)
epithet n byname, handle -
equal adj even, alike, same, evenworthy, sameworthy -
equal n match -
equality n fairness; sameness, likeness, evenness -
equanimity n steadiness evenmood
equate vb match, even up; offset, liken -
equation n match, likeness likening (calque), besaming, bematching
equator n - evener (cf. Fr.. evener, Du. evenaar)
girdle, midring
equidistant adj midway, evenfar -
Equestria n - Perdland
Equestrian adj/n - horsemanship, horse-riding, on-horseback. Perdlandish, Perden

horsen n: perdlander pl: perdlandren?

equine n/adj steed, horse, stot adj: horsely
equinox n - evennight (<OE efenniht)
equip vb graith, (be)gear, fit (out), gear up, outfit, rig up, beweapon ryst/rist (<OE hyrstan, cf. NHG rüsten, Du rusten)
equipment n gear, graith outrysting (cf. NHG Ausrüstung, Du

uitrusting)

equitable adj evenhanded -
equivalent adj - samewise, evenworth
equivalent n fellow, like, match -
era n timespan, time, world -
eradicate vb wipe out forspill, naughten, uplock (<OE úpálúcan), uproot, wipe out
erase vb rub out, root out, wipe out -
eraser n rubber -
erect n/vb upright
rear, set up, lift up
aheave (<OE ahebban)
erection n 1. building 2. hardon, boner 1. uprighting
ergo conj/adv therefore, thus
forthy (att'd < OE for + thy, the instrumental form of the article)
-
erinacine n hedgehog -
eritrocyte n - red bloodmote
erotic adj lovely, lewd, kinky -
err vb wander dwole (<OE dwolian, cf Du dwalen)
error n dwale, wrong, slip, slip-up, mistake dwole (<OE dwola), dwoleship (<OE dwolscip)
erupt vb flare up, blow up, break out, burst out -
eruption n outburst, outbreak -
escalator n - ridestairs; smart-stairs
escape vb/n

vb: break out, flee, run off; shun, weasel out of

n: breakout, flight, getaway, slip; dodging, ducking, shunning

withfare (<OE wiþfaran)
othshake (<OE oþscacan)
lose (<OE losian)
othshoot (<OE oþsceotan)
othrun (<OE oþrinnan)
aturn (<OE ætiernan)

by rowing: outrow (<OE oþrowan)

by swimming: outswim (<OE oþswimman)

atlimp (<OE ætlimpan) 

outleap (<OE oþléapan)

atfare (<OE ætfaran)

especially adv namely, moreso, above all

hure (<OE huru)

sundrily (cf. OE syndriglice), besunders (cf. NHG besonders, Du. in het bijzonder)

essay n - spellwrit, lorewriting, lorewise writing
essence n nub, heart, kernel, pith, being, whatness, broth wist (<OE)
essential adj key, foremost -
essentially adv/phr mostly, all but, all-in-all, as good as, as much as, mainly, at heart, in itself, on the whole, uterrly, well-nigh -
establish vb build, begin, settle, install, set up stathel (<OE staðolian)
established adj longstanding statheled
establishment n body, steadyhood statheling
establishment (the) n 'the establishment" : 'the topside'
esteem vb - eight (<OE eahtian, cf. Du./NHG achten)
estimate vb/n guess; reckoning shatting (<OE sceatt, cf. Du. schatting, NHG Schätzung, Sw. skattning)
estuary n mouth, firth, inlay -
esurient adj hungry, greedy -
et al.(ia) phr and others -
et cetera phr and so on, and so forth, and the like, and others, and what-not -
eternal adj ay, everlasting -
ether n - swail (<OE swegl)
ethic n/adj straight, upright n: lief-walk
ethnic group n folkstock -
ethnic minority n - outlandish fellowship
Ethnologie n - Folkken (cf. NHG Völkerkunde)

Folklore

etymology n wordlore brickwordlore
eu- n - bet- ("good" <PG *bataz, cf. "better," "best)
eukaryote n - wholekerneling (cf. Ic. "heilkjörnungar")
euphemism n - mellowword
euphoria n good-feeling well-at-burden
Europe n - Eveland, Quildland (quild "evening" <OE cwild(tid) + land, cf. H Ic. Kvöldland and NHG Abendland "Occident")
euthanasia n - death-choosing
evacuate vb empty -
evade vb dodge, sidestep -
evaluate vb - bedeem, bereckon, beworthen, think over, weigh up, look carefully at, sift through
evaluation n reckoning bedeeming (cf. Dn. bedømme), bereckoning, beworthening worthreckoning, worthening
evangelism n holy errand -
evaporate n - yeäthem (<OE ġeæðmian, to raise vapor)
event n happening, hap -
eventually adv in time, in the end outendly ( cf. Du. uiteindelijk)
evidence n word, witness, truth of bewise ( cf. NHG. Beweis, Du. bewijs )
evince vb bespeak, give away becouthe
evocative adj mindful eftminding
evoke vb awake, call up, bring to mind, stir up eftmind
evolution n unfolding forblowing
evolve vb grow, unfold forblow
ex– pref ere-, fore-, or- -
exaggerate vb overplay, overdo overdrive (calque of many Germanic languages)
exaggeration n - overblowing, whid, overdriving
exalt vb

uplift, heighten

upraid (<OE úpábregdan)

aheave (<OE ahebban)

hee (<OE héan) 

examine vb go over, con underseek/underseech (<OE undersecan, cf. NHG untersuchen)
example n - busen (<OE bysen) pronounced 'bisen', byspell (<OE bispell, cf. NHG Beispiel), forbild (calque)
example (for) n thus for bisen, for byspell
exaptation n kludging -
exasperate vb imbitter tire (<OE tirgan)
excavate n delve, unearth, hollow out, dig up -
excavation n delving, unearthing, digging up -
exceed vb outreach, outrun, overrun, overstep; outdo, outshine, overtop -
excel vb outdo, outshine, overtop

in brightness: overlight (<OE oferlīhtan)

excellent adj gilt-edged, swell, topping, wonderful highcraft (<OE heáhcræft)
except prep but, other than -
exception n standout, outstander, outtake -
exceptional adj outstanding -
excessive adj overmuch, steep, sharp, rank, overdone, too much overdeedy (cf. Du. overdadig )
excessively adv overly, too much, too -
exchange vb swap, wrixle

bewrixle (<OE bewrixlan)

excise vb snithe, cut out -
excite vb upedge, thrill, key up upwake (cf. Du. opwekken ) upwind (cf. Du. opwinden )
exclude vb outshut -
excommunication vb - amonsuming (<OE ámánsumung)
excoriate vb chide, flay threap
excrement n shit shittle (<OE scytel)
excursion n outing -
excuse vb forgive offsake (<Ic. af-saka)
ex-directory adj unlisted -
execute vb kill, quell, slay, put to death

carry out: affen (<OE æfnan) past'  subjunctive: affnen

executioner n halseman hangman, deathman, headsman, headman
exercise vb work out aven (cf. Du. oeveren, NHG üben)
exert vb put forth -
exhale vb breathe out athem (<OE æðmian)
exhaust vb overwork, wear out, forspend, tire -
exhausted adj tired, weary, worn out, drained, overtired, work-wearied, fordone, windless -
exhaustive adj all-out -
exhaustive adj thoroughgoing groundly (cf. Du. grondig, NHG gründlich )
exhibit vb show -
exhume vb dig up, unearth -
exile vb send away, outlaw, blackball, blacklist -
exile n outcast, outlaw, castaway wraxlithe (<OE wræcslíþ)
exist vb be, live bestand (<OE gestandan; cf. NHG 'bestehen', Du 'bestaan'), forelie (cf. NHG vorliegen)
existence n thingness therehood, wist (<OE wist), being
existent adj living wesand (<OE), forelying (cf. NHG vorliegend)
exit n way out, outway outgang (cf. Du. uitgang NHG ausgang )
exit vb leave, move out of, go out forlet (cf. Du. verlaten NHG verlassen )
exotic vb outlandish elthedish, farlandish
expand vb

broaden, greaten, spread (out), unfold, widen

theen/then (<OE þennan, cf. NHG dehnen, Du. dennen, ON þenja, L tendere)

braid out (cf. Du. uitbreiden)

expanse n spread outstretched (cf. Du uitgestrekt, NHG. ausgestreckt)
expect vb hope for, watch for ween, awatch, forwatch (cf. Fr ferwachtsje, Du verwatch)
expectation n - waiting-for (William Tyndale), weening
expectorate vb spit -
expedient n makeshift, stopgap -
expedite vb hurry, quicken -
expedition n outing outfooting
expeditious adj fast, quick, swift, speedy -
expel vb drive out, throw out fordrive (<OE fordrifann)
expenditure(s) n outgoing(s), dole out(s) -
expenses n overheads, dole outs -
expensive adj dear, dearbought, unthrifty -
experience vb undergo, go through, uplive afand
experience n bad: ordeal afanding
experienced adj wise afanded, hired
experiment n/vb fand fanding (cf. OE afundennes)
expert n dab fieldknowers (calque)
expertise n know-how, skill -
expiate vb atone -
expiration date n sell-by -
explain vb spell out, unriddle, sweetle (<OE sweotolian)
explanation n atelling sweetling (<OE sweotolung)
explicit n outfold -
explode vb burst, toburst, blow up -
exploit vb overwork outbooty (calque of many germanic lang.)
exploitation n - bedraining

outbootying (calque of many germanic lang.)

explore vb delve, look into rose/roase (<OE rasian), outfare
explorer n pathfinder, foregoer, forerunner, groundbreaker -
explosive n - fireshot, tinderstuff, blasttinder, springstuff, firespringer, burster
exponent(iate) n/vb - mightsfold
export vb outsend -
expose vb nail, show up; bare: lay out -
exposé n - shendful outlaying
exposition n - outstelling (cf. NHG ausstellung)
expound vb flesh out -
express vb say, word

swettle

expression n - swettling; sainess, sayness (<OE gesegnes, cf Du. gezegde)
expulsion n outcast, driving out, throwing out, banning -
extant adj lasting, still-living, still being, still going, keeping on -
extend vb lengthen, outstretch

outbraid/braid out (cf. Du. uitbreiden)

awiden (cf. NHG erweitern)

extend for vb span -
extension n furthering -
extensive adj broad, deep, far-reaching, fulsome, far-flung, sweeping, wide, widespread -
extensively adv fulsomely, wholesale -
extent n length, breadth, reach outmete (cf. NHG Ausmaß)
exterior n/adj adj: outer; n: shell, outside -
exterminate vb wipe out, kill all -
external adj outward, outer -
extinct adj dead, gone, lost -
extinction n death, doom, knell, wiping out -
extinguish vb douse, dout, put out, quench acwench (<OE ácwencan), adrech (cf. OE ádrysnan)
extra adj spare, more, more other(s), more else, othermore -
extra time n overtime -
extract vb take out, draw out, pull out, pluck, unearth, harvest, worm out -
extraordinary adj amazing, geason, outstanding -
extrapolate v draw out -
extraterrestrial adj - farlander
extravagance n wanthrift -
extreme adj utmost outermost (IE cognate)
extrinsic adj outborn, outly -
extrovert adj backslapper, glad-hander -
extroverted adj outgoing -
exuberant adj outgoing, sparkling -
exultation n glee highting (<OE hyhting)
exuviate vb shed, cast off, slough -

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