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deStaff D of the English Wordbook.

Basic abbreviations:

  • OE=Old English
  • NHG=New High German
  • Du.=Dutch

For a full list of etymological and other abbreviations used in these wordlists, see: Offshortenings.


A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


Chancery English Class Anglish/English
Attested Unattested
dairy n milkhouse deyhouse
damage n scathe, harm, wound, marring, loss, wound; fee -
damage vb scathe, harm, wound, mar, break, bruise, forspill fordo, shend
damaged adj scathed, broken, marred, dented, bruised, harmed, unsound -
damaging adj bad, baleful, baneful, harmful scathful (<Scots)
damn adj all-out, flat-out, out-and-out -
damn v (phrases) send __ to hell, to hell with __ bedoom (cf. Danish bedømme)
damnation n hell, hellfire ordeal (cf. NHG Urteil)
damsel n maid, maiden, lass, wench -
dance vb step; flicker, flutter tumb, wirl, glithe (glee(music)+ shrithe(move))
danger n plight, threat freech (<OE fréĉen), fear (meant "danger" in OE), derf (attested in the sense "trouble, tribulation") or "darf" (unattested, as far as I know) < OE deorf
dangerous adj plightful, threatening freehful (<OE fréĉenful)
data n rawput, worth(s)

ongift(s), meteworth(s) givele, metele, metebit givens (calque, Latin data < datum, plural pp. of 'to give' )

database n - fading (<OE fadung)
date n - dealmark(<OE tælmearc)
dative (case) n - forgivingly, giver namefall, (to) whomfall (refer to German "Wemfall")
daub vb befoul, sully; besmear smite
day of tribulation n - arvethday, arveth-day (<OE earfoðdæg; c.f. ME arveþ-sīþ)
de- pref un- and- (<OE and-, cf. Fr. and-)
debate vb moot -
debatable adj moot, mootish, mootsome, mootworthy -
debt n Shild (<Eng./NHG. Schuld/Du.Schuld) (calque of many Germanic tongues)
debut n beginning, birth, dawn, kickoff, morning, onset, start, threshold fanding (<OE fandian 'to try, experience')
decade n - yearten (cf. Du. jaartein, NHG Jahrzehnt)
decapitate vb behead -
decay vb foul, rot; sink, worsen; waste away abreet (<OE abreotan)
deceased adj breathless, fallen, gone, dead, lifeless fordeaden (cf. NHG verstorben); death-smitten, late
deceit n misleading, outwitting lease (<OE léas "falsehood, untruth")
deceive vb swike, mislead, forlead, fop, outwit, snooker beswike
December n -

Ereyule (<OE Ærraġēola) pl: Ereyulen (<OE Ærraġēolan), Yulemonth (<OE Ġēolmōnaþ) pl: Yulemonthas (<OE Ġēolmōnþas), Midwintermonth (<OE Midwintermōnaþ) pl: Midwintermonthas (<OE Midwintermōnþas)

decent adj good, upstanding, befitting daven, douth, thewly
decentralization n - outkerneling
deception n cheating, crookery, foxiness -
decide vb choose, name, settle (up)on, fix, set, nail, doom (archaic/obsolete), deem (obsolete) betake, beshut (cf. Du. besluiten)
deciduous adj - leafsome, fallsome
decision n call beshut, throughshut
decisive adj all-out, out-and-out, outright, straight-out; hell-bent -
declaration n boding forthspell (<OE forþspell) atueness (<OE ætywnys), matheling
declare vb bode, swear, set forth mathel (<OE maþelian), spell out
declination n dwining, dwindling forbowing
decline vb dwindle, wane, fordwine, slump, lessen, weaken, flag, sink nether off

forbow (<OE forbugan)

decline (not accept) vb forbear offlean (cf. NHG ablehnen)
decoction n - mixling
decorate vb bedeck, trim, gild, behang -
decrease vb shrink, lower, wane, lessen; dwindle; dwine, fordwine ( > OE dwínan) (archaic) -
decree n/vb behest astight (<OE ástihtan), law-bode
decrepit vb timeworn -
dedicate vb earmark, set by, give up to beteach (<OE betǽcan)
de facto adj/adv true, in truth, truly in deed
defame vb file, shend, besmirch, befile unbreme
default n flaw -
defeat n loss, licking, drubbing netherlay, netherthrow
defeat vb beat, overcome, overrun, overwhelm, overthrow netherlay, netherthrow
defecate vb drite, shit, shite (obscene) -
defect n blight, blotch, flaw, pockmark asprungness (<OE)
defend vb bulwark, ward, keep, shield; uphold, helmstand fasten
defenestrate vb - outwindow
defense n shield, ward weir
deficiency n dearth, drought, lack, want (borrowed from Scandinavian) -
deficient adj wanting, missing, lacking -
deficit n shortfall, dearth, drought, lack, want -
defile vb befile, besmite, befoul, sully

andhallow, wleat (<OE ġewlætan)

define vb mark off, lay out -
definitely adv markedly, throughout, fully, thoroughly wisly (Eng. wis)

sickerly (Eng. sicker)

deform vb misshape, unshape -
deformed adj misshapen, shapeless thrawn (Scots)
deformity n blight, blotch, flaw, pockmark misshapenness
defragment vb cleave, misbreak -
defraud vb swindle, get -
defrost vb thaw -
defy vb Flout (Dutch: fluiten) -
degenerate adj - misthriveen

backbuilded

degeneration n - misthriving
degrade vb bemean, nether, beneathen, below -
degree n cut, inch, notch, peg, step flak ('level' cf. Fr. flak, Du. vlak)
deify vb begod -
deity n god oos(e), ooce (<OE ós; c.f. goose < OE gós)
Deism n - Godtroth
de jure adj/adv lawfully, by law -
delay n lag, holdup -
delay vb stall, forestall, tarry -
delete vb/n - unmark, forwipe (calque)
deliberate adj weighed, thought out; set, willed hillered
deliberate vb/n think about, think over hiler (<OE heolorian)
delicacy n - -
delicious adj dainty, lush, tasteful, toothsome, mouthwatering, lickerish -
delight n gladness, lust fain, list, queemness,  itheness (<OE  īeðnes)
delightful adj sweet, darling, pleasing, heavenly, winsome faining, listing, queemful
delimit vb - mire (<OE mære)
delirious adj bewildered, mind-wandering, dwale -

deliver

vb bear alease (<OE aliesan}
deliverer n - aleasand (<OE aliesend)
delivery n childbirth, birth -
delude vb mislead -
deluge n flood, rainstorm, cloudburst, overflowing, drenching The Deluge: The Flood
delusion n misbelief -
demeanour n jib -
dementia n madness, mindloss -
demilitarized adj unweaponed -
demise n downfall hengang (< OE hingang 'a going hence, departure, death')
Demiurge n Craftsman, "god of this world" -
democracy n - folkship (<OE folkscipe)
demodulation n - backrighting
demograph n - folk outline
demolish vb tear down, forspill, wreak, break forswerve (<OE forsweorfan)
demolition n wipeout -
demon n fiend, hellfiend, mare nicor, ork (<OE orc)
demonstrate vb show -
dendrite n - sinewtwig
dendrochronology n - tree-ring-timetelling (cf. Ic. trjáhringjatímatal)
denial n naysay, forsaking, forswearing forswearhood
denigrate vb slighten, belittle, downcast beswart, blackwash
denote n betoken, mean -
denouement n unravelling -
dense adj thick, heavy -
density n

crowd: huddle
thickness; slowness

tightness

-
dentist n - toothleech (cf. Dn. tandlæge); teethhealer; gum-digger
denude vb strip, unclothe, bare, lay bare -
deny vb gainsay, withsay, naysay; withhold, Forswear , forsake -
deodorant n - reekkiller
deoxyribonucleic acid n - lifetwine
depart vb book slang, cut off, dig out, peel off, run along, step along, walk out, leave -
departing/departure n/adj farewell, leav(ing), walking out

afaring, witing

death: hingang (<OE)

department n - ambight, offdealing, bedealing
depend vb hang, hinge on, rest on, trust in, lean on onhang, onhinge, offhang/hang off of (NHG. abhängen)
dependence n - onhanginess, offhanginess (NHG. abhängigkeit)
dependent adj - hingey, offhangy (NHG. abhängig)
depict vb show -
depreciate vb cheapen, lessen, write off underworthen
depression n moodsink, blues, downer, downheartedness, glumness, woefulness yomerness (OE geom), unmood (<OE unmōd) 
deprivation n lack, want; bereaving -
deprive (of) vb bereave, strip benim; beshear
deracinate vb uproot -
deranged adj crazed, mad, moonstruck, unhinged wood
deregulation n - unreding
derive vb come from, bring from, spring from, stem from, draw off from ord from
derived adj forthbrought, brung forth from -
dermatology n - hidelore
dermis n hide, rind, hackle -
desacralize vb - unhallow
descend vb fall, slope, bear nethergo
descendant n offspring afterbear (by analogy to forebear), aftercomer, afterling, ofcomeling (NHG)
descent n downcoming, downgoing nethergang
describe vb draw, outline, set out, betell, bewrite meal out
description n bewriting, tale, inwording, drawing bemealing
desecrate vb unhallow, befoul -
desert vb leave, forsake military: hereflight
desert n dustbowl dryland, weste (<OE wésten, cf. NHG Wüste, Du. woestijn), weste land, drought
deserter n - heraflighter (<OE hereflýma)
deserving adj meedful, worthy -
design vb/n lay out, draft, outline, set out, craft -
designate vb betoken, mark, earmark, show, call, name -
desinfectant n - withersmite
desire vb/n crave, wish, lust, yearn, long, hanker (for, after), list wilne (<OE)
desirous adj wishful, longing weening (<OE wenan)
desolate adj barren unbeheld
desolation n - aweestness (<OE áwéstnes)
despair n hopelessness wanhope, forthought
despair vb (phrases) give way, lose heart, lose hope, give up, give up hope

forlorn, hope-yearn

forthink (< OE)

ortrow/ortrew (OE < ortreowe)

orween (OE < orwen)

desperate adj hopeless, forlorn hope-yearn(ing/ful)

ortrowly/ortrowly (OE - see 'despair')

unweenly (OE < unwen)

despondency n - atsprungness (<OE ætsprungnes)
despise vb hate, behate, loathe forthink
despite prep although, notwithstanding -
dessert n afters, pudding, sweet -
destine vb tee, set up to happen, foredoom, weird -
destiny n lot, doom, foredoom, the stars, weird eld-orlay (<OE ealdorlæg), orlay (<OE orlæg)
destroy vb fordo, toshend, do in, pull down, shatter, tear down, unmake, break down shend
destruction n breakdown, downfall, undoing, unmaking downbusting, fornaughting (cf. NHG vernichtung)
detail n - meal (<OE mál), speckmark
detective n sleuth, bloodhound -
deteriorate vb worsen, grow worse -
determine vb name, settle; root out besteven (cf. NHG bestimmen) see steven
detest vb hate, loathe -
detrimental n harmful, scatheful -
Devail/Devil n fiend, our foe/Foe -
devalue vb cheapen, lessen downworthen
develop vb grow, build, unfold, unwrap, foster forblow
developed, poorly adj wan-thriven -
development(al) n/adj growth; upshot; ripening, fostering forblowing
device n tool, hardware -
devious adj shrewd, wily -
devise vb think up, think of; leave in a will -
devolve vb - netherwind
devote vb earmark, set by -
devour vb fret, gulp (up), raven, wolf forswallow (<OE forswelgan)
devout adj down-the-line, fast, good, steady, true-blue -
dexterity n deftness, nimbleness handwitness
dexterous adj deft, nimble handwit, handskillful, handcrafty
di- pfx twi-
diabolic n fiendish -
diacritic n mark -
diæresis/diëresis n break breakmark
diagonal adj leaning, sloping, slanted -
dialect n

byleid (<Scots), folktung

landspeech (cf. NHG. Landessprache) 

diameter n bore straightspan, wreathwidth, ringwidth
diameter, inner n inner: bore; outer: girth -
diamond n - hardore, toughhurst (calque)
diaphanous adj sheer -
diphragm n - midrith (<OE midhriðre)
diarrhoea n skitter, the runs -
diary n daybook -
diaspora n yondseedings the wanderings, yondscatterings (calque from Greek dia + speirein)
dichotomy n - twidealing (cf. Du. tweedeling; NHG Zweiteilung)
dictator n - tharlreve
dictionary n wordbook -
diet n - foodline
differ v - undershed (calque of Ger. speech. NHG Unterschieden, Du. onderscheiden)
difference n otherness, unlikeness dealing, shedding, sunderness,

undershed (cf. NHG Unterschied/ Du. onderscheiden)

diversity: fayness (<OE fægnys)

different adj unlike, unsame, sundry, sunder, sundered missen (<OE), shedded

undershedly (NHG. unterschiedlich)

different adv other, otherwise sunderly, sheddedly
differentiation (mathematics) n - beshedding
differently adv otherwise, sunderly -
difficult adj pick-and-shovel, uphill, hard sweer (Eng., OE swær, cf. NHG. Schwer, Du zwaar) grinding
difficulty n hardship, struggle, toil -
diffident adj withdrawn -
digit n finger, toe -
digital adj scorely bitly
dignity n worth, selfworth wirthe (<OE wirþu, cf. NHG Würde)
digraph n - twiwrit (calque)
digress n - umsweep (<OE ymbswæpe)
dilapidated adj threadbare, timeworn -
dilate vb - abreethe (<OE abreoþan)
diligent adj tied-up, working (k)nerd/(k)nard (<OE cneord), heedfast
diminish vb lessen, lower, wane, dwindle, dwine fordwine
diminutive adj tiny, impish, small, little -
dimorphism n - twoshapenness
diningroom n - buttern (<OE beotern 'table-room')
dinner n

evening meal, mese (obsolete) fr. OE: (table, that which is set on a table, dish, food, meal)

rearding (OE reord 'to feast'), evenmeal
dinosaur n early deer (cf. early man), erstdeer dreadathex (calque from Greek), bulkwight, forebird
diocese n - bedereve shire
diphthong n - twithedin (calque)
diploma n - douth writ
direct adj rode, straight, straightforward, unbending, head-on, forthright, open, outspoken -
direct vb lead, steer, beward, beright, right wees (<OE wisian)
direction n wending, warding -
directory n - threadlist
dis- pref mis-, un- and- (<OE; cf. NHG ent-...)
disable vb cripple, lame; hamstring -
disabled adj lame, halt -
disadvantage n afterdeal, drawback, downside -
disadvantaged adj hindered -
disappear vb flee, melt, sink fordwine
disappoint vb let down -
disarm vb - andweapon
disarrange vb rumple, tousle -
disaster n shipwreck, fizzle, washout ill-hap, grimming, harrow-hap
disastrous adj baneful, deadly, dreadful, black, hapless, harmful, doomfull, wrackful -
discard vb get rid of, deep-six, awayen

forthrow (Eng., cf. NHG verwerfen)

discharge n/vb unload -
disciple n - loreknight (<OE larcniht)
discipline n/vb  ?school, field; rear up, upbraid thewfastness
disclaim vb foreswear, forego mishold, unhold
disclaimer n forsaker, yielder -
disclose vb bare, show, tell -
disconcerting adj offputting, upsetting -
discontinue vb cut, end -
discount n - falloff (cf. Ic. af-fall)
discourse n chat, speak rearding, wordling (<OE wordlung)
discourse vb talk, speak, mouth out wordle
discover vb/phr find out, get on, hear, learn, wise up; dig out, dredge up, hit on, nose out, root out; bare, unbosom, unfold 

onfind, unthatch/unthack, unmesh

Befind (cf. NHG befinded, Du. bevinded, Swed/S. Fris.) , undeck 

discovery n finding, unearthing befinding, onfinding, undecking
discredit vb smirch -
discriminate n treat unfairly beshed (<OE bescéadan)
discuss vb talk about, talk over, talk through wordwrestle
disease

n

addle, cothe, sickness, illness, wanhaleness -
disease, skin n tetter skinaddle
disfigure vb mar, misshape -
disgrace(ful) n/vb shame, shend shandful (<OE scandful)
disgusting adj loathely, wlatsome, foul, pukening, gruesome, ghastly, rank, icky, Witherly (NHG. Widerlich)

Witherward (NHG. Widerwärtig)

dishevelled adj cluttered, tousled, untidy -
dishonourable adj - arless
disinclined adj loath -
disinfect vb - unsmittle
disinfectant adj - unsmittling
disinfectant n - unsmittler
disk n - flat, trind
dislike vb mislike -
dislocate vb - unstead
dismember vb - alithe, unlimb
dismiss vb snub, slight, sack, fire -
disobedience n - overhearness (<OE oferhirness)
disobedient adj unhold, unhearsome, hardheaded, stubborn, wayward -
disordered adj unsided, throughanother -
disperse vb scatter, spread, strew todrive, tofare
displace vb uproot unord
display n/vb fair, show; lay out, show off, strut -
displease vb - misqueme (<OE miscwéman)
disposable adj throwaway -
disposal n deep-six, junking, throwing away -
disprove vb belie -
dispute n bickering, brawl, tiff unreckoning (calque)
dispute vb bicker, brawl, tiff, wrangle flit (OE)
disqualify vb unfit -
disregard vb overlook, forheed overgum (<OE ofergumian)
dissect vb sithe, cut up -
dissemble vb bluff, sham, put on; let on, make out aswike
dissolution n breakup, split, sundering -
dissonance n infighting -
distance n lead, length, spread, stretch, way; breadth, field; unlikeness, otherness, farness -
distant adj away, deep, far, far away far-flung, far-off; cold-eyed, dry, offish, standoff; other, unalike, unlike farlen, offward (OE)
distill vb drop, trickle, strengthen, forsteaming
distinct adj marked, sundered, undershed (calque of many Ger. speeches).
distinguish vb make-out undershed (calque of Ger. speech. NHG Unterschieden, Du. onderscheiden)
distort vb twist, throw, warp -
distract vb throw off, draw off, pull away, bewilder, mislead heed off, mind off
distraught adj worked up -
distress vb/n bother, upset, worry
n: woe, harm's way

-

distribute vb deal out, hand out, mete out breat/bret/brut/brit (<OE bryttian)
distribution n dealing; setup

-

district n neighbourhood shire, riding, leet, -wick, wike, stretch
distrust vb forthink, mistrust -
disturb vb stir, muddle dreve (<OE dréfan)
disturbance n stir; teasing, harrying, bothering dreving
disturbing adj creepy, startling, frightening, unsettling, upsetting, stirring, scary -
diurnal adj daily -
diverse adj manifold, sundry, manikind -
divert n - off-lead
divide n split, gap -
divide vb cleave, shed, split, sunder, share, of-mete, deal to-tweam (<OE to-twaémen)
divination n foretelling wile (<OE wigle)
divine adj godly, holy wily
divinity n holiness -
division n cleaving, splitting, tweeming, shedding, sundering -
divorce n - wedbreach
DNA
docile adj meek; law-abiding -
doctor, medical n healer learer (<ME lerare <OE lārēow) leech, healand
document n - leafwrit
documentary n broadcast leafwritfilm, logfilm, truthfilm
dogma n - ground lief
dolphin n mereswine tumbler (cf. NHG Tümmler)
domain n - lorddom
domestic adj homeland (politics); household; tamed; born -
domesticate vb tame houserede
domicile n grith
dominate vb lord over, bestride rike (<OE), hire (calque)
donate vb bestow, give, overgive, yield -
donation n gift, yeld -
doppelgänger n look-alike, evil look-alike, ill-boding look-alike Walking-dead, death-ghost; twinish-unknowns.
dormant adj sleeping, drowsing -
dormitory n bedroom sleepstow, sleepearn (<OE slæpærn)
dorsal adj back -
dosage n muchness -
double vb/n/adj twin, twofold, twosome vb:

twifold (<OE twifealdian)

doubt n/vb qualm, niggle, wonder;

twimindedness, lack belief (in), misbelieve, mistrust

ink (<OE inca; ME inke)

twimind

doubtful n twiminded -
douse vb drench -
dozen adj twelve -
dozen n tens -
draconian adj - harsh, rough
dragon n lindworm -
dragonfly n - leanfly
dramatic adj hammy; showy, splashy -
dramatist n playwright -
dress n bodyskirt, fullskirt, long skirt, smock -
dress vb clothe, don -
dromadary n - drylander
drupe n - stoneberry
dual adj twin, twofold -
dub vb name, call -
dubious adj dodgy, shady, shaky; loath; far-fetched, unlikely; hinky, mistrustful, unsettled frainworth(y)

bethinkly (cf. NHG bedenklich) see bethink

duchy n earldom -
due adj owing -
duel n ballgame wyefare
duet n - twising
dugong n - seacow
duke n earl alderman (<OE ealdorman), hertow (<OE heretoga)
dunce n mouthbreather -
during prep throughout bewhile
Dutch(man) adj - Lowland(er), Netherland(er)ish
duvet n bedspread, eiderdown -
dynamic n snell, flush, lusty, red-blooded speedfast, beweighful
dynasty n - erverike
dysentery n - reddrif (<OE drif: fever)
dysfunctional adj unworking, badworking -
dyslexic n word-blindness -

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