Staff C of the English Wordbook.

Basic abbreviations:

  • OE = Old English
  • ME = Middle English
  • PG = Or-theedish
  • SW = Swedish
  • Dan. = Danish
  • ON = Old Norse
  • NHG = New Hightheech
  • IC = Icelandish
  • H.IC = High Icelandish
  • Du. = Netherlandish
  • Fris. = Freesish

For a full list of etymological and other abbreviations used in these wordlists, see: Offshortenings.


Chancery English Class Anglish/English
Attested Unattested
cabaret n club, nightspot,
roadhouse, nightclub
cabbage n kole -
cabinet n hutch, sideboard, locker mugboard, hoarding
office: ambight, redeship
cable n wire, rope, lead ropewire
caboose n - ward wagon, aftwagon
cacao n - brownbean
cache n hoard putstow, bike
cacophony n rattle, roar, din
cactus n - fatthistle
cadaver n shell, framework,
slang:  stiff,
body,dead body
cadaverous adj deathly, wan, bloodless,
ashen, hollow-eyed
cadet n forefighter
cadmium n Wodan
cæcum n blinde gut blindtharm, blindgut
Cæsar n overlord,
high-king, kaiser
cæsium n - silverwhite,
lightbrick mote
café n tearoom
(<note: Non-English),
roadhouse; taproom,
watering hole
cafeteria n lunchroom, lunch house,
food hall,
eating hall
cajole vb soft-soap,
sweet-talk, wheedle
calamari n cuttlefish
calcaneüs n heelbone
calcium n - limemote
(W.Fris. koalsoere kalk)
calcium carbonate n - coalsour lime
calculate vb reckon, work out -
calculation n tale, reckoning -
calculator n - handreckoner, rimereckoner, scorer
calculus n reckoning flowreckoning, riming,
(<OE rim, tal 'number')
calendar n daybook timetale
calisthenics n drills
calligraphy n longhand pretty writing, litwriting
calligraphy pen n - longhandwritingise/-iron
(longhand + OE
wrītungīsen, "style pen"),
(compound of "wlitwriting"
+ OE wrītingīsen)
callous adj hardened, cold-hearted,
flint-hearted, heartless,
soulless, stony,
stony-hearted, steely,
thick-skinned, unfeeling
calm adj lown, flack, still roolie (Eng., Du. rolig, Ic. roleg, NHG ruhig), roo
calm vb lull, settle, soothe, still beroolie (cf. NHG. beruhigen)
caluminate vb grime, sully, betell forwray (<OE forwregan)
calque n loanword, borrowing loan oversetting (cf. NHG Lehnübersetzung)
calyx n - bloomleaf
camel n - olvend (<OE olfend),
twohump, drylander
camera n - bildfanger, bildtaker, bilthcraft(er) / bildcraft(er) / beeldcraft(er)
camouflage n dapple, (dappling,
dappleshell, dapplehide,
dappleclad, dappleteld)
(<OE diernan,
cf. NHG Tarnung)
camomile n - maylix
camp n leaguer (from Dutch),
lair, haltstead
campaign n bandwagon, drive military:
axfare (<OE æxfaru)
fieldtought (<Du.),
campaign vb take the stump, barnstorm -
campus n - lorefield, lorerealm,
bittel (<OE gebytlu)
canal n leat, waterway -
cancer n growth
zodiac: Crab
Mireless Thrimfold ~ MTF
(Unlimited Tissue
candelabrum n - glimtree
candidate n hopeful, runner -
candied adj sweetened -
candy n sweets sweetiness
canine adj doggy, houndlike,
doglike, doggish
canine n hound, dog -
cannon n - dunspar
(contr. of dun and spear)
Fallbuss (cf. Ic. Fallbyssa)
cannibal n maneater selfeater
(<OE selfæta)
canoe n dugout -
cantaloupe n - netrindberry,
(calque of Finnish verkkomeloni)
canvas n - hempcloth
canyon n gulch -
capacity n room, berth, strength,
gift, readiness
cape n sleeveless coat
geography: foreland,
headland, ness
mantle (cf. Du. mantel)
capital n/adj wealth, means, wherewithal;
sterling; foremost

letter (ABC):
(cf.NHG großbuchstabe)

capital city n - headburg, reevetown,
kinesettle (<OE cynesetl),
capitalism n - wealthwield, meanswield
capitalist n/adj silk stocking meanswielder, meanswieldly
capitalization n - blockwrit, block writing
capitate bone n - headbone. head wristbone
capricious adj fickle nickfull (<Sw, cf. Du. nikkig) 
capsize vb keel, upset, overwend wemmel
captain n headman, leader shipper (<M Du. scipper
and Eng. skipper), Shiplord
caption n -

underwrit (cf. Du. underschrift,
NHG bildunterschrift)

captivate vb wile witch
captive n/adj penned, locked up n: haftling (<OE haftling)

adj: hafted

captivity n - haftedness (<OE gehæftednes)
capture vb nail, take, kidnap,
steal, swipe, nab
car n slang: wheels, ride,
hot rod, roadster

wain, wagon,
horseless buggy (obsolete),
selfbeweigher (calque of automobile)


caravan n tradewagon kinwain,
housewain (cf. Sw. husvagn),

kinwagon, housewagon

carbon n chark, soot coalmote, lifemote
carbon dioxide n - wortloft
carburator n - forelofter
carcass n bones, stiff, lich -
card n sheet, board -
cardboard n headboard boardsheet
cardiac arrest n heartstop -
cardinal n bird: redbird

Church official:
godsearl (cf. H Ic. guðsjarl);

Whule (cf. Sw. Hwul)

career n calling, game (inf.),
walk of life
caress vb fondle, stroke -
cargo n draft, freight,
haul, loading, weight
fraught (for + aught, cf. Eng freight)
cargo ship n freighter fraughter
caribou n reindeer -
carnal adj fleshly -
carnation n - nailling, nailken (cf. NHG Nelke)


carnivore n meateater, flesheater -
carouse vb birl -
carousel n - merry-wend

merry-go-about (cf. Eng. merry-go-round)

carpal bone n - wristbone
carpenter n woodworker woodsmith, woodcraftsman

treewright (<OE trēowwyrhta)

carpentry n wödkraft, woodcraft,
becraftliness, craftliness,
carpet n - stepcloth, floorcloth, groundcloth
carriage n bearing wain, wagon
carrot n more
(<OE moru, cf. NHG Möhre)
carry vb bear, weigh, ferry, take  -
cartilage n grissel crackbone (cf. Du. kraakbeen)
cartilaginous fish n - grisselfish

crackbonefish (cf. Du. kraakbeenvis)

cartouche n - deckwrit
cartridge n bag, load, holder -
case n hull, husk, pod, sheath, shell; box

in case: lest, by fear of, if... should, befall

grammar: fall

in case: fall

case: fall

cashew n - kidneyapple
cashewnut n - kidneynut
casing n shell, brass -
casino n - bethall, bethouse, gaming house
cast away vb - anbewarp (<OE anbeweorpan)
castle n burg, stronghold

innermost keep

stronghouse, fastenwork

(<OE "fæsten" + "weorc",
cf German "Festung"),

chestel (<Latinate OE "ċeastel")

casual adj breezy, blithe,
catch vb snare, snarl, snag,
latch, fang, nab
catechism n - frodleering (cf. Ic. Trúfræðslurit)
catechize vb grill, sweat slang frain
categorize vb - fade (<OE fadian)
caterpillar n - cawlworm (<OE cawelwyrm)

leafworm(<OE leafwyrm)

mealshave (<OE mælsceafa)

cathedral n headchurch, -
catheter n - leat
cathode n - downway
catholic adj - broadchurch
catkin n - bloomtail
cattle n cows, livestock, kine, nowt, fee, neat rother
Caucasian (race) n white Caucasish, Caucaser
cauldron n kettle -
cauliflower n - bloomcole
cause n bring-about, let-on,
frum (<OE fruma), onlet, orsake (calque from many Germanic languages)
cause vb beget, breed, drive,
make, work, yield
fuse (<ME fusen), fororsake (calque of many Germanic languages)
casue, without adv - hoolings (<OE holunga)
caustic adj burning -
cautery n - tharm tool
caution n wariness, forewit, care, reck, heeding -
cautious adj Chary (< arch.Mod.E)
cavalier n horseman kingfollower (Charles II)
cavalry n horsemen, riders rideware (cf. NHG Reiterei)
cave n - hidles (pl. hidleses), cleave (<OE cleofa), delve
cave(wo)man n - hidles(wo)man, cleave(wo)man
cavil vb carp -
cavity n dint, hollow, pit -
cease vb stop, lay off, halt,
give up, leave off, blin
ceasefire n truce weaponsstandstill (cf. Du. wapenstilstand, NHG. Waffenstillstand)
cecograph n - blindwriter
cede vb yield, hand over, give up,

overgive (Eng., NHG. übergeben, Du. overgeven, Dan. overgive)

orgive, oryeve
cedilla n - zedling, zeeling
ceiling n firstroof, highroof, loftroof -
celebrate vb - frealse (<OE freolsian)
celebration n - frealsing
celery n - fenroot
celestial adj heavenly skily (sky + -ly)
celestial bow n rainbow, heaven's bow -
celestial sphere n - rother (<OE rodor)
cell n hole, room frum (cf. Ic. fruma), lifebrock
cell division n - frumcleaving
cellar n - clove (<OE cleofa)
cellulose n - treestand, frumsweet (calque)
Celtic adj Celtish -
cemetery n graveyard, boneyard,
Obsolete: lich-rest (in OED)
church-litten, still-hill (slang)
censorship n - cleaning
censure vb upbraid -
census n tale marking (cf. OE tomearcodnes), folkscoring
cent n penny, hundredth -
centaur n - horsemennish (cf. Du. paardmens)

manhorse, halfhorse

centimeter n - hundredthmete
centipede n - thousandfoot (cf. Du. duizendpoot; NHG Tausendfüße)
centre/center n/vb n: kernel, heart; middle, midst

vb: fix; spotlight

place for event/function: mid (cf. NHG Mitte)
central adj location: middle, mean, midway, midmost, middle-of-the-road

importance: main, key, leading, ruling

midwise, midly
centurion n - hundfrea (<OE hundfrēa)
century n yearhundred
(<NHG. Jahrhundert)
year-fivescore/ yearfivescore (literally means a year and five twenties), hundredyear, fivescore (five twenties)
cereal n - morningcorn (cf. Ic. morgunkorn)
certain adj wis sicker (Eng., calque Ger. speeches)

specific: bestevened (cf. NHG bestimmt) (see steven)

certainly adv wisly sickerly, soothly, iwis
certainty n - wishood (cf. NHG Gewissheit), soothness
certificate n - beshining (cf. NHG bescheinigung), witnessword, sickering
certify v witness beshine (calque of Ger. speeches)
confirm: besteady (calque of Ger. speeches)
cerulean adj - swail blue
cerumen n earwax -
chain n shackle, fetter -
chair n seat, stool settle
chalice n bowl way(e) (<OE wæge)
chalk n limestone limestonestick
challenge vb knot, dare, becall, beclepe
challenge oneself (with, by, to): undertake (something, to do something)
beclepe (<'OE beclipian - to challenge), upcall, upstart, uprise (cf. Du. uitdagen), outask (cf. NHG herausfordern), upfight (cf. NHG anfechten)
challenge n knot, dare, threat
challenge oneself, undertake: undertaking
becalling, becleping (<OE beclipian - to challenge), upcall, upstarting, uprising (cf. Du. uitdagen), outasking (cf. NHG herausforderung), upfight (cf. NHG anfechtung)
chamber n room, bay (enclosed space) -
chameleon/chamaeleon n - fayingask (<OE fágian 'to change in color, vary, be variegated')


chance n luck, opening by chance: faringly (<OE færinga)
change vb/n shift, switch, makeover
dough (cash), warp
frother (for- + other; cf. Fr. feroaring, Du. veranderen, NHG. verändern)

wend, char, wristle (<OE wrixlian)

channel n fairway, race, ford sound (<OE sund 'long narrow inlet)
chaos n mess dwolm (<OW dwolma)
Charlemagne n Carl/Charles the Great -
character n clay, selfhood, self, shtick in a story: hoad (<OE hād)
feature: folklihood (cf. Du. persoonlijkheid)
moral strength: wilstrength (will + strength) (cf. Du. viljestyrke)
symbol: token (cf. NHG Zeichen, Dn. tegn)
chard n Fow-leaf, fow-stalk, Fow-stem (Fow < OE meaning coloured)
charge n/vb fill, load, outlay; lading Uplast, Onlast

military: angriff, forthlout (<OE to fall forth), onrush, hildrass/rush/rash (<OE), wite, onwite, astal/astale (<OE astlaen - to lay at one's charge, to blame) (legal charges)

charged adj owing, laden (electric) -
charitable adj kind, freehanded, freehearted, unselfish,
unsparing, unstinting
kisty (<OE cystig)
charity n help, gift, hand-out,
goodness, goodwill,
fellow feeling; alms,
dole; ruth; brotherhood
charlatan n swindler -
charm n spell, dangle libsen (<OE lybesn)
charming adj friendly, lovely, winsome, comely -
charter n - rightsledging; booking (from OE book -- "assignment of land by charter")
chase vb hotfoot, put to flight, Wathe/Wothe (<OE Wáth) Adrive (<OE) -
chastise vb chew out, chide, flay,
hammer, jaw, keelhaul,
ream out, tongue-lash, upbraid
cheat n/vb

shark, bilk, do in,
nobble, rip off,
rig, swindle;
shark, dodger,
swindler, lirt,
belirt, threap

check vb - oversoothe (cf. NHG überprüfen)
checkers (game) n draughts -
cheer n glee, merriness, mirthfulness -
cheer vb gladden, root, hearten,
perk up, blithen
chef d'oeuvre n masterwork reevework

mastersteck (cf. Du. meesterstuk)

chemistry n - blendlore, splitlore (cf. Du scheikunde)
cherish vb hold dear, cleave to,
care for, love,
look after, shelter; harbor
cherry n - chirsh (<OE ciris; cf. Du. kers; NHG Kirsche)
chestplate (armour, see tunic) n chesthelm, breasthelm -
chief n ringleader -
chieftain n - heretough (<OE heretoha)

headling (cf. NHG Häuptling)

chikungunya n - upbend driff
chili n - hotcride
chimpanzee n - mockman (calque of a Bantu language ci-mpenzi)
China n - Midric (cf. H. Ic. Miðríki)
Chinese Characters n - midricrunes/-rouns ( calque), midricwrit (calque)
chivalrous n big, greathearted,
high-minded, lofty, lordly
chivalry n knightliness lordlihood, kindhood, riderliness (for sake of "knight" meaning servant, NHG "Ritter")
chlorine n - yellowgreenmote
chlorophyll n leafgreen -
chocolate adj/n - muckeats/muckfood (cf. H. Ic. mógæti)
chocolate milk n - muckeatsmilk, muckmilk
choice n choosing, picking, wale kire (cf. ME kire)
cholesterol n - gallvat
chrestomathy n - nuttlecouthness (calque of Gk. compound, nuttle <OE nyttol 'useful' for 'chresto-' + couthness <OE cuþnes 'knowledge' for '-mathy')
Christian adj Christen, Christly Christish
Christian n Christen, Christer -
Christianity n Christendom -
Christmas n Yule -
chromosome n - lifepith, huebody (calque of original Greek)
chromatid n - lifepithhalf
chronicle n ledger, tale, saga saw
chronology n timeline timeflow
chrysanthemum n - goldbloom
church (early Greek borrowing into PG) n - holihouse
cider n apple wine -
cigar n smoke smokelog, smokewrap, windle (calque of Icelandic vindill)
cigarette n smoke, fag, butt, stompie windling
cinema n - bilths, filmhouse
cinquefoil n - fiffinger
cipher n dern homewrit (cf. Dutch geheimschrift)


circa prep about, umb/umbe (Eng., <OE ymbe cf,. NHG um)
circle n ring, loop, wreath,
trindle, trundle
circuit n ringway -
circulate vb flow; broadcast umflow
circulation n flow umfaring, forfaring


Imb-running, Imb-runth, Imb-runnle, Imbfaring, Embering, Emberledge

circulatory system n bloodstream -
circum-/ circul- pfx - um-/umb-
circumcise vb cut, unhood, unforeskin rend, umcut, umsnithe (<OE ymbsniðan), besnithe (cf. NHG beschneiden)
circumference n rim, outring rimlength, rimreach, rimspan,

umgang (Eng.)

circumflex n - stavehat
circumnavigate vb - umship (cf. NHG umschiffen)
circumspect adj careful, watchful -
circumstance n doom, hap, luck umstand (<OE ymbstandenness, cf. NHG. umstand)


circumvent vb shortcut, sidestep;
girdle, ring
circus n big top -
cirrocumulus n - curlcloud
citizen n townsman, burgher boroughman, burrow/oughlede (<OE burglēod), ethelman
citizenship n - boroughership (Eng., cf. NHG bürgerschaft, Du. burgerschap), ethelmanship
citroen n sourapple -
city n stead, borough, burgh, town -
civet cat n - slipcat
civil adj folk -
civil law n - folklaw
civilian n - meanfolk, hovelman
civility n - hoveliness
clade n - bough (branch)
cladogram n - boughbilth, boughwrit
clairvoyance n - throughsight
claim n call, dibs, right; share, stake forehold
clamor n din greeding
clan n body, crowd, network,
ring, set, blood, folks, house, kindred, line, set
clarify vb shed light on swuttle (<ME swutel, <OE sweotol), sweetle
classic adj token mean; highflack (flack <Du. vlak 'level')
classical adj - tokenly

music: everswin

classification n tagging, branding fading (<OE fadung)
classify vb tag, brand fade (<OE fadian)
claustrophobia n - narrowfear, tightnessfear
clavicle n - keybone (cf. NHG Schlüsselbein)
clear adj/vb adj: sharp; lily-white

n: sharpen

sheer, swuttle (<OE sweotol, M. Eng. swutel)

rithe/ruthe (<OE geryddan; cf. NHG roden; Ic. ryðja)

clearing n - rithing/ruthing (<OE geryddan)
clergy n church, cloth -
clergyman n churchman, father,
shepherd, man of the cloth
cliché n/adj hackneyed, moth-eaten; n: groaner -
climate n - loftlay (cf. Ic. loftslag)

Ethemihong/Ethemihung, Lifthelmihung/Lofthelmihung/Lofthelmahung

Welkinihang,Welkintrend, Welkinwist, Welkinlean, Welkinset, Welkinsettle

Leanset,Leansettle, Leanship,Leanward, Leanwist


Leantrend, Leanlay [politics, etc.]

cloaca n cloäke aldrain (all + drain)
alclosethew (all + closethew (sphincter))
clock n timer daymale, stounder, logger, daymeal
clockwise adj sunwise -
clone n/vb twin -
close vb shut, narrow -
close adj near, narrow, nearby -
co- pref fellow, by-, i- -
coagulate vb clot arun (cf. NHG gerinnen)
coalition n - block (see Italian "blocco")
coast n shore, seashore, seaboard, strand; sail, drift searim, warth
coastline n shoreline, -
coat of arms n - kinshield, wappen
cocaine n slangs: blow, snow, white, white lady, slim, snuff, girl -
coccyx n tailbone -
cockroach n - shave (cf. NHG Schrabe)
cocoa (bean) n - mucknut, muckbean, muckseed

bitternut, bitterbean, bitterseed

cocoa (drink) n - muckbrew


coconut n - skulnut (skull + nut; coco comes fromSpan./Port. for skull)
code n dern riddlewrit
coeval n/adj - evenold
coffee n brew beanbrew
coffer n - hoardvat (<OE hordfæt)
coffin n - through (<ME þruh, <OE) (rhymes with wow)

deadchest (cf. Du. doodkist)

cognate n - kinword
cognizant adj aware rathe
cohabit vb live together bylive
coin n - mint (<OE mynet, cf. NHG Münze)
coincide vb inbefall, atbefall, atfall
coincidence n happen-so (in OED, US regional colloq.) likehappening, tofall (calque of all Ger. speeches)
coitus n - swiving, heamedlock (<OE hæmedlac), bysleep (<NHG Beischlaf)
cojones n balls, guts -
colic n - bellyharm
collapse n/vb downfall, infall, swooning vb: cleave in
colleague vb workmate, fellow worker -
collect vb gather sam (<OE samnian)
collection n gathering, thingstock, set samming (cf. NHG Sammlung)
colonize vb settle, take over,
spread through(out)
colony n - settling
colo(u)r n hue, cast, blee,
light wavelength,fard
farb (<OE færbu, cf. NHG Farbe), huecast
colo(u)r vb hue, dye, shade, blee farb
column n upright sile
combat n fight, hild gouth
combination n binding, tying, knotting,
fastening, gathering
forbinding (cf. NHG Verbindung)
combine vb bind, tie, knot, fasten, gather  gatherbind, withbind,

forbind (cf. NHG verbinden)

combustible n/adj adj: fiery
n: tinder
adj: fireworthy (may also mean non-combustible)

n: tinderkin (<OE tyndercyn)

comedian n funnyman funspeller, lustspeller, laughtersmith
comedy n - funplay, lustplay (cf. NHG Lustspiel)
comet n shooting star strealer

Faxed-star: resemblance to hair flowing in the breeze; tailstar

comfort n liss, frover weem (<OE weman), soothfulness
comfort vb brighten, shed/cast light on, lighten up, light up frofrenn (<OE frêfran)

frofer/frother (<ME frofer; <OE frōfor)

comfortable adj soft, lithe, snug  queem (<Scots, cf. NHG bequem)

frover -ly/-some

comestible adj eating eatworthy
comic n strip, stripbook -
comic adj funny -
command n behest, bidding

military: headship

command vb bid, lead, behest; spearhead sway, yebe
commander n head campelder (<OE campealdor)

bebeedend (<OE bebēodend)

herreaswer (<OE heraræswa)

hildwiser (<OE hildewīsa)

hertow (<OE heratoga)

commandment n behest; (Torah) teachings bodeword, mustsaying
commemorate vb umbethink -
commemoration n umbethinking bethoughtening
commence vb begin, start -
commensurate adj fitting -
comment n - bemark
commentary n input, feedback upmarking (cf. Du opmerking)
commenting n - bemarking
commerce n business, trade; dealings chapstow
commercial n businesswise tradewise
commit vb do, betake, plight theen (<OE ġeþēon)
common adj household: cut-and-fry, workaday; broad-brush, overall; shared; middling; lowbrow; everyday, wonted, widespread

peasants: churlish

mean (<OE gemæne, NHG. Gemein), wonesome (<OE wune 'custom')
commonly adv meanly, often -
commonwealth n - meanwealth
commotion n - stirness (<OE styrenes)
communicate v spread, brainstorm, bespeak, tell, make known, oversend, share, utter, say, word, give outthrutch, outthrust, outsend, outspeak (cf. Du. uitdrukken, NHG ausdrücken), betwixtsend, crosstalk
communicative adj chatty speakle (<OE sprecol), speakly
communion n fellowship
communism n - fellowdom, folkwield
communist adj red fellowdomish, fellowdommer

folkwieldly, folkwielder

community n fellowship meanship (cf. NHG Gemeinschaft), borough-weren
compact adj hard, stiff, unyielding;
crowded, packed, thick,
tight; thumbnail (expression)
withfasted, withfied
companion n fellow, mate, mone samedsithe (<OE samodġesīð),

eveninglutter (<OE æfenhlytta)

feer (<OE ġefēre)

company n business, outfit;
brotherhood, fellowship
comparative n - overlikening (e.g. bodylore 'anatomy')
compare vb liken, stack up aliken (<OE anlician), withmete, withput, withlay
comparable adj alike akind, samekind
compassion n feeling; kindness,
ruth; goodwill
milts (<OE)
compassionate adj kind, feeling, ruthful -
compatible adj kindred samehaft (cf. Ic. samhæft)
compatriot n kinsman landsman (<OE landesmann)


compel vb fordrive



thring, bede (<OE ġebædan)
compensation n meed forgooding (cf. Du. vergoeding), frover  (<OE frōfor)
competent adj fit, good; fair, right -
compete v - wedbewharve (grounded on NHG. wettbewerb stehen)
competition n - wedbewharve (<NHG wettbewerb)

more new: wedbestriding (the wedding of bestriding) see bestride

compile vb put together -
complain vb whine, bitch, caterwaul,
moan, gripe, whinge
complete adj full, whole; done,
over, through, up; in depth,
thorough; all-ou-, downright,
flat-out, sheer,
stark, stone, straight-out,
thorough, utter;
out-and-out; skillful,
complete vb fulfill, end, overcome full-do, full-end
completely adv outright, fully,
utterly, thoroughly,
through and through,
inside-out, to the hilt,
altogether, deeply. soundly,
throughgroundy (cf. Du. doorgrondig )
complex adj manifold, knotted, snarled -
complexion n hue, look, blee, ilk, kind,
suchness, way, outlook
skin-look, skin-hue
compliant adj toward, abiding followsome


- maze, intangle, manifold
complicated adj knotty, tangled manifold (<OE)
compliment n/vb - n: sweaseness (<OE geswæsnys)

vb: swease (<OE swæs)

n/vb: love (<OE lof, cf. NHG Lob) (rhymes with stove)

complimentary adj - sweasely (<OE swæs + -lic)

loving (rhymes with roving)

compline n - nightsong (<OE nihtsang, akin to "Evensong")
component n - underdeal (cf. Du. onderdeel)

makebit, inbit, gatherbit, wholebit

compose vb make, put together glinge, (<OE - to adorn, set in order, compose), adight (<OE), asing (<OE), awrite (<OE), samen (<OE), fay (<OE), withput
composer n - swinsmith, leethwriter
composition n layout

Isetness (<OE)

compound n cocktail, meld, mix forbinding (cf. NHG Verbindung)
comprehensive adj all-in, thorough, whole; all-out
adv: fully, inside-out, through and through
begriping (calque), invatting (<OE fæt 'vessel'; calque)
comprise vb make up inhold, invat (cf. Du. omvatten)
compromise vb/n tradeoff, deal

vb: meet halfway

compunction n qualm, misgiving -
computation n reckoning -
compute(r) n/vb - reckoner

Uprimer, Upthinker, Upreckoner

Sunderreckoner, Sunderrimer

Alderrime, Alderrimer, Alderreckoner, Alderthinker

Endbeirdling, Endberder, Endberdend, Enberdend [calque, based on French and Spanish Ordenador]

comrade n fellow gade (<OE gada)

sithe (<OE ġe​sīð)

faithful: trewpoft (<OE trēowġepofta)

concatenat - therbinding
conceal vb hide, shroud mithe
concealment n hiding; hideaway,
lair, nest
dern, hidlock
conceivable adj thoughtworthy -
conceive vb dream; make out, twig knit, forseed

ken (<OE cennan)

concentrate vb meet, cluster, gather; fasten; lump; build up, strengthen Bemiddlen, ibemiddlen
concentrated adj crammed, clustered, gathered, lumped together, built up -
concentration camp n - shandstead
concentric adj - middlesharing
concern n care, worry, reck -
concerning prep as for, as far as,
on, toward, anent
concept n mind's eye begripe (<ME begripen <OE begrīpan

cf. Du begrip, NHG Begriff )

conception n mind's eye, thought bilth; of child: beseeding


vb end, wind up, wrap up; break up, leave off, let up, wind up, wink out; name, settle upon; gather, make out -


n ending, finding(s) endsay
concrete n beton gainstandly (NHG. gegenständlich)
concurrently prep meanwhile, all-the-while,
all along
concussion n shell shock -
condemn vb - fordeem, forordeal (cf. Du. veroordelen)
condemned, the n - beforeordealt (from forordeal, via Du. veroordeel)
condemner, the n - forordealer (from forordeal, via Du. veroordeel)
condescend vb belittle, stoop,
talk down, lower
condition n onlay, fettle

Iting (<OE), Readen, Burdness (<OE), Cost (<OE), Areadness (<OE araednis)

foreworth (cf. Du. voorwaarde)
condom n warding, rubber, scumbag -
condominium n housetown political entity: wholelordship/whole-lordship (cf. NHG Gesamtherrschaft)
conduct vb lead, drive

Beload (<OE)

Iload (<OE)

cone n - keggle (cf. Du. kegel, NHG Kegel, Dan. kegle)
confectionary n sweets, sweet-shop -
confederacy n - shireship, rickship, loosebind
confederate adj\n henchman agade (<OE gegada)
confederation n - shireship, rickship, loosebind
confer vb bestow, lend, give over
conference n meeting instelling (W. Fris. ynstelling, Du. instelling, Eng. in + Eng. stell + -ing)
confess vb acknowledge, own up shrive

beken (Eng., cf. NHG/Du. bekennen) andet (<ME andetten), det

confession n acknowledging, shrift andetness (<OE andetnes)
confidence n belief, hope -
configuration n setting, set up

of elements layout

installing (cf. Du instelling )
confine vb lock in, keep, trap, fetter,
bind, latch, grasp,
abed (by illness), bedrid
confirm vb strengthen,
starken, acknowledge
besteady (cf. NHG bestätigen)
confirmation n strengthening, starkening besteadying (cf. NHG bestätigung)
confiscate vb filch beslay (cf. Du. beslag)
conflagration n fire -
conflict vb/n fight -
confluence n - eameet
conform vb dovetail; blend
groove; key
evenlike (<OE efenlician)
conformism n - evenlyinghood
conformity n - evenlying
confound vb befuddle, bewilder, addle -
confront vb take on, come at, be up against -
confuse vb befuddel, mistake, ravel, bewilder, muddel, mangel, addel ablend, forwrixle (cf. NHG verwechseln)
confusing adj manifold, bewildering, muddlesome, misleading
confusion n muddling, bewildering, mishmash ablending
confute vb Overstale (<OE Ofer-staélan - to confute, to convict, to convince)
congregate v forgather
congress n gathering, moot, lawmaker body gathercoming
conics n - kegglelore
conjugate vb bend forbow (cf. Du. verbuigen, NHG. verbeugen)
conjunction n linking word linkword, bindword, yokeword
connect vb link, fit, tie-in, bind -
conquer vb do down, overcome,
upend, worst

Overwin (<OE/ME/Arch.E)

aover (calque of many germanic languages)
conquest n overwin -
consanguinity n kinship -
conscience n - thewing, inwit
conscious adj aware, mindful,
heedful, waken
consciousness n awareness, mindfulness,
heedfulness, wake
conscript vb draft, call-up -
consecrate vb bless, hallow, bename -
consecutive(ly) adj(adv) straight, running, unbroken;
one after the other, right after
consent n/vb leave thaving, thwaring

vb: thwarelalk (<OE þwærlælcan) 

conservation n - orholding (cf. NHG Erhaltung)

bewaring (cf. Du. bewaren)

conserve n - orhold


consequence n aftermath, backwash,
outcome, upshot;
offleading (cf. Ic. af-leiðing)
consequently adv hence, thereby, thereupon,
thus, wherefore,
sithence (obsolete)
consider vb

heed, bethink, think about,
reckon, set down

hie, hedge (<OE hycgan 'bear in mind, confide, trust'; compare lie < OE licgan, buy < OE bycgan)

awene (<OE awenan)

behawe (<OE behawian 'to see clearly, take care')

rase (<OE ræswan 'to think suppose suspect consider conjecture')

smigh (<OE smēagan 'consider think about mediate examine scrutinize')

yondthink (<OE geondþencan 'to reflect upon')

hiler (<OE aheolorian 'weigh, balance'

Latin equivalent: librare, trutinare)

beshow (cf. Du. beschouwen) 

umbthink (<OE ymbþencan)

consideration n thought -
consist of vb be made up of bestand of (cf. NHG bestehen aus)
consistency n - weenness

withspeakfreedom (NHG. widerspruchsfreiheit)

consistent adj - weenly (<OE wénlic)

withspeakless (NHG. widerspruchslos)

console vb frover, soothe,
allay sorrow,
share grief,
give strength and hope
consolation n - froverness, freefernes (<OE fréfernes), frover (<OE frōfor)
consonant n - withlide, midlide (<NHG Mitlaut),
midclinker (Du. medeklinker),
samedswaying, sameswaying
(<Ælfric's OE samodswegend)
conspicuous adj - forthsighly (<OE forþgesýne)


conspiracy n plot -
conspiracy theorist n - plotbeholder
conspiracy theory n - plotbeholding
conspire vb plot -
constant adj ongoing, abiding,
steadfast, steady,

Singal/Single (<OE Sin-gal - perpetual, Everlasting)

onwherft, simble (<OE simbel)

resistant: bestandy/bestanding (NHG. beständig)

constitution n clay, self; build,
lawbook; frame, shape; law
forfastening (cf. NHG Verfassung), writlaw
constraint n - thwing (<OE geþwing)
constrict vb tighten intighten, betighten
consulation n - bereding (cf. NHG Beratung)
consult vb see with -
consume vb eat (up), drain, spend, intake forbrook (calque)
consumerism n - intakerhood
consummate adj crack, good, great, skilled; blooming, straight-out; utmost -
consumption n intaking -
contact vb get, reach fay, rine, Forthreach
contain vb hold, inhold, have in itself -
contaminate vb befoul smittle
contemplate vb - yondthink (<OE geondþencan)
contemplation n thought yondthinking (<OE geondþencan + -ing)
contemporary adj today's tidely, fellow-timed, like-timed
contempt n loathing, hatred -
contemptuous adj - shanding
contend n set to -
contend (argue) vb flite, hold -
content n/vb vb: gladden inning (<OE innung), inhold (calque from NHG 'Inhalt')

of one's character: inwit of one's moodstathel

content adj happy, gladdened, gruntled fained, list
contention n wrangling -
contest n match witherwin (<OE wiðerwinn)
context n light, framework,
ins and outs, layout,
basis: underlay
umrealm, underlyings


contiguous adj abutting -
continent n mainland worlddeal (<OE worulddǣl), greatland, landstretch, fastland
continuation n Astandendness, Astandingness (<OE)
continue vb go on, abide, keep on, keep at
transitive: let something go on
ongo, forthgo (cf. NHG fortgehen), forthset (cf. Du. voortzetten), throughgo (cf. Du. doorgaan), singel (<OE ġesingalian)
continuous adj unbroken, ongoing forthgoing, forthset, simble (<OE)
contort vb writhe -
contract n bond, deal, settlement handfast, writdeal
contradict vb gainsay, withsay, withspeak  witherspeak (cf. NHG widersprechen), andwitness (cf. Ic. and-vitni), witherqued, anspeak (<OE ġēansprecan)
contradiction n gainsaying withspeech (NHG. Widerspruch), witherquedding (<OE wiðercwedung), anspeech
contrary adv against witherward (<OE wiðerweard), witherto, withershins
contrast n otherness, unlikeness, cleaveness, sunderness shedspan, undershed, witherputting
contrast vb sunder, cleave, shed, tell asunder undershed (cf. NHG unterscheiden, Du onderscheiden), witherstand (calque), offstand, witherstack, offstack (cf. Du. afsteken), witherput
controversy n - gainwending (lone translation from Latin)
contribute vb pitch in bypull, bydraw/drag (cf. Du bijdragen ) 
contribution n input, giving -
contrition n sorrow, guilt, ruth -
control n hands; oversight, running,
stewardship; arm, grip,
hold, sway, steering
control vb lead, bridle, hold, steer, keep, tame, steward sway
conundrum n riddle -
conurbation n - towncluster(ing)
convect vb Ibear, Imbbear, Iferry, Awaybear (all < OE)
convergence n meeting -
conversation n talk, mailing underholding (cf. NHG Unterhaltung)
converse vb speak, talk -


on the other hand, otherwise -
convert vb wend, make over turn over: bewharve (<OE behwierfan, behweorfan)
turn around: bewend (<OE bewendan), forwandle
convey vb give, spread; bear, ferry;
deed, make over
convict n lag overstale (<OE Ofer-staélan - to confute, to convict, to convince), haftling (<OE hæftling, cf. NHG Häftling), overstell
convince vb wheedle, talk round, talk into overtalk (<OE oferreccan, cf. NHG. überreden)
convoy n - wain row
cooperate vb work together evenwork (<OE efenweorcan), getherwork (<Fr gearwurkje), midwork
cop vb nab -
cop n hound, pig (slang, slightly vulgar) frith wike (peace officer)
cope vb deal -
copious adj beteeming -
copper n - ar (<OE ar)
copper adj - arn (cf. Eng. gold -> golden)
copse n thicket, shaw -
copy n - twin
copy vb imitate: ape twin, eftyield, andwrite
imitate: evenledge (<OE efenlæcan)
copy & paste vb - twin & tack
coral n/adj - limeshaft; yellowpink
cord n line, rope,
string, wire
tew, rib-cloth
cord vb fasten -
cordial adj friendly, hearty, warm -
cords n - manstows
corduroy n ribbed cloth rib-cloth, manstow (manchester)
core n kernel, heart, yolk, innermost being -
coriander n Cloveleaf, Clovelobedleaf, Broadlobedleaf/Bradlobleaf (based on description of leaf)
cormorant n sea raven shrab (<OE scræb)


cornea n - hornweb, hornflesh
corner n nook, winkle, hirn, edge -
coronation n - kinehelming (<OE cynehelmung), wreathing
corpor(e)al adj bodily bodisome
corporation n - businessbody
corpse n body, dead body lich, nee (<OE nēo), likam
corpus n body likam
Corpus Christi pn - Wistforwandering Day
correct adv/adj right, aright, befitting -
correct vb right, righten, mark berighten (cf. NHG. berichtigen)
correction n righting punishment: threal (<OE þrēal), berightening (NHG. berichtigung)
correction fluid n white out -
correspond v match, match up, link, link up, be alike, meet onspeak (cf. NHG entsprechen)
corridor n hallway -
corroborate vb bear out -
corrode vb gnaw forrot (<OE forrotian), begnaw (<OE begnagan)
corrugated adj - wrizzled
corrupt adj/adv crooked, bent, rot forrot
corslet n byrnie
corvée-work n - workrede (<OE weorcræden)
cosmetics n fard
cosmolabe n - tungleheight meter
cosmopolitan n - worldsman
cosmopolitan adj worldly -
cost n outlay, worth -
costly adj dear -
Costa Rica pn - Rich Shore
costume n outfit, get-up, fake dress derning
Côte d'Ivoire n - Windward Shore, Tusk Shore, Elpbone Shore
cottage n hut, cote sheel
cottager n - cotsettle
cotton n - seedwool, treewool (calque)
council n gathering, huddle; board,
brotherhood, fellowship,
thingstead (<OE þingstede),
thingstow (<OE þingstōw)
redemoot, redebody
counsel n/vb lead, shepherd rede

law-ern (legal-eagle)

counsel(l)or n alder(wo)man rede(wo)man, redegiver, theagher (<OE þeahere/ġeþeahere)
count vb tell, reckon arime
count n earl -
countenance n cast -
counter- prefix with-gain-, wither- -
counterbalance n offset -
counter-clockwise adj withershins withersunwise
counterculture n - witherkithship
counterfeit goods n - openware
counterpart n match witherdeal, evenbilth (cf. NHG Ebenbild)
equivalent: gainsteck/gainshtick (cf. NHG gegenstück)
countersign n - gaintoken/ gaintokening
(cf. NHG. gegenziechnung)
countersign v - gaintoken (cf. NHG gegenziechnen)
counterstroke n - witherclap
country n land, weald, upland (countryside), kith, fatherland, homeland, motherland, rike native: ethel (<OE æþel), folkland, erd (<ME)
county n shire, ethel, earldom, wapentake, erd, fold reveship
county council n thing (<ON þing), folkmoot (<OE folcgemōt), folksmoot (<ME folkesmōt/folkesmot) shiremoot
coup vb strike -
coup de grâce n topper lithing, miltstroke
coupling (train/carriage) n thill -
coupon n - deemslip
courage n mettle, boldness, fearlessness, heart, heartiness, daring, mood beld/bield (<OE bieldu)
courageous adj bold, daring, doughty, fearless,full-hearted, unfrightened, stouthearted moody (cf. NHG mutig)
course n line, pathway lode, begang/bigong, ierning/running (<OE ierning, whence running), shrithe (<OE), yong (<OE Geong), rin/rine, rune [< OE Ryne, course, rush]
course (academic) n learnset, loregang, lorestream
court n/vb hove (<OE hof)
vb: splunt (<Scots)
courteous adj fairspoken hovely
courtyard n - hallyard, boroughyard (<OE burggeard)
cousin n kins(wo)man nearkin, farsib
covenant n oath, deal, bond, binding -
cover n holster, sheath heling, helm, thacking, taching, decking
cover vb thatch/thack, overlay, hide, deck, overspread hele (Eng. dialectal), helm
coverage n - yondfetching, overthetching, overthatching, overhealing, yondhealing
covered area n deck, roofed deck heling (ME hillet), helm (<OE helmian)
covering n skin, feathers, hackles heling, overwrigels (<OE oferwrigels)
cover with vb lay on -
covert adj hidden, shrouded, stealthy, under wraps, heled
cover-up n whitewash, hush-work shroudening
covet vb crave, want, hunger after, thirst after, cast greedy eyes upon -
covetous adj greedy, graspy, grabby, hoggish, wanting -
coward n wimp, woos, fearer, nithing arg, flytail, feyling (cf. NHG Feigling)
cowardly adj gutless, thewless, woosy, fearful fey/fay (<OE fæge, cf. NHG feige)
co-worker n by-worker, fellow worker, workmate -
CPU (Central Processing Unit) n main chip -
cranium n skull head-bowl (OE heafod - bolla)
crater n - bowl (calque), barrowbowl
cravat n necktie, neckcloth -
crayon n - waxlimestone
cream n salve, ream, milk's head -
crease n/vb wrinkle, rumple, rimple, runkle -
create vb beget, build, craft, make, set up, shape, hatch ashapen
creation n brainchild, wrinke; world, rise shaping, ashapenning, fromship
creative adj - shaperly, makerly (cf. NHG schöpferisch), thoughtrich
creature n wight making (horrible creature, monster), awe-grimer, aies-grimer, allwight, edshaft, shape, forthshaft (all <OE)
eges-grime (a horrible mask; a creature with horrible form)
credence n belief -
credibility n - liefworthiness, beliefworthiness, beliefworthihood (cf. NHG glaubtwürdigkeit)
credible adj - liefworthy, beliefworthy (cf. NHG glaubtwürdig) ,oathworthy, intrusty, inliefsome
credit n hail, acknowledgement inlief, intrust, forthtrust, oathworth, borrowworth
creed n belief -
cremate vb bale -
creme de la creme n bee's knees, dog's bollocks, best of the best, fat of the land, best -
crepuscular adj twilighty -
crepuscule n twilight, darkfall, dusk, nightfall, gloaming, evenfall, eventide, sundown downset
crescent n moonsickle -
crest n ridge, noon, top, high-water mark ris, comb
cretaceous adj - chalken, chalkish, chalky, limestonish, limestony
cretin n blighter; nit -
crevasse n cleft -
crevice n cleft, gap, hole -
crime n lawbreaking, shame, sin, wrongdoing, misdeed shild (<OE scyld), gilt (<OE ġylt), forwrought (<OS farwurht)
criminal n crook, outlaw, lawbreaker sinner: gilter (<OE ġyltend)
crimson n - deepred
crisis n - needtime
criterion n yardstick, hallmark, need deemrimmer
critic n scather -
critical adj weighty, key, scathing -
criticise vb slag, knock, brand, upbraid  -
criticism n scathing -
crocodile n - nix (cf. OHG nihhus), pebbleworm (calque)
croissant n - moonbread
cross (<ON) n - rood, syebeam (<OE sigebēam)
cross (<ON) vb - thwarse, stride over
crown n kine-helm
crown vb - kinehelm, wreathe
crucifix n - rood, roodfastening, onrooding
crucify vb - roodfasten, onrood
crude adj rough, raw -
cruel adj harsh, mean, ruthless, cold, unfeeling reethe (<OE réðe), slithen (<OE slīþene)
cruelty n meanness, harshness, ruthlessness moanbale (<OE mānbealu), slithenness
cruise vb - thwarse (lit. to cross)
cruiser n - thwarser, thwarseship
crusade n krosscampagne roodfirding
crust n - rind (<OE rind)
cry n roop, yell, shout, whine, wail, moan lide, liding (<OE ge-hlȳd; cf. NHG Lied)
cry vb weep, shout, wail, yell, howl, sob, roup, cleep, wail chy (<OE cigan)
cryogenic adj - coldly
cryotherapy n - coldbehandling
crypt n - thesterlock, thestercove, lich-keep
cryptocurrency n - keepminthood, hidden minthood
cryptography n - hidden writing
crystal n - hurst (<OE hyrst)
crystal adj - hursten (cf. Eng. golden)
crystalline adj - hursty
cub n - whelp
cube n - worfle (cf. NHG Würfel)
cuckoo n - yeke, gawk
cucumber n - greenpod, earthapple (<OE eorþæppel)
cuisine n cooking foodcraft
cull vb choose, pick, pick out, pitch on, pitch upon, sift, winnow, gather, pluck, pickup -
cull n pickings, siftings -
cul de sac n dead end -
culminate vb - nib
cultivate vb till, harvest, work  -
culture n couth, folklore, way of life menning (cf. Ic. menning), kithship
culvert n - leat, ditch
cuneiform bones n - wedgebones
cure vb heal -
curiosity n witfire newsgreed, newsgreediness (cf. Du. nieuwsgierigheid)
curious adj - newsyearny, newsgreedy (cf. Du. nieuwsgierig)
curious vb funny, odd, weird frimdy (<OE frymdig)
curlew n whaup
currency n - minthood
unit: mintwhit, minonehood (cf. Du. munteenheid
current adj nowaday, today's, now's, nowadays', running nowen, tidegang/tidegeng (<OE), evenrunning, eventime
current n run, drift, leaning, tide, wind, now brimstream (<OE), eystream (<OE iegstream), streamfare, waystream (<OE)
Electricity, water, etc.: instream, inrun, flowbore, runbore
currently adv as of yet, now, nowenly
curriculum n - learnplot
curriculum vitae n - smithsyore
cursive adj handwritten flow-staved
cursor n runner -
curtail vb cut back, forshorten, foreshorten, clip  -
curtain n - hanger, hangcloth
curve n bow, bend, wind  -
custody n hold, hands warding
custom adj bespoken thew, folkway
custom n wone, wont, business, trade side, toln (<OE)
customary adj - wonely
cutaneous adj skin, hide hidish, hidely
cutaneous disease n tetter, scurf, scurvy -
cute adj pretty, sweet, lief goldy (cf. NHG goldig), sooth
cutlass n backsword
cutlery n silverware -
cycad n - firtapfolm (cf. Sw. kottepalmer)
cyclist n - wheeler
cyclone n - whirlwind


n swanling -
cylinder n - rollshape
cynical adj sneering -
cynosure n - hoardvat (<OE hordfæt)
czar n - Russlander king/highking