ritiStaff C of the English Wordbook.

Basic abbreviations:

  • OE=Old English
  • NHG=New High German
  • Du.=Dutch

For a full list of etymological and other abbreviations used in these wordlists, see: Offshortenings.


Chancery English
Class Anglish/English
Attested Unattested
caballine adj horselike, horsely -
cabaret n club, nightspot, roadhouse, nightclub -
cabbage n cole, kale -
cabinet n hutch, sideboard, locker mugboard, hoarding
office: ambight, redeship
cable n wire, rope ropewire
caboose n - ward wagon, aftwagon
cacao n - brownbean
cache n hoard putstow, bike
cacophony n rattle, roar, din -
cadaver n shell, framework, slang:  stiff, body, dead body 


cadaverous adj deathly, wan, bloodless, ashen, hollow-eyed -
cadet n - forefighter
cadmium n - Wodan
cæcum n - blindtharm, blindgut
Cæsar n overlord -
cæsium n - silverwhite, lightbrick mote
café n

tearoom (note: "tea" is international vocabulary, not native English), roadhouse; taproom, watering hole

cafeteria n lunchroom, lunch house -
cajole vb soft-soap, sweet-talk, wheedle -
calamari n cuttlefish -
calcaneüs n heelbone -
calcium n - limemote
calcium carbonate n - coalsour lime (cf. WFr. koalsoere kalk)
calculate vb reckon, work out -
calculator n - handreckoner
calculus n reckoning flowreckoning, rimming, telgrinding (OE rim, tal 'number')
calendar n daybook timetale
calisthenics n drills -
calligraphy n longhand pretty writing, litwriting
calligraphy pen n - longhandwritingise/-iron (<longhand + OE wrītungīsen, "style pen"), wlitwritingise/-iron (compound of "wlitwriting" + OE wrītingīsen)
callous adj hardened, cold-hearted, flint-hearted, heartless, soulless, stony, stony-hearted, steely, thick-skinned, unfeeling -
calm adj lown, flack roolie (Eng., Du. rolig, Ic. roleg, NHG ruhig) (see also roo)
calm vb lull, settle, soothe beroolie (cf. NHG. beruhigen)
calumniate vb grime, sully, betell, forwray (<OE forwregan)
calque n loanword, borrowing loanoversetting (<NHG Lehnübersetzung)
calyx n - bloomleaf
camel n - olvend, (<OE olfend) twohump, drylander
camera n - bildfanger
camouflage n

dapple, (dappling, dappleshell, dapplehide, dappleclad, dappleteld)

dazzle-painting (attested)

derning (<OE diernan, cf. NHG Tarnung)
camomile n - maylix
camp n leaguer (from Dutch), lair, haltstead
campaign n bandwagon, drive, juggernought, push military: axfare (<OE æxfaru)   fieldtought (<Du.)
campaign vb take the stump, barnstorm -
campus n - lorefield, lorerealm, byttel (<OE gebytlu)
canal n leat, waterway -
cancer n zodiac: Crab disease: Mireless Thrimfold ~ MTF Unlimited Tissue Multiplication
candelabrum n - glimtree
candidate n hopeful, ?runner
candied adj sweetened -
candy n sweets sweetiness
canine adj doggy, houndlike -
cannon n - dunspar (contr. of dun and spear)

Fallbuss (cf. Ic. Fallbyssa)

cannibal n maneater selfeater (<OE selfæta)
canoe n dugout -
canvas n - hempcloth
canyon n gulch -
capacity n room, berth; strength, gift, readiness heldth
cape n sleeveless coat
geography: foreland, headland, ness
capital n/adj wealth, means, wherewithal; sterling; foremost city: reevetown, kinesettle (<OE cynesetl)

letter (ABC): greatbookstave (cf. NHG großbuchstabe)

capitalist n silk stocking -
capitalization n - block writing
capricious adj fickle nyckfull (<Sw, cf. Du. nikkig) 
capsize vb keel, upset, overwend wemmel
captain n headman, leader shipper (<M Du. scipper and MnE skipper)
caption n - underwrit (cf. Du. underschrift, NHG bildunterschrift)
captivate vb wile witch
captive n/adj penned, locked up n: haftling (<OE hæftling)

adj: hafted

captivity n - (y-/a-)haftness (<OE gehæftednes)
capture vb nail, take, kidnap, steal, swipe, nab latch
capybara n waterswine
car n slang:

wheels, ride, hot rod, roadster

wain, horseless
caravan n - kinwagon, housewagon (cf. Sw. husvagn)
carbon n chark, soot coalstuff, lifestuff
carbon dioxide n - wortloft
carburator n - forelofter
carcass n bones, stiff, lich
cardiac arrest n heartstop -
cardinal (Church official) n - godsearl (cf. H Ic. guðsjarl)

Whule (cf. Sw. Hwul)

cardinal (bird) n redbird -
career n calling, game (inf.), walk of life -
caress vb fondle, stroke -
cargo n draft, freight, haul, loading, weight -
caribou n reindeer -
carnal adj fleshly -
carnal attraction n - fleshspaning (OE spanan 'attract')
carnation n - nailling (cf. NHG Nelke)


carnivore n meateater, flesheater -
carouse vb birle -
carousel n - trindle
carpenter n woodworker

woodsmith, woodcraftsman, treewright (<trēowwyrhta) pl: treewrighten (<OE trēowwyrhtan)

carpentry n woodwork(ing), woodcraft, woodcarving -
carpet n - stepcloth, floorcloth, groundcloth
carriage n bearing wain
carrot n more (<OE moru; cf. NHG Möhre)


carry vb bear, weigh, ferry, take,  -
cartoon n - livedrawing
cartouche n - deckwrit
cartridge n bag, load, holder -
case n

hull, husk, pod, sheath, shell; box

in case: lest, by fear of, if... should, befall

grammar: fall

in case: fall

case: fall

cashew n - kidneyapple
cashewnut n - kidneynut
casing n shell, brass -
casino n - bethall, bethouse, gaming house
cast away vb - anbewarp (<OE anbeweorpan)
castle n burg, stronghold

innermost keep

stronghouse, fastenwork (<OE "fæsten" + "weorc", cf German "Festung"), chestel (<Latinate OE "ċeastel")
casual adj breezy, blithe, light-hearted -
cat n puss -
catch vb snare, snarl, snag, latch, fang, nab -
catechism n - frodleering (cf. Ic. Trúfræðslurit)
catechize vb grill, sweat slang frayn
categorize vb - fade (<OE fadian)
caterpillar n - cawlworm (<OE cawelwyrm), leafworm (<OE leafwyrm), mealshave (<OE mælsceafa)
cathedral n - headchurch
catheter n - leat
cathode n - downway
catholic adj - broad church
catkin n - bloomtail
cattle n cows, livestock, kine, nowt, fee, neat -
Caucasian (race) n white Caucasish, Caucaser
cauldron n (big) kettle -
cauliflower n - bloomcole
cause n bring-about, let-on, wherefrom frum (<OE fruma), onlet, orsake (calque from many Germanic languages)
cause vb beget, breed, drive, make, work, yield fuse (<ME fusen), fororsake (calque of many Germanic languages)
cause, without adv - hoolings (<OE holunga)
caustic adj burning -
cautery n tharm tool
caution n wariness, forewit, care, reck -
cavalier n horseman kingfollower (Charles II)
cavalry n horsemen, riders ridery (cf. NHG Reiterei)
cave n - cleave (<OE cleofa), delve
cavil vb carp -
cavity n dint, hollow, pit -
cease vb stop, lay off, halt, give up, leave off, blin -
ceasefire n truce weaponsstandstill (cf. Du.

wapenstilstand, NHG. Waffenstillstand)

cede vb yield, hand over, give up, orgive, oryeve

overgive (Eng., NHG. übergeben, Du. overgeven, Dan. overgive)

celebrate vb - frealse (<OE freolsian)
celebration n - freal (<OE freolisan)
celery n - fenroot
celestial bow n rainbow, heaven's bow -
celestial sphere n - rother (<OE rodor)
cell n hole, room frum (cf. Ic. fruma), lifebrick
cell division n - frumcleaving
cellulose n - treestrand
cellar n - cloft (OE cleofa)
cello n - knee-fiddle (Icelandic calque)
cement n - gilpstan (OE gilp):dust powder & stone.
cemetery n graveyard, boneyard, burying-ground. Obsolete: lich-rest (in OED) church-litten, still-hill (slang)
censorship n - cleaning
censure vb upbraid -
census n tale marking (cf. OE tomearcodnes), folktally
cent n penny, hundredth -
centimeter n - pennibeat
centaur n - manhorse, halfhorse
centipede n -


central adj overriding; midway, midmost; middle-of-the-road midwise, midly
centre n heart; middle, midst -
centurion n - hundfrea (<OE hundfrēa) pl: hundfreën (<OE hundfrēan)
century n yearhundred (<NHG. Jahrhundert)


cereal n - morningcorn (cf. Ic. morgunkorn)
certain adj wis sicker (Eng., calque Ger. speeches)

specific: bestevened (cf. NHG bestimmt) (see steven)

certainly adv wisly sickerly
certainty n - Wishood (NHG. Gewissheit)
certificate n - sickering, beshining (cf. NHG bescheinigung)
certify v - beshine (calque of Ger. speeches)

confirm: besteady (calque of Ger. speeches)

cerulean adj - swail blue
cerumen n earwax -
chain n shackle, fetter -
chair n seat, stool settle
chalice n bowl way(e) (<OE wæge)
chalk n limestone limestonestick
challenge n/vb knot; dare; becall -
chamber n room; bay (enclosed space) -
chameleon n - blending athex, wristlehue athex
faying athex (<OE fágian 'to change in color, vary, be variegated')
chance n luck, opening by chance: faringly (<OE færinga)
change vb/n

shift, switch, makeover

dough (cash), warp

frother (for- + other; cf. Fr. feroaring, Du. veranderen, NHG. verändern)

wend, char, wristle (<OE wrixlian)

channel n fairway, race, ford sound (<OE sund 'long narrow inlet')
chaos n mess dwolm(e) (<OE dwolma)
Charlemagne n Carl the Great -
character n clay, selfhood, self, shtick

letter (abc): rune/roun, bookstave

sign: token

being in a story: hoad (<OE hād)

ethics: moodstathel (<OE mōdstaðol)

charge n/vb fill, load, outlay; lading military: angriff
charged adj owing, laden (electric) -
charitable adj kind, freehanded, freehearted, unselfish, unsparing, unstinting kysty/kisty (<OE cystig)
charity n help, gift, hand-out; goodness, goodwill, fellow feeling; alms, dole; ruth; brotherhood kistiness
charlatan n swindler -
charming adj friendly, lovely, winsome, comely -
charter n - rightsledging; booking (from OE book -- "assignment of land by charter")
chase vb hotfoot, put to flight -
chastise vb chew out, chide, flay, hammer, jaw, keelhaul, ream out, tongue-lash, upbraid threap
cheat n/vb

shark, bilk, do in, nobble, rip off, rig, swindle; shark, dodger, swindler, lirt, belirt, threap

checkers (game) n Draughts -
cheer n glee, merriness, mirthfulness -
cheer vb gladden, root, hearten, perk up, blithen bemirth
chef d'oeuvre n masterwork reevework

mastersteck (cf. Du. meesterstuk)

chemistry n - blendlore
cherish vb hold dear, cleave to; care for, love, look after, shelter; harbor -
chestplate (armour, see tunic) n chesthelm, breasthelm -
chief n ringleader -
chieftain n - heretoughe (<OE heretoha) pl: heretoughen (<OE heretohan)

headling (cf. NHG Häuptling)

chili n - hotcride
chime vb ring, toll -
chimpanzee n - mockman (chimpanzee in Tshiluba language means mockman)
China n Middle Kingdom Midrike (cf. H Ic. Miðríki)
Chinese Characters n - hanrunes/-rouns ( calque), hanwrit (calque)
chivalrous n big, greathearted, high-minded, lofty, lordly hovely
chivalry n knightliness lordlihood, kindhood, riderliness (for sake of "knight" meaning servant, NHG "Ritter")
chlorine n - yellowgreenstuff
chlorophyll n leafgreen -
chocolate n bitternut -
chocolate milk n bittermilk -
choice n choosing, picking, wale
cholesterol n - gallvat
chrestomathy n - nuttlecouthness (calque of Gk. compound, nuttle <OE nyttol 'useful' for 'chresto-' + couthness <OE cuþnes 'knowledge' for '-mathy')
Christian n/adj - Crist(ish/ly)

n: "Christer"

Christianity n - Christendom
Christmas n Yule Cristesmass (<OE)
chromosome n - lifepith
chromatid n - lifepith half
chronicle n ledger, tale, saga cranic (<OE)
chronology n timeline timeflow
chrysanthemum n - goldbloom
church n - Cristish worshiphouse, holy house
cider n apple wine -
cigar n smoke smokelog, smokewrap, windle (calque of Icelandic vindill)
cigarette n smoke, fag, butt, stompie -
cinema n - bilds, filmhouse
cinquefoil n - fiffinger
cipher n - homewrit (cf. Dutch geheimschrift)
circa prep about, umbe

 (Eng., <OE, cf,. NHG um)

circle n ring, loop, wreath, trindle, trundle trind
circuit n ringway
circulate vb flow; broadcast umflow
circulation n flow umfaring, forfaring


circulatory system n bloodstream -
circum-/ circul- pfx um-
circumambulate v walk around
circumcise vb cut rend, umcut, umsnithe (<OE ymbsniðan), besnithe (cf. NHG beschneiden)
circumference n rim, outring rimlength, rimreach, rimspan,

Umgang (Eng.)

circumflex n - stavehat
circumnavigate n - Umship (NHG. umshiffen)
circumspect adj careful, watchful -
circumstance n doom, hap, luck umstand (cf. NHG. umstand/ OE ymbstandenness)
circumvent vb shortcut, sidestep; girdle, ring umwork
circus n big top -
cirrocumulus n - curlcloud
citizen n towns(wo)man, burgher

burrough(wo)man, burrow/oughlede (<OE burglēod)

citizenship n - burghership (Eng., cf. NHG bürgerschaft, Du. burgerschap)
citroen n sourapple -
city n borough, burgh, burg, town stead
civet cat n - slipcat
civil law n - folk(s)law
civilian n - ethel(wo)man
civility n - hoveliness
civilization n - lifeness, folkhood, settledhood, folkdom
civilize vb tame, settle couthen
clairvoyance n - sixth feeling
claim n call, dibs, right; share, stake forehold
clamor n din greeding
clan n body, crowd, network, ring, set; blood, folks, house, kindred, line, set -
clarify vb shed light on swotel; sweetle explain
class n set; feather flock (i.e. as in school) (use comparable to Ic. 'flokki'); standing (i.e. social class)
classic adj token mean; highflack (flack <Du. vlak 'level')
classical adj - everswin
classification n tag, brand fading (<OE fadung)
classify vb tag, brand fade (<OE fadian)
claustrophobia n - tightfear
clear adj sharp; lily-white sheer, swotel (<OE sweotol)
clearing n - riding (<OE hrydung)
clergy n church, cloth
clergyman n churchman, father, shepherd, man of the cloth -
cliché n/adj hackneyed, moth-eaten; n: groaner -
climate n - loftlay (cf. Ic. loftslag)
clinic n - ail room
clitoris n bean -
clock n timer daymale, stounder, logger
clockwise adj sunwise -
clone n/vb


close vb shut, narrow -
close adj near, narrow, nearby -
co- pref fellow, by-, i- -
coalition n -
coast n seashore, seaboard, strand; sail, drift searim, warth
coat of arms n - kinshield, wappen
cockroach n - shave (cf. NHG Schabe)
cocoa (bean) n bitternut, bitterbean, bitterseed -
cocoa (drink) n bitterbrew -
coconut n - skulnut (calque of Spa. and Por. "coco" (skull) + nut)
coëval n/adj - even-old
coffer n - hoardvat (<OE hordfæt)
coffin n casket thrugh, through (<ME þruh, <OE), throgh (<ME þroh, variant of "þruh")
cognate n - kinword
cognizant adj aware rathe
cohabit vb live together by-live
coil n ring, twine, bight, whorl, winding whirlwire
coin n - mint (cf. NHG Münze)
coincidence n happen-so (in OED, US regional colloq.) likehappening, tofall (calqu of all Ger. speeches)
coitus n - swiving, heamedlock (<OE hæmedlac), bysleep (<NHG Beischlaf)
cojones n balls, guts -
colic n - bellyharm
collapse n/vb downfall, infall, swooning cleave in vb
colleague vb workmate, fellow worker -
collect vb gather sam (<OE samnian)
collection n gathering, thingstock samming (cf. NHG Sammlung)
colonize vb settle, take over, spread through(out) -
colony n - landhold
colo(u)r n hue, cast, blee, light wavelength farbe (<OE færbu, cf. NHG Farbe), huecast
colo(u)r vb hue, dye, shade, blee farbe
column n upright sile
combat n fight, hild gouth
combination n binding, tying, knotting, fastening, gathering forbinding (cf. NHG Verbindung)
combine vb bind, tie, knot, fasten, gather  gatherbind, withbind,

forbind (cf. NHG verbinden)

combustible n/adj adj: fiery

n: tinder


fireworthy n: tinderkin (<OE tyndercyn)

comedian n funnyman funspeller, lustspeller, laughtersmith
comedy n - funplay, lustplay (cf. NHG Lustspiel)
comet n shooting star Faxed-star: resemblance to hair flowing in the breeze; tailstar, strealer
comfort n liss, frover weem (<OE weman), soothefulness
comfortable adj soft, lithe, snug  queem (<Scots, cf. NHG bequem)

frover -ly/-some

comestible adj eating -
comic n funny -
comics n - talestrips, livestrips
command n behest, bidding

wordbebod (<OE)

urgent: needbebode (<OE nīedbebod)

command n headship -
command vb bid, lead, behest; spearhead sway
commander n head

campelder (<OE campealdor), bebeedend (<OE bebēodend), herareaswer (<OE heraræswa), hildewise (<OE hildewīsa), heratow (<OE heratoga)

commandment n behest; (Torah) teachings  bodeword, mustsaying
commence vb begin, start -
commensurate adj fitting -
comment n - bemarking
commentary n input, feedback upmarking (cf. Du opmerking ) 
commerce n business, trade; dealings chepstow
commercial adj businesswise tradewise
commit vb do, betake, plight theen (<OE ġeþēon)
common adj

household: cut-and-fry, workaday; broad-brush, overall; shared; middling; lowbrow; everyday, wonted

peasants churlish

mean (<OE gemæne, NHG. Gemein 2nd ety.)

wonesome (<OE wune 'custom')

Commonwealth n Onehoodness, Kinwealth

ledewealth (cf. Ic, Fa. lýðveldi)

kinwise (<OE cynewise)


commotion n - stirness (<OE styrenes)
communicate vb spread; brainstorm; bespeak -
communicative adj chatty speakol (<OE sprecol)
communion n fellowship -
communism n - sharedom, folkwield
communist adj - folkwieldly, sharedomish
community n fellowship meanship (calque NHG Gemeinschaft), borough-weren
compact adj hard, stiff, unyielding; crowded, packed, thick, tight; thumbnail (expression) withfasted, withfied
Compact Disc n - dishling, withfasted ring (WFR)
CD-ROM n - WFR-read only bemindings
companion n fellow, mate

samedsithe (<OE samodġesīð), evenlytte (<OE æfenhlytta) pl: evenlytten (<OE ævenhlyttan),  feer(e) (<OE ġefēre)

company n business, outfit; brotherhood, fellowship -
comparative n - overlikening (e.g. bodylore 'anatomy')
compare vb liken, stack up aliken (OE anlician),  withmete
compassion n feeling; kindness, ruth; goodwill milts (<OE)
compassionate adj kind, feeling, ruthful -
compatible adj kindred samehaft (cf. Ic. samhæft)
compatriot n kinsman landsman (<OE Landesmann)


compel vb -

thring, bede (<OE ġebædan)

compensation n meed

forgooding (cf. Du. vergoeding), froofor  (<OE frōfor)

competent adj fit, good; fair, right -
compete v wedbestride (grounded on NHG. wettbewerb stehen)
competition n Wedbewharve (<NHG wettbewerb)

more new: Wedbestriding (the wedding of bestriding) see bestride

compile vb put together -
complain vb whine, bitch, caterwaul, moan, gripe, whinge -
complete adj full, whole; done, over, through, up; in depth, thorough; all-ou-, downright, flat-out, sheer, stark, stone, straight-out, thorough, utter; out-and-out; skillful, full-standing, thoroughgoing -
complete vb fulfill, end, overcome full-do, full-end
completely adv outright, fully, utterly, thoroughly, through and through, inside-out, to the hilt, altogether, deeply. soundly, throughground(l)y (cf. Du. doorgrondig )
complex adj manifold, knotted, snarled -
complexion n hue, look, blee, ilk, kind, suchness, way, outlook skin-look, skin-hue
compliant adj toward, abiding followsome
complicate vb/adj - maze, intangle, manifold
complicated adj knotty, tangled manifold (<OE)
compliment n/vb - n: sweaseness (<OE geswæsnys)

vb: swease (<OE swæs)

n/vb : lofe (<OE lof, cf. NHG Lob)

complimentary adj - sweasely (<OE swæs + -lic)


compline n - nightsong (<OE nihtsang, akin to "Evensong")
composer n - swinsmith, leethwriter
composition n layout swincraft
compound n cocktail, meld, mix word: forbinding (cf. NHG Verbindung)
comprehensive adj

all-in, thorough; whole; all-out

adv: fully, inside-out, throough and through

begriping (calque)

invatting (OE fæt 'vessel'; calque)

comprise vb make up inhold, invat (cf. Du. omvatten)
compromise vb/n tradeoff, deal, vb: meet halfway -
compunction n qualm, misgiving -
computation n reckoning -
compute(r) n/vb - reckon(er), bitgrinder, bytegrinder, Dencreþ(en)
programming: reckoner fore drafting, Denwidspræc
computer science: reckoncraft, reckonerlore, Dencraþen
comrade n fellow

gade (<OE gada) pl: gaden (<OE gadan), sithe (<OE ġe​sīð)

faithful: trewpoft (<OE trēowġepofta)

concatenat therbinding
conceal vb hide, shroud mithe
concealment n hiding; hideaway, lair, nest dern, hidlock
conceivable adj thoughtworthy -
conceive vb dream; make out, twig

knit, forseed

ken (<OE cennan)

concentrate vb meet, cluster, gather; fasten; lump; build up, strengthen -
concentrated adj crammed -
concentration camp n - shandstead
concentric adj - middlesharing
concern n care, worry, reck -
concerning prep as for, as far as, on, toward -
concept n mind's eye begripe (<ME begripen <OE begrīpan

cf. Du begrip, NHG Begriff )

conception n mind's eye, thought bild; of child: beseeding


vb end, wind up, wrap up; break up, leeave off, let up, wind up, wink out; name, settle upon; gather, make out -


n ending, finding(s) endsay
concrete adj set, settled, full-standing, gainstandly (NHG. gegenständlich)
concurrently prep meanwhile, all-the-while, all along -
concussion n shell shock -
condemn vb - fordeem, forordeal (cf. Du. veroordelen)
condescend vb belittle, stoop, talk down, lower -
condition n onlay, fettle ;-) foreworth (cf. Du. voorwaarde)
condom n warding, rubber, scumbag -
condominium n - wholelordship/whole-lordship (cf. NHG Gesamtherrschaft)
conduct vb lead, drive -
cone n - keggle (cf. Du. kegel, NHG Kegel, Dan. kegle)
confectionary n sweets, sweet-shop -
confederacy n - shireship, rickship, Looseband
confederate n henchman igade (<OE gegada)
confer vb bestow, lend, give over -
conference n meeting -
confess vb acknowledge, own up beken (Eng., cf. NHG/Du. bekennen) andet (<ME andetten), det
confession n acknowledging, shrift andetness (<OE andetnes)
confidence n belief, hope -
configuration n setting, set up, of elements layout installing (cf. Du instelling ) 
confine vb lock in, keep, trap, fetter, bind, latch, grasp, abed (by illness), bedrid -
confirm vb strengthen, starken, acknowledge Besteady (NHG bestätigen)
confirmation n strengthening, starkening Besteadying (NHG bestätigung)
confiscate vb filch beslay (cf. beslag )  
conflagration n fire -
confluence n - rithmeet
conform vb dovetail; blend, groove; key evenlike (<OE efenlician)
conformism n - evenlyingsbelead
conformity n - evenlying
confound vb befuddle, bewilder, addle -
confront vb take on, come at, be up against -
confuse vb befuddel, mistake, ravel, bewilder, muddel, mangel, addel ablend, forwrixle (cf. NHG verwechseln)
confusing adj manifold, bewildering, muddlesome, misleading -
confusion n muddling, mishmash ablending
congregate v forgather -
congress n gathering, moot, lawmaker body gathercoming
conics - kegglehood, kegglelore
conjugate vb bend forbow (cf. Du. verbuigen, NHG. verbeugen)
conjunction n linking word linkword, bindword, yokeword
connect vb link, fit, tie-in, bind -
conquer vb do down, overcome, upend, worst aover (calque of many germanic languages)
conquest n overwin -
consanguinity n kinship -
conscience n - thewing, inwit
conscious adj aware, mindful, heedful, waken


consciousness n awareness, mindfulness, heedfulness, wake inwit
conscript vb draft, call-up -
consecrate vb bless, hallow, bename -
consent n/vb leave

thaving, thwaring

vb: thwarelalk (<OE þwærlælcan) 

consequence n aftermath, backwash, outcome, upshot; wightiness offleading (<Ic. af-leiðing)
consequently adv hence, thereby, thereupon, thus, wherefore forfollowingly (cf. Du. vervolgens)
consider vb

heed, bethink, think about, reckon, set down

hie, hedge (<OE hycgan 'bear in mind, confide, trust'; compare lie < OE licgan, buy < OE bycgan)

awene (<OE awenan)

behawe (<OE behawian 'to see clearly, take care')

rase (<OE ræswan 'to think suppose suspect consider conjecture')

smigh (<OE smēagan 'consider think about mediate examine scrutinize')

yondthink (<OE geondþencan 'to reflect upon')

hiler (< OE aheolorian 'weigh, balance'
Latin equivalent: librare, trutinare)

beshow (cf. Du. beschouwen) 

umthink (<OE ymbþencan)

consideration n thought -
consist of vb be made up of bestand of (cf. NHG bestehen aus)
consistency n withspeakfreedom (NHG. widerspruchsfreiheit)
consistent adj - weenly (<OE wénlic)

withspeakless (NHG. widerspruchslos)

console vb frover, soothe, allay sorrow, share grief, give strength and hope befreefern
consolation n - froverness, freefernes (<OE fréfernes), froofor  (<OE frōfor)
consonant n/adj - withlide, midlide (<NHG Mitlaut), midclinker (Du. medeklinker), samedswaying, sameswaying (<Ælfric's OE samodswegend)
conspicuous adj - forthsighly (<OE forþgesýne)


conspire vb plot -
constant adj ongoing, abiding, steadfast, steady, onwherft, simble (<OE simbel)


bestandy/bestanding (NHG. beständig)

constipated adj - bellybound
constitution n clay, self; build, frame, shape; law forfastening (cf. NHG Verfassung), writlaw
constraint n - thwing (<OE geþwing)
constrict vb tighten intighten


consulation n - bereding (cf. NHG Beratung)
consult v check out
consume vb eat (up), drain, spend, intake forbrook (calque), fordaower (cf. Du. verteren, Sw. fortära)
consumerism n - fordowering
consummate adj crack, good, great, skilled; blooming, straight-out; utmost -
consumption n intaking fordowering
contact vb get, reach fay
contain vb hold, inhold, have in itself -
contaminate vb befoul smittel
contemplate vb - yondthink (<OE geondþencan)
contemplation n thought yondthinking (<OE geondþencan + -ing)
contemporary adj today's tidely, fellow-timed, like-timed
contempt n loathing, hatred -
contemptuous adj - shanding
contend n set to -
contend (argue) vb flite, hold -
content n/vb vb: gladden

inning (<OE innung), inhold (calque from NHG 'Inhalt')

of one's character: inwit of one's moodstathel

content adj pleased, happy, gladdened fained, list
contention n wrangling -
contest n match witherwin (<OE wiðerwinn)
context n light, framework, ins and outs, layout,

basis: underlay

umrealm, underlyings
contiguous adj abutting -
continent n mainland worlddeal (<OE worulddǣl), greatland, landstretch, fastland
continue vb go on, abide, keep on, keep at, wendg, ongo

forthgo (NHG fortgehen)

forthset (cf. Du. voortzetten) , throughgo (cf. Du. doorgaan), singal (<OE ġesingalian)

continuous adj unbroken, ongoing

forthgoing/ forthset

simbel (<OE)

contort vb writhe -
contract n bond, deal, settlement handfast, writdeal
contradict vb gainsay, withsay, withspeak 

witherspeak (cf. NHG widersprechen), andwitness (cf. Ic. and-vitni), witherqued, anspeak (<OE ġēansprecan)

contradiction n gainsaying

withspeech (NHG. Widerspruch)

witherquedding (<OE wiðercwedung),


contrary adv against witherward (<OE wiðerweard), witherto, withershins
contrast vb/n shedspan

v. differ: undershed (calque of many Ger. Speeches)

controversy n - gainwending (lone translation from latin)
contribute vb pitch in bypull, bydraw/drag (cf. Du bijdragen ) 
contribution n input, giving
contrition n sorrow, guilt, ruth -
control n hands; oversight, running, stewardship; arm, grip, hold, sway, steering bridling
control vb bridle, hold, steer, keep, tame; steward sway
conundrum n riddle -
conurbation n - towncluster
convergence n meeting -
conversation n talk, mailing underholding (cf. NHG Unterhaltung)
converse vb speak, talk -


on the other hand, otherwise -
convert vb wend, make over turn over: bewharve (<OE behwierfan, behweorfan),

turn around: bewend (<OE bewendan), forwandle

convey vb give, spread; bear, ferry; deed, make over inway
convict n lag haftling (<OE hæftling, cf. NHG Häftling)


convince vb wheedle, talk round, talk into overtalk (<OE oferreccan, cf. NHG. überreden)
convoy n - wain row
coöperate vb work together

evenwork (<OE efenweorcan)

getherwork (<Fr gearwurkje)

cop vb nab -
cop n hound, pig (slang, slightly vulgar) frith wike (peace officer)
cope vb deal -
copious adj beteeming -
copper n - arr (<OE ar "brass, copper, bronze")
copse n thicket, shaw -
copy vb 1. twin
2. ape 
1. eftyield; andwrite
2. evenledge (<OE efenlæcan)
copy & paste vb - twin & tack
coral n/adj - limeshaft; yellowpink
cord n line, rope, string, wire tew, rib-cloth
cord vb fasten -
cordial adj friendly, hearty, warm -
cords n - manstows
corduroy n ribbed cloth rib-cloth, manstow (manchester)
core n kernel, heart, yolk, innermost being -
cormorant n sea raven coal-goose
cornea n - hornweb
corner n nook, winkle, hirn, edge -
coronation n - kinehelming (<OE cynehelmung)
corpor(e)al adj bodily bodisome
corporation n - businessbody (BB)
corpse n

body, dead body

lich, nee (<OE nēo)
corpus n body lichem (<OE lichama, cf. Du. lichaam, NHG. Leichnam)   
Corpus Christi n - Wistforwandering Day
correct adv/adj right, aright, befitting -
correct vb right, righten, (acad) mark berighten (NHG. berichtigen)
correction n righting

punishment: threal (<OE þrēal) 

berightening (NHG. berichtigung)

correction fluid n white out -
corridor n hallway -
corroborate vb bear out -
corrode vb gnaw forrot (<OE forrotian), begnaw (<OE begnagan)
corrugated adj - wrizzled
corrupt adj/vb crooked, bent, rot forrot
corslet n byrnie -
corvée-work n - workreden (<OE weorcræden) pl: workredenne (<OE weorcrædenna)
cosmetics n/vb fard
cosmolabe n - tunglehight measurer
cosmopolitan n - worldsman
cosmopolitan adj worldly -
cost n outlay, worth -
costly adj dear -
Costa Rica n - Rich Shore
costume n outfit, get-up, fake dress derning mask
Côte d'Ivoire n - Windward Shore
cottage n cote sheel
cottager n - cotsettle (<OE cotsetla)
cotton n - seedwool
council n gathering, huddle; board, brotherhood, fellowship redemoot, redebody
counsel n/vb lead, shepherd rede

law-ern legal-eagle

counsel(l)or n alder(wo)man

rede(wo)man,  redegiver, theägher (<OE þeahere/ġeþeahere)

count vb tell, reckon arime
count n earl -
countenance n cast -
counter- prefix with-

, gain-, wither-

counterbalance n offset -
counter-clockwise adj withershins withersunwise
counterculture n - witherkithship
counterfeit goods n - openware
counterpart n match witherdeal

evenbeeld (cf. NHG Ebenbild)

beeld (<Scots, Du.)

equivalent: gainsteck/ gainshtick (cf. NHG gegenstück)

countersign n gaintoken/ gaintokening

(cf. NHG. gegenziechnung)

countersign v gaintoken (cf. NHG gegenziechnen)
counterstroke n - witherclap
country n land, weald, upland (rural, as in countryside), kith, fatherland, homeland, motherland native: ethel (<OE æþel), folkland, erd (<ME)
county n shire, ethel, earldom, wapentake, erd reveship
county council n - shiremoot
coup vb strike -
coup de grâce n topper lithing, miltstroke
coupling, train/carriage n thill -
coupon n - deemslip
courage n mettle, boldness, fearlessness, heart, heartiness, daring, mood beld/bield (<OE bieldu)
courageous adj bold, daring, doughty, fearless, full-hearted, unfrightened, stouthearted moody (cf. NHG mutig)
course n line, pathway -
course (academic) n - learnset



hove (<OE hof)

vb: splunt (<Scots)

courteous adj fairspoken hovely
courtyard n - hallyard, burgyard (<OE burggeard)
cousin n kins(wo)man nearkin, farsibb
covenant n oath, deal, bond, binding -
cover n holster, sheath heling, helm




cover vb thatch/thack, overlay, hide, deck, overspread hele (Eng. dialectal), helm
covered area n deck, roofed deck heling (ME hillet), helm (<OE helmian)
covering n skin, feathers, hackles

heling, overwrigels (<OE oferwrigels)

cover with vb lay on -
covert adj hidden, shrouded, stealthy, under wraps, heled
cover-up n whitewash, hush-work shroudening
covet vb crave, want, hunger after, thirst after, cast greedy eyes upon -
covetous adj greedy, graspy, grabby, hoggish, wanting -
coward n wimp, woos, fearer arg, flytail

feyling (cf. NHG Feigling)

cowardly adj gutless, thewless, woosy, fearful fey/fay (<OE fæge, cf. NHG feige)
co-worker n by-worker, fellow worker, workmate -
cranium n skull head-bowl (OE heafod - bolla)
cravat n necktie, neckcloth -
crayon n - waxlimestone
cream n salve, ream, milk's head -
crease n/vb wrinkle, rumple, rimple, runkle -
create vb build, craft, make, start, shape, put together ashapen
creation n brainchild, wrinke; world, rise shaping, fromship
creative adj - shaperly / makerly (calque from german schöpferisch), thoughtrich
creature n head, thing, wight nicker (<OE nicor), making
credence n belief -
credibility n - liefworthiness, beliefworthiness, beliefworthihood (cf. NHG glaubtwürdigkeit)
credible adj - liefworthy, beliefworthy (cf. NHG glaubtwürdig)
credit n hail, acknowledgement -
creed n belief -
cremate vb bale -
creme de la creme n bee's knees, dog's bollocks, best of the best, fat of the land, best -
crepuscular adj twilighty twilightly
crepuscule n twilight, darkfall, dusk, nightfall, gloaming, evenfall, eventide, sundown downset
crescent n moonsickle -
crest n ridge, noon, top; high-water mark ris, comb
cretaceous adj - limestonish, limestony
cretin n blighter; nit -
crevasse n cleft -
crevice n cleft, gap, hole -
crime n lawbreaking; shame, sin; wrongdoing, misdeed

skyld/shild (<OE scyld), gylt (<OE ġylt)

criminal n crook, outlaw, lawbreaker

sinner: gyltend (<OE ġyltend) pl:  gyltendas  (<OE ġyltendas)

crimson n - deepred
crisis n - needtime
criterion n yardstick; hallmark, need deemrimmer
critical adj weighty, key, scathing -
criticise vb

slag, knock, brand, upbraid 

criticism n - undersaying, potshot, flak
crocodile n - pebbleworm (calque), nix (cf. OHG nihhus), knucker, crushbite athex
croissant n - moonbread
cross n -


 Cross, the: Siegebeam (<OE sigebēam, a 'tree 'on which 'victory is 'gained)

cross vb - thwarse, stride over
crown n kine-helm

top of 'the  'head: overhalfhead (<OE ​oferhealfhēafod)

crown vb - wreathe
crucifix n - rood
crucify vb - roodfasten
crude adj rough, raw -
cruel adj harsh, mean, ruthless, cold, unfeeling reethe (<OE réðe), slithen (<OE slīþene)
cruelty n meanness, harshness, ruthlessness moanbale (<OE mānbealu), slithenness
crusade n drive, push roodfirding
cry n roop, yell, shout, whine, wail, moan lide, liding (<OE ge-hlȳd; cf. NHG Lied)
cry vb weep, shout, wail, yell, howl, sob, roup, cleep, wail kye / kie (<OE cigan)
cryogenic adj - coldly
cryotherapy n - coldbehandling
crypt n - thesterlock, thestercove, lich-keep
cryptocurrency n - scoregeld, bitgeld
crystal n - icestone

cristle (<OE cristal; Latin crystallum influenced spelling both with the "y" and with the persistence of the "al" ending) hardice

cub n - whelp
cube n - worfle (cf. NHG Würfel)
cuckoo n - gowk, cuckoo
cucumber n - greenpod, earthapple (<OE eorþæppel)
cull vb choose, pick, pick out, pitch on, pitch upon. sift, winnow, gather, pluck, pickup -
cull n pickings, siftings -
cul de sac n dead end -
culminate vb - nib
cultivate vb till, harvest, work,  -
culture n couth, folklore, way of life menning (cf. Ic. menning), kithship
culvert n - leat, ditch
cure vb heal -
curiosity n witfire -
curious adj newyearny, newgreedy (cf. NHG neugierig)
curious vb funny frimdy (<OE frymdig)
curlew n whaup -
current adj today's, now's, nowadays', running, nowen -
current n run, drift, leaning, tide, wind, now -
currently adv as of yet, now, nowenly
curriculum n - learnplot
curriculum vitae n - smithsyore
cursive adj handwritten flow-staved
cursor n runner -
curtail vb cut back, foreshorten, clip,  -
curtain n - hanger, hangcloth
curve n bow, bend, wind,  -
custody n hold, hands warding
custom adj bespoken thew, folkway
custom n wone, wont, business, trade side, toln (<OE)
customary adj - wonely
cutaneous adj skin, hide hideish, hidely
cutaneous disease n tetter, scurf, scurvy -
cute adj pretty, sweet, lief goldy (cf. NHG goldig)

needly (cf. NHG niedlich), sooth

cutlass n backsword -
cutlery n flatware, silverware -
cyclist n - wheeler
cyclone n - whirlwind


n swanling -
cylinder n - rollshape
cynical adj sneering
cynosure n - hoardvat (<OE hordfæt)
czar n king -

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