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Staff C of the English Wordbook.

Basic abbreviations:

  • OE = Old English
  • ME = Middle English
  • PG = Or-theedish
  • SW = Swedish
  • Dan. = Danish
  • ON = Old Norse
  • NHG = New Hightheech
  • IC = Icelandish
  • H.IC = High Icelandish
  • Du. = Netherlandish
  • Fris. = Freesish

For a full list of etymological and other abbreviations used in these wordlists, see: Offshortenings.


A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


Chancery English Class Anglish/English
Attested Unattested
cabaret n club, nightspot,
roadhouse, nightclub
-
cabbage n kole -
cabinet n hutch, sideboard, locker mugboard, hoarding
office: ambight, redeship
cable n wire, rope, lead ropewire
caboose n - ward wagon, aftwagon
cacao n - brownbean
cache n hoard putstow, bike
cacophony n rattle, roar, din
cactus n - fatthistle
cadaver n shell, framework,
slang:  stiff,
body,dead body
boneshaft
cadaverous adj deathly, wan, bloodless,
ashen, hollow-eyed
-
cadet n forefighter
cadmium n Wodan
cæcum n blinde gut blindtharm, blindgut
Cæsar n overlord,
high-king, kaiser
-
cæsium n - silverwhite,
lightbrick mote
café n tearoom
(<note: Non-English),
roadhouse; taproom,
watering hole
-
cafeteria n lunchroom, lunch house,
luncheonhouse,
food hall,
eating hall
-
cajole vb soft-soap,
sweet-talk, wheedle
calamari n cuttlefish
calcaneüs n heelbone
calcium n - limemote
(W.Fris. koalsoere kalk)
calcium carbonate n - coalsour lime
calculate vb reckon, work out -
calculation n tale, reckoning -
calculator n - handreckoner, rimereckoner, scorer
calculus n reckoning flowreckoning, riming,
telgrinding
(<OE rim, tal 'number')
calendar n daybook timetale
calisthenics n drills
calligraphy n longhand pretty writing, litwriting
calligraphy pen n - longhandwritingise/-iron
(longhand + OE
wrītungīsen, "style pen"),
wlitwritingise/-iron
(compound of "wlitwriting"
+ OE wrītingīsen)
callous adj hardened, cold-hearted,
flint-hearted, heartless,
soulless, stony,
stony-hearted, steely,
thick-skinned, unfeeling
-
calm adj lown, flack, still roolie (Eng., Du. rolig, Ic. roleg, NHG ruhig), roo
calm vb lull, settle, soothe, still beroolie (cf. NHG. beruhigen)
caluminate vb grime, sully, betell forwray (<OE forwregan)
calque n loanword, borrowing loan oversetting (cf. NHG Lehnübersetzung)
calyx n - bloomleaf
camel n - olvend (<OE olfend),
twohump, drylander
camera n - bildfanger, bildtaker, bilthcraft(er) / bildcraft(er) / beeldcraft(er)
camouflage n dapple, (dappling,
dappleshell, dapplehide,
dappleclad, dappleteld)
dazzle-painting
derning
(<OE diernan,
cf. NHG Tarnung)
camomile n - maylix
camp n leaguer (from Dutch),
lair, haltstead
-
campaign n bandwagon, drive military:
axfare (<OE æxfaru)
fieldtought (<Du.),
bandwain
campaign vb take the stump, barnstorm -
campus n - lorefield, lorerealm,
bittel (<OE gebytlu)
canal n leat, waterway -
cancer n growth
zodiac: Crab
disease:
Mireless Thrimfold ~ MTF
(Unlimited Tissue
Multiplication
),
crabgrowth
candelabrum n - glimtree
candidate n hopeful, runner -
candied adj sweetened -
candy n sweets sweetiness
canine adj doggy, houndlike,
doglike, doggish
-
canine n hound, dog -
cannon n - dunspar
(contr. of dun and spear)
Fallbuss (cf. Ic. Fallbyssa)
cannibal n maneater selfeater
(<OE selfæta)
canoe n dugout -
cantaloupe n - netrindberry,
netshellberry,
netbarkberry
(calque of Finnish verkkomeloni)
canvas n - hempcloth
canyon n gulch -
capacity n room, berth, strength,
gift, readiness
heldth
cape n sleeveless coat
geography: foreland,
headland, ness
mantle (cf. Du. mantel)
capital n/adj wealth, means, wherewithal;
sterling; foremost

letter (ABC):
greatbookstave
(cf.NHG großbuchstabe)

capital city n - headburg, reevetown,
kinesettle (<OE cynesetl),
headstead
capitalism n - wealthwield, meanswield
capitalist n/adj silk stocking meanswielder, meanswieldly
capitalization n - blockwrit, block writing
capitate bone n - headbone. head wristbone
capricious adj fickle nickfull (<Sw, cf. Du. nikkig) 
capsize vb keel, upset, overwend wemmel
captain n headman, leader shipper (<M Du. scipper
and Eng. skipper), Shiplord
caption n -

underwrit (cf. Du. underschrift,
NHG bildunterschrift)

captivate vb wile witch
captive n/adj penned, locked up n: haftling (<OE haftling)

adj: hafted

captivity n - haftedness (<OE gehæftednes)
capture vb nail, take, kidnap,
steal, swipe, nab
latch
car n slang: wheels, ride,
hot rod, roadster

wain, wagon,
horseless buggy (obsolete),
buggy,
selfbeweigher (calque of automobile)

Farecart

caravan n tradewagon kinwain,
housewain (cf. Sw. husvagn),

kinwagon, housewagon

carbon n chark, soot coalmote, lifemote
carbon dioxide n - wortloft
carburator n - forelofter
carcass n bones, stiff, lich -
card n sheet, board -
cardboard n headboard boardsheet
cardiac arrest n heartstop -
cardinal n bird: redbird

Church official:
godsearl (cf. H Ic. guðsjarl);

Whule (cf. Sw. Hwul)

career n calling, game (inf.),
walk of life
-
caress vb fondle, stroke -
cargo n draft, freight,
haul, loading, weight
fraught (for + aught, cf. Eng freight)
cargo ship n freighter fraughter
caribou n reindeer -
carnal adj fleshly -
carnation n - nailling, nailken (cf. NHG Nelke)

nailbloom

carnivore n meateater, flesheater -
carouse vb birl -
carousel n - merry-wend

merry-go-about (cf. Eng. merry-go-round)

carpal bone n - wristbone
carpenter n woodworker woodsmith, woodcraftsman

treewright (<OE trēowwyrhta)

carpentry n wödkraft, woodcraft,
becraftliness, craftliness,
treewrighting
carpet n - stepcloth, floorcloth, groundcloth
carriage n bearing wain, wagon
carrot n more
(<OE moru, cf. NHG Möhre)
-
carry vb bear, weigh, ferry, take  -
cartilage n grissel crackbone (cf. Du. kraakbeen)
cartilaginous fish n - grisselfish

crackbonefish (cf. Du. kraakbeenvis)

cartouche n - deckwrit
cartridge n bag, load, holder -
case n hull, husk, pod, sheath, shell; box

in case: lest, by fear of, if... should, befall

grammar: fall

in case: fall

case: fall

cashew n - kidneyapple
cashewnut n - kidneynut
casing n shell, brass -
casino n - bethall, bethouse, gaming house
cast away vb - anbewarp (<OE anbeweorpan)
castle n burg, stronghold

innermost keep

stronghouse, fastenwork

(<OE "fæsten" + "weorc",
cf German "Festung"),

chestel (<Latinate OE "ċeastel")

casual adj breezy, blithe,
light-hearted
-
catch vb snare, snarl, snag,
latch, fang, nab
-
catechism n - frodleering (cf. Ic. Trúfræðslurit)
catechize vb grill, sweat slang frain
categorize vb - fade (<OE fadian)
caterpillar n - cawlworm (<OE cawelwyrm)

leafworm(<OE leafwyrm)

mealshave (<OE mælsceafa)

cathedral n headchurch, -
catheter n - leat
cathode n - downway
catholic adj - broadchurch
catkin n - bloomtail
cattle n cows, livestock, kine, nowt, fee, neat rother
Caucasian (race) n white Caucasish, Caucaser
cauldron n kettle -
cauliflower n - bloomcole
cause n bring-about, let-on,
wherefrom
frum (<OE fruma), onlet, orsake (calque from many Germanic languages)
cause vb beget, breed, drive,
make, work, yield
fuse (<ME fusen), fororsake (calque of many Germanic languages)
casue, without adv - hoolings (<OE holunga)
caustic adj burning -
cautery n - tharm tool
caution n wariness, forewit, care, reck, heeding -
cautious adj Chary (< arch.Mod.E)
cavalier n horseman kingfollower (Charles II)
cavalry n horsemen, riders rideware (cf. NHG Reiterei)
cave n - hidles (pl. hidleses), cleave (<OE cleofa), delve
cave(wo)man n - hidles(wo)man, cleave(wo)man
cavil vb carp -
cavity n dint, hollow, pit -
cease vb stop, lay off, halt,
give up, leave off, blin
-
ceasefire n truce weaponsstandstill (cf. Du. wapenstilstand, NHG. Waffenstillstand)
cecograph n - blindwriter
cede vb yield, hand over, give up,

overgive (Eng., NHG. übergeben, Du. overgeven, Dan. overgive)

orgive, oryeve
cedilla n - zedling, zeeling
ceiling n firstroof, highroof, loftroof -
celebrate vb - frealse (<OE freolsian)
celebration n - frealsing
celery n - fenroot
celestial adj heavenly skily (sky + -ly)
celestial bow n rainbow, heaven's bow -
celestial sphere n - rother (<OE rodor)
cell n hole, room frum (cf. Ic. fruma), lifebrock
cell division n - frumcleaving
cellar n - clove (<OE cleofa)
cellulose n - treestand, frumsweet (calque)
cemetery n graveyard, boneyard,
burying-ground.
Obsolete: lich-rest (in OED)
church-litten, still-hill (slang)
censorship n - cleaning
censure vb upbraid -
census n tale marking (cf. OE tomearcodnes), folkscoring
cent n penny, hundredth -
centaur n - horsemennish (cf. Du. paardmens)

manhorse, halfhorse

centimeter n - hundredthmete
centipede n - thousandfoot (cf. Du. duizendpoot; NHG Tausendfüße)
centre/center n/vb n: kernel, heart; middle, midst

vb: fix; spotlight

place for event/function: mid (cf. NHG Mitte)
central adj location: middle, mean, midway, midmost, middle-of-the-road

importance: main, key, leading, ruling

midwise, midly
centurion n - hundfrea (<OE hundfrēa)
century n yearhundred
(<NHG. Jahrhundert)
year-fivescore/ yearfivescore (literally means a year and five twenties), hundredyear, fivescore (five twenties)
cereal n - morningcorn (cf. Ic. morgunkorn)
certain adj wis sicker (Eng., calque Ger. speeches)

specific: bestevened (cf. NHG bestimmt) (see steven)

certainly adv wisly sickerly, soothly, iwis
certainty n - wishood (cf. NHG Gewissheit), soothness
certificate n - beshining (cf. NHG bescheinigung), witnessword, sickering
certify v witness beshine (calque of Ger. speeches)
confirm: besteady (calque of Ger. speeches)
cerulean adj - swail blue
cerumen n earwax -
chain n shackle, fetter -
chair n seat, stool settle
chalice n bowl way(e) (<OE wæge)
chalk n limestone limestonestick
challenge vb knot, dare, becall, beclepe
challenge oneself (with, by, to): undertake (something, to do something)
beclepe (<'OE beclipian - to challenge), upcall, upstart, uprise (cf. Du. uitdagen), outask (cf. NHG herausfordern), upfight (cf. NHG anfechten)
challenge n knot, dare, threat
challenge oneself, undertake: undertaking
becalling, becleping (<OE beclipian - to challenge), upcall, upstarting, uprising (cf. Du. uitdagen), outasking (cf. NHG herausforderung), upfight (cf. NHG anfechtung)
chamber n room, bay (enclosed space) -
chameleon/chamaeleon n - fayingask (<OE fágian 'to change in color, vary, be variegated')

wristlehueask

chance n luck, opening by chance: faringly (<OE færinga)
change vb/n shift, switch, makeover
dough (cash), warp
frother (for- + other; cf. Fr. feroaring, Du. veranderen, NHG. verändern)

wend, char, wristle (<OE wrixlian)

channel n fairway, race, ford sound (<OE sund 'long narrow inlet)
chaos n mess dwolm (<OW dwolma)
Charlemagne n Carl/Charles the Great -
character n clay, selfhood, self, shtick in a story: hoad (<OE hād)
feature: folklihood (cf. Du. persoonlijkheid)
moral strength: wilstrength (will + strength) (cf. Du. viljestyrke)
symbol: token (cf. NHG Zeichen, Dn. tegn)
chard n Fow-leaf, fow-stalk, Fow-stem (Fow < OE meaning coloured)
charge n/vb fill, load, outlay; lading Uplast, Onlast

military: angriff, forthlout (<OE to fall forth), onrush, hildrass/rush/rash (<OE), wite, onwite, astal/astale (<OE astlaen - to lay at one's charge, to blame) (legal charges)

charged adj owing, laden (electric) -
charitable adj kind, freehanded, freehearted, unselfish,
unsparing, unstinting
kisty (<OE cystig)
charity n help, gift, hand-out,
goodness, goodwill,
fellow feeling; alms,
dole; ruth; brotherhood
kistiness
charlatan n swindler -
charm n spell, dangle libsen (<OE lybesn)
charming adj friendly, lovely, winsome, comely -
charter n - rightsledging; booking (from OE book -- "assignment of land by charter")
chase vb hotfoot, put to flight, Wathe/Wothe (<OE Wáth) Adrive (<OE) -
chastise vb chew out, chide, flay,
hammer, jaw, keelhaul,
ream out, tongue-lash, upbraid
threap
cheat n/vb

shark, bilk, do in,
nobble, rip off,
rig, swindle;
shark, dodger,
swindler, lirt,
belirt, threap

-
check vb - oversoothe (cf. NHG überprüfen)
checkers (game) n draughts -
cheer n glee, merriness, mirthfulness -
cheer vb gladden, root, hearten,
perk up, blithen
bemirth
chef d'oeuvre n masterwork reevework

mastersteck (cf. Du. meesterstuk)

chemistry n - blendlore, splitlore (cf. Du scheikunde)
cherish vb hold dear, cleave to,
care for, love,
look after, shelter; harbor
cherry n - chirsh (<OE ciris; cf. Du. kers; NHG Kirsche)
chestplate (armour, see tunic) n chesthelm, breasthelm -
chief n ringleader -
chieftain n - heretough (<OE heretoha)

headling (cf. NHG Häuptling)

chikungunya n - upbend driff
chili n - hotcride
chimpanzee n - mockman (calque of a Bantu language ci-mpenzi)
China n - Midric (cf. H. Ic. Miðríki)
Chinese Characters n - midricrunes/-rouns ( calque), midricwrit (calque)
chivalrous n big, greathearted,
high-minded, lofty, lordly
hovely
chivalry n knightliness lordlihood, kindhood, riderliness (for sake of "knight" meaning servant, NHG "Ritter")
chlorine n - yellowgreenmote
chlorophyll n leafgreen -
chocolate adj/n - muckeats/muckfood (cf. H. Ic. mógæti)
chocolate milk n - muckeatsmilk, muckmilk
choice n choosing, picking, wale kire (cf. ME kire)
cholesterol n - gallvat
chrestomathy n - nuttlecouthness (calque of Gk. compound, nuttle <OE nyttol 'useful' for 'chresto-' + couthness <OE cuþnes 'knowledge' for '-mathy')
Christian n - Cristish, Cristly

n: Crister

Christianity n - Cristendom
Christmas n Yule -
chromosome n - lifepith, huebody (calque of original Greek)
chromatid n - lifepithhalf
chronicle n ledger, tale, saga saw
chronology n timeline timeflow
chrysanthemum n - goldbloom
church (early Greek borrowing into PG) n - holihouse
cider n apple wine -
cigar n smoke smokelog, smokewrap, windle (calque of Icelandic vindill)
cigarette n smoke, fag, butt, stompie windling
cinema n - bilths, filmhouse
cinquefoil n - fiffinger
cipher n - homewrit (cf. Dutch geheimschrift)
circa prep about, umb/umbe (Eng., <OE ymbe cf,. NHG um)
circle n ring, loop, wreath,
trindle, trundle
trind
circuit n ringway -
circulate vb flow; broadcast umflow
circulation n flow umfaring, forfaring

umflow,

Imb-running, Imb-runth, Imb-runnle, Imbfaring, Embering, Emberledge

circulatory system n bloodstream -
circum-/ circul- pfx - um-/umb-
circumcise vb cut, unhood, unforeskin rend, umcut, umsnithe (<OE ymbsniðan), besnithe (cf. NHG beschneiden)
circumference n rim, outring rimlength, rimreach, rimspan,

umgang (Eng.)

circumflex n - stavehat
circumnavigate vb - umship (cf. NHG umschiffen)
circumspect adj careful, watchful -
circumstance n doom, hap, luck umstand (<OE ymbstandenness, cf. NHG. umstand)

umstalling

circumvent vb shortcut, sidestep;
girdle, ring
umwork
circus n big top -
cirrocumulus n - curlcloud
citizen n townsman, burgher boroughman, burrow/oughlede (<OE burglēod), ethelman
citizenship n - boroughership (Eng., cf. NHG bürgerschaft, Du. burgerschap), ethelmanship
citroen n sourapple -
city n stead, borough, burgh, town -
civet cat n - slipcat
civil adj folk -
civil law n - folklaw
civilian n - meanfolk, hovelman
civility n - hoveliness
clade n - bough (branch)
cladogram n - boughbilth, boughwrit
clairvoyance n - throughsight
claim n call, dibs, right; share, stake forehold
clamor n din greeding
clan n body, crowd, network,
ring, set, blood, folks, house, kindred, line, set
-
clarify vb shed light on swuttle (<ME swutel, <OE sweotol), sweetle
classic adj token mean; highflack (flack <Du. vlak 'level')
classical adj - tokenly

music: everswin

classification n tagging, branding fading (<OE fadung)
classify vb tag, brand fade (<OE fadian)
claustrophobia n - narrowfear, tightnessfear
clavicle n - keybone (cf. NHG Schlüsselbein)
clear adj/vb adj: sharp; lily-white

n: sharpen

sheer, swuttle (<OE sweotol, M. Eng. swutel)

rithe/ruthe (<OE geryddan; cf. NHG roden; Ic. ryðja)

clearing n - rithing/ruthing (<OE geryddan)
clergy n church, cloth -
clergyman n churchman, father,
shepherd, man of the cloth
-
cliché n/adj hackneyed, moth-eaten; n: groaner -
climate n - loftlay (cf. Ic. loftslag)

Ethemihong/Ethemihung, Lifthelmihung/Lofthelmihung/Lofthelmahung

Welkinihang,Welkintrend, Welkinwist, Welkinlean, Welkinset, Welkinsettle

Leanset,Leansettle, Leanship,Leanward, Leanwist

Atlean

Leantrend, Leanlay [politics, etc.]

cloaca n cloäke aldrain (all + drain)
alclosethew (all + closethew (sphincter))
clock n timer daymale, stounder, logger, daymeal
clockwise adj sunwise -
clone n/vb twin -
close vb shut, narrow -
close adj near, narrow, nearby -
co- pref fellow, by-, i- -
coagulate vb clot arun (cf. NHG gerinnen)
coalition n - block (see Italian "blocco")
coast n shore, seashore, seaboard, strand; sail, drift searim, warth
coastline n shoreline, -
coat of arms n - kinshield, wappen
cocaine n slangs: blow, snow, white, white lady, slim, snuff, girl -
coccyx n tailbone -
cockroach n - shave (cf. NHG Schrabe)
cocoa (bean) n - mucknut, muckbean, muckseed

bitternut, bitterbean, bitterseed

cocoa (drink) n - muckbrew

bitterbrew

coconut n - skulnut (skull + nut; coco comes fromSpan./Port. for skull)
code n - hidden writing
coeval n/adj - evenold
coffee n brew beanbrew
coffer n - hoardvat (<OE hordfæt)
coffin n - through (<ME þruh, <OE) (rhymes with wow)

deadchest (cf. Du. doodkist)

cognate n - kinword
cognizant adj aware rathe
cohabit vb live together bylive
coin n - mint (<OE mynet, cf. NHG Münze)
coincide vb inbefall, atbefall, atfall
coincidence n happen-so (in OED, US regional colloq.) likehappening, tofall (calque of all Ger. speeches)
coitus n - swiving, heamedlock (<OE hæmedlac), bysleep (<NHG Beischlaf)
cojones n balls, guts -
colic n - bellyharm
collapse n/vb downfall, infall, swooning vb: cleave in
colleague vb workmate, fellow worker -
collect vb gather sam (<OE samnian)
collection n gathering, thingstock samming (cf. NHG Sammlung)
colonize vb settle, take over,
spread through(out)
-
colony n - settling
colo(u)r n hue, cast, blee,
light wavelength,fard
farb (<OE færbu, cf. NHG Farbe), huecast
colo(u)r vb hue, dye, shade, blee farb
column n upright sile
combat n fight, hild gouth
combination n binding, tying, knotting,
fastening, gathering
forbinding (cf. NHG Verbindung)
combine vb bind, tie, knot, fasten, gather  gatherbind, withbind,

forbind (cf. NHG verbinden)

combustible n/adj adj: fiery
n: tinder
adj: fireworthy (may also mean non-combustible)

n: tinderkin (<OE tyndercyn)

comedian n funnyman funspeller, lustspeller, laughtersmith
comedy n - funplay, lustplay (cf. NHG Lustspiel)
comet n shooting star strealer

Faxed-star: resemblance to hair flowing in the breeze; tailstar

comfort n liss, frover weem (<OE weman), soothfulness
comfort vb brighten, shed/cast light on, lighten up, light up frofrenn (<OE frêfran)

frofer/frother (<ME frofer; <OE frōfor)

comfortable adj soft, lithe, snug  queem (<Scots, cf. NHG bequem)

frover -ly/-some

comestible adj eating eatworthy
comic n strip, stripbook -
comic adj funny -
command n behest, bidding

military: headship

command vb bid, lead, behest; spearhead sway, yebe
commander n head campelder (<OE campealdor)

bebeedend (<OE bebēodend)

herreaswer (<OE heraræswa)

hildwiser (<OE hildewīsa)

hertow (<OE heratoga)

commandment n behest; (Torah) teachings bodeword, mustsaying
commemorate vb umbethink -
commemoration n umbethinking bethoughtening
commence vb begin, start -
commensurate adj fitting -
comment n - bemark
commentary n input, feedback upmarking (cf. Du opmerking)
commenting n - bemarking
commerce n business, trade; dealings chapstow
commercial n businesswise tradewise
commit vb do, betake, plight theen (<OE ġeþēon)
common adj household: cut-and-fry, workaday; broad-brush, overall; shared; middling; lowbrow; everyday, wonted, widespread

peasants: churlish

mean (<OE gemæne, NHG. Gemein), wonesome (<OE wune 'custom')
commonly adv meanly, often -
commonwealth n - meanwealth
commotion n - stirness (<OE styrenes)
communicate v spread, brainstorm, bespeak, tell, make known, oversend, share, utter, say, word, give outthrutch, outthrust, outsend, outspeak (cf. Du. uitdrukken, NHG ausdrücken), betwixtsend, crosstalk
communicative adj chatty speakle (<OE sprecol), speakly
communion n fellowship
communism n - fellowdom, folkwield
communist adj red fellowdomish, fellowdommer

folkwieldly, folkwielder

community n fellowship meanship (cf. NHG Gemeinschaft), borough-weren
compact adj hard, stiff, unyielding;
crowded, packed, thick,
tight; thumbnail (expression)
withfasted, withfied
companion n fellow, mate, mone samedsithe (<OE samodġesīð),

eveninglutter (<OE æfenhlytta)

feer (<OE ġefēre)

company n business, outfit;
brotherhood, fellowship
comparative n - overlikening (e.g. bodylore 'anatomy')
compare vb liken, stack up aliken (<OE anlician), withmete, withput, withlay
comparable adj alike akind, samekind
compassion n feeling; kindness,
ruth; goodwill
milts (<OE)
compassionate adj kind, feeling, ruthful -
compatible adj kindred samehaft (cf. Ic. samhæft)
compatriot n kinsman landsman (<OE landesmann)

fellow-land(wo)man

compel vb fordrive thring, bede (<OE ġebædan)
compensation n meed forgooding (cf. Du. vergoeding), frover  (<OE frōfor)
competent adj fit, good; fair, right -
compete v - wedbewharve (grounded on NHG. wettbewerb stehen)
competition n - wedbewharve (<NHG wettbewerb)

more new: wedbestriding (the wedding of bestriding) see bestride

compile vb put together -
complain vb whine, bitch, caterwaul,
moan, gripe, whinge
-
complete adj full, whole; done,
over, through, up; in depth,
thorough; all-ou-, downright,
flat-out, sheer,
stark, stone, straight-out,
thorough, utter;
out-and-out; skillful,
full-standing,
thoroughgoing
-
complete vb fulfill, end, overcome full-do, full-end
completely adv outright, fully,
utterly, thoroughly,
through and through,
inside-out, to the hilt,
altogether, deeply. soundly,
throughgroundy (cf. Du. doorgrondig )
complex adj manifold, knotted, snarled -
complexion n hue, look, blee, ilk, kind,
suchness, way, outlook
skin-look, skin-hue
compliant adj toward, abiding followsome
complicate

vb/adj

- maze, intangle, manifold
complicated adj knotty, tangled manifold (<OE)
compliment n/vb - n: sweaseness (<OE geswæsnys)

vb: swease (<OE swæs)

n/vb: love (<OE lof, cf. NHG Lob) (rhymes with stove)

complimentary adj - sweasely (<OE swæs + -lic)

loving (rhymes with roving)

compline n - nightsong (<OE nihtsang, akin to "Evensong")
component n - underdeal (cf. Du. onderdeel)

makebit, inbit, gatherbit, wholebit

compose vb make, put together glinge, (<OE - to adorn, set in order, compose), adight (<OE), asing (<OE), awrite (<OE), samen (<OE), fay (<OE), withput
composer n - swinsmith, leethwriter
composition n layout

Isetness (<OE)

swincraft
compound n cocktail, meld, mix forbinding (cf. NHG Verbindung)
comprehensive adj all-in, thorough, whole; all-out
adv: fully, inside-out, through and through
begriping (calque), invatting (<OE fæt 'vessel'; calque)
comprise vb make up inhold, invat (cf. Du. omvatten)
compromise vb/n tradeoff, deal

vb: meet halfway

-
compunction n qualm, misgiving -
computation n reckoning -
compute(r) n/vb - reckoner

Uprimer, Upthinker, Upreckoner

Sunderreckoner, Sunderrimer

Alderrime, Alderrimer, Alderreckoner, Alderthinker

Endbeirdling, Endberder, Endberdend, Enberdend [calque, based on French and Spanish Ordenador]

comrade n fellow gade (<OE gada)

sithe (<OE ġe​sīð)

faithful: trewpoft (<OE trēowġepofta)

concatenat - therbinding
conceal vb hide, shroud mithe
concealment n hiding; hideaway,
lair, nest
dern, hidlock
conceivable adj thoughtworthy -
conceive vb dream; make out, twig knit, forseed

ken (<OE cennan)

concentrate vb meet, cluster, gather; fasten; lump; build up, strengthen Bemiddlen, ibemiddlen
concentrated adj crammed, clustered, gathered, lumped together, built up -
concentration camp n - shandstead
concentric adj - middlesharing
concern n care, worry, reck -
concerning prep as for, as far as,
on, toward, anent
-
concept n mind's eye begripe (<ME begripen <OE begrīpan

cf. Du begrip, NHG Begriff )

conception n mind's eye, thought bilth; of child: beseeding

conclude

vb end, wind up, wrap up; break up, leave off, let up, wind up, wink out; name, settle upon; gather, make out -

conclusion

n ending, finding(s) endsay
concrete n beton gainstandly (NHG. gegenständlich)
concurrently prep meanwhile, all-the-while,
all along
-
concussion n shell shock -
condemn vb - fordeem, forordeal (cf. Du. veroordelen)
condemned, the n - beforeordealt (from forordeal, via Du. veroordeel)
condemner, the n - forordealer (from forordeal, via Du. veroordeel)
condescend vb belittle, stoop,
talk down, lower
-
condition n onlay, fettle

Iting (<OE), Readen, Burdness (<OE), Cost (<OE), Areadness (<OE araednis)

foreworth (cf. Du. voorwaarde)
condom n warding, rubber, scumbag -
condominium n housetown political entity: wholelordship/whole-lordship (cf. NHG Gesamtherrschaft)
conduct vb lead, drive

Beload (<OE)

Iload (<OE)

-
cone n - keggle (cf. Du. kegel, NHG Kegel, Dan. kegle)
confectionary n sweets, sweet-shop -
confederacy n - shireship, rickship, loosebind
confederate adj\n henchman agade (<OE gegada)
confederation n - shireship, rickship, loosebind
confer vb bestow, lend, give over
conference n meeting instelling (W. Fris. ynstelling, Du. instelling, Eng. in + Eng. stell + -ing)
confess vb acknowledge, own up shrive

beken (Eng., cf. NHG/Du. bekennen) andet (<ME andetten), det

confession n acknowledging, shrift andetness (<OE andetnes)
confidence n belief, hope -
configuration n setting, set up

of elements layout

installing (cf. Du instelling )
confine vb lock in, keep, trap, fetter,
bind, latch, grasp,
abed (by illness), bedrid
confirm vb strengthen,
starken, acknowledge
besteady (cf. NHG bestätigen)
confirmation n strengthening, starkening besteadying (cf. NHG bestätigung)
confiscate vb filch beslay (cf. Du. beslag)
conflagration n fire -
conflict vb/n fight -
confluence n - eameet
conform vb dovetail; blend
groove; key
evenlike (<OE efenlician)
conformism n - evenlyinghood
conformity n - evenlying
confound vb befuddle, bewilder, addle -
confront vb take on, come at, be up against -
confuse vb befuddel, mistake, ravel, bewilder, muddel, mangel, addel ablend, forwrixle (cf. NHG verwechseln)
confusing adj manifold, bewildering, muddlesome, misleading
confusion n muddling, bewildering, mishmash ablending
confute vb Overstale (<OE Ofer-staélan - to confute, to convict, to convince)
congregate v forgather
congress n gathering, moot, lawmaker body gathercoming
conics n - kegglelore
conjugate vb bend forbow (cf. Du. verbuigen, NHG. verbeugen)
conjunction n linking word linkword, bindword, yokeword
connect vb link, fit, tie-in, bind -
conquer vb do down, overcome,
upend, worst

Overwin (<OE/ME/Arch.E)

aover (calque of many germanic languages)
conquest n overwin -
consanguinity n kinship -
conscience n - thewing, inwit
conscious adj aware, mindful,
heedful, waken
-
consciousness n awareness, mindfulness,
heedfulness, wake
inwit
conscript vb draft, call-up -
consecrate vb bless, hallow, bename -
consecutive(ly) adj(adv) straight, running, unbroken;
one after the other, right after
consent n/vb leave thaving, thwaring

vb: thwarelalk (<OE þwærlælcan) 

conservation n - orholding (cf. NHG Erhaltung)

bewaring (cf. Du. bewaren)

conserve n - orhold

beware

consequence n aftermath, backwash,
outcome, upshot;
wightiness
offleading (cf. Ic. af-leiðing)
consequently adv hence, thereby, thereupon,
thus, wherefore,
sithence (obsolete)
forfollowingly
consider vb

heed, bethink, think about,
reckon, set down

hie, hedge (<OE hycgan 'bear in mind, confide, trust'; compare lie < OE licgan, buy < OE bycgan)

awene (<OE awenan)

behawe (<OE behawian 'to see clearly, take care')

rase (<OE ræswan 'to think suppose suspect consider conjecture')

smigh (<OE smēagan 'consider think about mediate examine scrutinize')

yondthink (<OE geondþencan 'to reflect upon')

hiler (<OE aheolorian 'weigh, balance'

Latin equivalent: librare, trutinare)

beshow (cf. Du. beschouwen) 

umbthink (<OE ymbþencan)

consideration n thought -
consist of vb be made up of bestand of (cf. NHG bestehen aus)
consistency n - weenness

withspeakfreedom (NHG. widerspruchsfreiheit)

consistent adj - weenly (<OE wénlic)

withspeakless (NHG. widerspruchslos)

console vb frover, soothe,
allay sorrow,
share grief,
give strength and hope
befreefern
consolation n - froverness, freefernes (<OE fréfernes), frover (<OE frōfor)
consonant n - withlide, midlide (<NHG Mitlaut),
midclinker (Du. medeklinker),
samedswaying, sameswaying
(<Ælfric's OE samodswegend)
conspicuous adj - forthsighly (<OE forþgesýne)

kenspeckle

conspiracy n plot -
conspiracy theorist n - plotbeholder
conspiracy theory n - plotbeholding
conspire vb plot -
constant adj ongoing, abiding,
steadfast, steady,

Singal/Single (<OE Sin-gal - perpetual, Everlasting)

onwherft, simble (<OE simbel)

resistant: bestandy/bestanding (NHG. beständig)

constitution n clay, self; build,
lawbook; frame, shape; law
forfastening (cf. NHG Verfassung), writlaw
constraint n - thwing (<OE geþwing)
constrict vb tighten intighten, betighten
consulation n - bereding (cf. NHG Beratung)
consult vb see with -
consume vb eat (up), drain, spend, intake forbrook (calque)
consumerism n - intakerhood
consummate adj crack, good, great, skilled; blooming, straight-out; utmost -
consumption n intaking -
contact vb get, reach fay, rine, Forthreach
contain vb hold, inhold, have in itself -
contaminate vb befoul smittle
contemplate vb - yondthink (<OE geondþencan)
contemplation n thought yondthinking (<OE geondþencan + -ing)
contemporary adj today's tidely, fellow-timed, like-timed
contempt n loathing, hatred -
contemptuous adj - shanding
contend n set to -
contend (argue) vb flite, hold -
content n/vb vb: gladden inning (<OE innung), inhold (calque from NHG 'Inhalt')

of one's character: inwit of one's moodstathel

content adj happy, gladdened, gruntled fained, list
contention n wrangling -
contest n match witherwin (<OE wiðerwinn)
context n light, framework,
ins and outs, layout,
basis: underlay
umrealm, underlyings

Framewrit

contiguous adj abutting -
continent n mainland worlddeal (<OE worulddǣl), greatland, landstretch, fastland
continuation n Astandendness, Astandingness (<OE)
continue vb go on, abide, keep on, keep at
transitive: let something go on
ongo, forthgo (cf. NHG fortgehen), forthset (cf. Du. voortzetten), throughgo (cf. Du. doorgaan), singel (<OE ġesingalian)
continuous adj unbroken, ongoing forthgoing, forthset, simble (<OE)
contort vb writhe -
contract n bond, deal, settlement handfast, writdeal
contradict vb gainsay, withsay, withspeak  witherspeak (cf. NHG widersprechen), andwitness (cf. Ic. and-vitni), witherqued, anspeak (<OE ġēansprecan)
contradiction n gainsaying withspeech (NHG. Widerspruch), witherquedding (<OE wiðercwedung), anspeech
contrary adv against witherward (<OE wiðerweard), witherto, withershins
contrast n otherness, unlikeness, cleaveness, sunderness shedspan, undershed, witherputting
contrast vb sunder, cleave, shed, tell asunder undershed (cf. NHG unterscheiden, Du onderscheiden), witherstand (calque), offstand, witherstack, offstack (cf. Du. afsteken), witherput
controversy n - gainwending (lone translation from Latin)
contribute vb pitch in bypull, bydraw/drag (cf. Du bijdragen ) 
contribution n input, giving -
contrition n sorrow, guilt, ruth -
control n hands; oversight, running,
stewardship; arm, grip,
hold, sway, steering
bridling
control vb lead, bridle, hold, steer, keep, tame, steward sway
conundrum n riddle -
conurbation n - towncluster(ing)
convect vb Ibear, Imbbear, Iferry, Awaybear (all < OE)
convergence n meeting -
conversation n talk, mailing underholding (cf. NHG Unterhaltung)
converse vb speak, talk -
conversely

adv/
interj

on the other hand, otherwise -
convert vb wend, make over turn over: bewharve (<OE behwierfan, behweorfan)
turn around: bewend (<OE bewendan), forwandle
convey vb give, spread; bear, ferry;
deed, make over
inway
convict n lag overstale (<OE Ofer-staélan - to confute, to convict, to convince), haftling (<OE hæftling, cf. NHG Häftling), overstell
convince vb wheedle, talk round, talk into overtalk (<OE oferreccan, cf. NHG. überreden)
convoy n - wain row
cooperate vb work together evenwork (<OE efenweorcan), getherwork (<Fr gearwurkje), midwork
cop vb nab -
cop n hound, pig (slang, slightly vulgar) frith wike (peace officer)
cope vb deal -
copious adj beteeming -
copper n - ar (<OE ar)
copper adj - arn (cf. Eng. gold -> golden)
copse n thicket, shaw -
copy n - twin
copy vb imitate: ape twin, eftyield, andwrite
imitate: evenledge (<OE efenlæcan)
copy & paste vb - twin & tack
coral n/adj - limeshaft; yellowpink
cord n line, rope,
string, wire
tew, rib-cloth
cord vb fasten -
cordial adj friendly, hearty, warm -
cords n - manstows
corduroy n ribbed cloth rib-cloth, manstow (manchester)
core n kernel, heart, yolk, innermost being -
coriander n Cloveleaf, Clovelobedleaf, Broadlobedleaf/Bradlobleaf (based on description of leaf)
cormorant n sea raven shrab (<OE scræb)

coal-goose

cornea n - hornweb, hornflesh
corner n nook, winkle, hirn, edge -
coronation n - kinehelming (<OE cynehelmung), wreathing
corpor(e)al adj bodily bodisome
corporation n - businessbody
corpse n body, dead body lich, nee (<OE nēo), likam
corpus n body likam
Corpus Christi pn - Wistforwandering Day
correct adv/adj right, aright, befitting -
correct vb right, righten, mark berighten (cf. NHG. berichtigen)
correction n righting punishment: threal (<OE þrēal), berightening (NHG. berichtigung)
correction fluid n white out -
correspond v match, match up, link, link up, be alike, meet onspeak (cf. NHG entsprechen)
corridor n hallway -
corroborate vb bear out -
corrode vb gnaw forrot (<OE forrotian), begnaw (<OE begnagan)
corrugated adj - wrizzled
corrupt adj/adv crooked, bent, rot forrot
corslet n byrnie
corvée-work n - workrede (<OE weorcræden)
cosmetics n fard
cosmolabe n - tungleheight meter
cosmopolitan n - worldsman
cosmopolitan adj worldly -
cost n outlay, worth -
costly adj dear -
Costa Rica pn - Rich Shore
costume n outfit, get-up, fake dress derning
Côte d'Ivoire n - Windward Shore, Tusk Shore, Elpbone Shore
cottage n hut, cote sheel
cottager n - cotsettle
cotton n - seedwool, treewool (calque)
council n gathering, huddle; board,
brotherhood, fellowship,
thingstead (<OE þingstede),
thingstow (<OE þingstōw)
redemoot, redebody
counsel n/vb lead, shepherd rede

law-ern (legal-eagle)

counsel(l)or n alder(wo)man rede(wo)man, redegiver, theagher (<OE þeahere/ġeþeahere)
count vb tell, reckon arime
count n earl -
countenance n cast -
counter- prefix with-gain-, wither- -
counterbalance n offset -
counter-clockwise adj withershins withersunwise
counterculture n - witherkithship
counterfeit goods n - openware
counterpart n match witherdeal, evenbilth (cf. NHG Ebenbild)
equivalent: gainsteck/gainshtick (cf. NHG gegenstück)
countersign n - gaintoken/ gaintokening
(cf. NHG. gegenziechnung)
countersign v - gaintoken (cf. NHG gegenziechnen)
counterstroke n - witherclap
country n land, weald, upland (countryside), kith, fatherland, homeland, motherland, rike native: ethel (<OE æþel), folkland, erd (<ME)
county n shire, ethel, earldom, wapentake, erd, fold reveship
county council n thing (<ON þing), folkmoot (<OE folcgemōt), folksmoot (<ME folkesmōt/folkesmot) shiremoot
coup vb strike -
coup de grâce n topper lithing, miltstroke
coupling (train/carriage) n thill -
coupon n - deemslip
courage n mettle, boldness, fearlessness, heart, heartiness, daring, mood beld/bield (<OE bieldu)
courageous adj bold, daring, doughty, fearless,full-hearted, unfrightened, stouthearted moody (cf. NHG mutig)
course n line, pathway lode, begang/bigong, ierning/running (<OE ierning, whence running), shrithe (<OE), yong (<OE Geong), rin/rine, rune [< OE Ryne, course, rush]
course (academic) n learnset, loregang, lorestream
court n/vb hove (<OE hof)
vb: splunt (<Scots)
courteous adj fairspoken hovely
courtyard n - hallyard, boroughyard (<OE burggeard)
cousin n kins(wo)man nearkin, farsib
covenant n oath, deal, bond, binding -
cover n holster, sheath heling, helm, thacking, taching, decking
cover vb thatch/thack, overlay, hide, deck, overspread hele (Eng. dialectal), helm
coverage n - yondfetching, overthetching, overthatching, overhealing, yondhealing
covered area n deck, roofed deck heling (ME hillet), helm (<OE helmian)
covering n skin, feathers, hackles heling, overwrigels (<OE oferwrigels)
cover with vb lay on -
covert adj hidden, shrouded, stealthy, under wraps, heled
cover-up n whitewash, hush-work shroudening
covet vb crave, want, hunger after, thirst after, cast greedy eyes upon -
covetous adj greedy, graspy, grabby, hoggish, wanting -
coward n wimp, woos, fearer, nithing arg, flytail, feyling (cf. NHG Feigling)
cowardly adj gutless, thewless, woosy, fearful fey/fay (<OE fæge, cf. NHG feige)
co-worker n by-worker, fellow worker, workmate -
CPU (Central Processing Unit) n main chip -
cranium n skull head-bowl (OE heafod - bolla)
crater n - bowl (calque), barrowbowl
cravat n necktie, neckcloth -
crayon n - waxlimestone
cream n salve, ream, milk's head -
crease n/vb wrinkle, rumple, rimple, runkle -
create vb beget, build, craft, make, set up, shape, hatch ashapen
creation n brainchild, wrinke; world, rise shaping, ashapenning, fromship
creative adj - shaperly, makerly (cf. NHG schöpferisch), thoughtrich
creature n wight making (horrible creature, monster), awe-grimer, aies-grimer, allwight, edshaft, shape, forthshaft (all <OE)
eges-grime (a horrible mask; a creature with horrible form)
credence n belief -
credibility n - liefworthiness, beliefworthiness, beliefworthihood (cf. NHG glaubtwürdigkeit)
credible adj - liefworthy, beliefworthy (cf. NHG glaubtwürdig) ,oathworthy, intrusty, inliefsome
credit n hail, acknowledgement inlief, intrust, forthtrust, oathworth, borrowworth
creed n belief -
cremate vb bale -
creme de la creme n bee's knees, dog's bollocks, best of the best, fat of the land, best -
crepuscular adj twilighty -
crepuscule n twilight, darkfall, dusk, nightfall, gloaming, evenfall, eventide, sundown downset
crescent n moonsickle -
crest n ridge, noon, top, high-water mark ris, comb
cretaceous adj - chalken, chalkish, chalky, limestonish, limestony
cretin n blighter; nit -
crevasse n cleft -
crevice n cleft, gap, hole -
crime n lawbreaking, shame, sin, wrongdoing, misdeed shild (<OE scyld), gilt (<OE ġylt), forwrought (<OS farwurht)
criminal n crook, outlaw, lawbreaker sinner: gilter (<OE ġyltend)
crimson n - deepred
crisis n - needtime
criterion n yardstick, hallmark, need deemrimmer
critic n scather -
critical adj weighty, key, scathing -
criticise vb slag, knock, brand, upbraid  -
criticism n scathing -
crocodile n - nix (cf. OHG nihhus), pebbleworm (calque)
croissant n - moonbread
cross (<ON) n - rood, syebeam (<OE sigebēam)
cross (<ON) vb - thwarse, stride over
crown n kine-helm
crown vb - kinehelm, wreathe
crucifix n - rood, roodfastening, onrooding
crucify vb - roodfasten, onrood
crude adj rough, raw -
cruel adj harsh, mean, ruthless, cold, unfeeling reethe (<OE réðe), slithen (<OE slīþene)
cruelty n meanness, harshness, ruthlessness moanbale (<OE mānbealu), slithenness
cruise vb - thwarse (lit. to cross)
cruiser n - thwarser, thwarseship
crusade n krosscampagne roodfirding
crust n - rind (<OE rind)
cry n roop, yell, shout, whine, wail, moan lide, liding (<OE ge-hlȳd; cf. NHG Lied)
cry vb weep, shout, wail, yell, howl, sob, roup, cleep, wail chy (<OE cigan)
cryogenic adj - coldly
cryotherapy n - coldbehandling
crypt n - thesterlock, thestercove, lich-keep
cryptocurrency n - keepminthood, hidden minthood
cryptography n - hidden writing
crystal n - hurst (<OE hyrst)
crystal adj - hursten (cf. Eng. golden)
crystalline adj - hursty
cub n - whelp
cube n - worfle (cf. NHG Würfel)
cuckoo n - yeke, gawk
cucumber n - greenpod, earthapple (<OE eorþæppel)
cuisine n cooking foodcraft
cull vb choose, pick, pick out, pitch on, pitch upon, sift, winnow, gather, pluck, pickup -
cull n pickings, siftings -
cul de sac n dead end -
culminate vb - nib
cultivate vb till, harvest, work  -
culture n couth, folklore, way of life menning (cf. Ic. menning), kithship
culvert n - leat, ditch
cuneiform bones n - wedgebones
cure vb heal -
curiosity n witfire newsgreed, newsgreediness (cf. Du. nieuwsgierigheid)
curious adj - newsyearny, newsgreedy (cf. Du. nieuwsgierig)
curious vb funny, odd, weird frimdy (<OE frymdig)
curlew n whaup
currency n - minthood
unit: mintwhit, minonehood (cf. Du. munteenheid
current adj nowaday, today's, now's, nowadays', running nowen, tidegang/tidegeng (<OE), evenrunning, eventime
current n run, drift, leaning, tide, wind, now brimstream (<OE), eystream (<OE iegstream), streamfare, waystream (<OE)
Electricity, water, etc.: instream, inrun, flowbore, runbore
currently adv as of yet, now, nowenly
curriculum n - learnplot
curriculum vitae n - smithsyore
cursive adj handwritten flow-staved
cursor n runner -
curtail vb cut back, forshorten, foreshorten, clip  -
curtain n - hanger, hangcloth
curve n bow, bend, wind  -
custody n hold, hands warding
custom adj bespoken thew, folkway
custom n wone, wont, business, trade side, toln (<OE)
customary adj - wonely
cutaneous adj skin, hide hidish, hidely
cutaneous disease n tetter, scurf, scurvy -
cute adj pretty, sweet, lief goldy (cf. NHG goldig), sooth
cutlass n backsword
cutlery n silverware -
cycad n - firtapfolm (cf. Sw. kottepalmer)
cyclist n - wheeler
cyclone n - whirlwind

cygnet

n swanling -
cylinder n - rollshape
cynical adj sneering -
cynosure n - hoardvat (<OE hordfæt)
czar n - Russlander king/highking