Staff C of the English Wordbook.

Basic abbreviations:

  • OE = Old English
  • NHG = New High German
  • Du. = Dutch

For a full list of etymological and other abbreviations used in these wordlists, see: Offshortenings.


Chancery English

Class Anglish/English
cabaret n club, nightspot, roadhouse, nightclub
cabbage n kole
cabinet n hutch, sideboard, locker
cable n wire, rope
caboose n -
cacao n -
cache n hoard
cacophony n rattle, roar, din
cecum n blinde gut
Cæsar n overlord, high-king, kaiser
cafeteria n lunchroom, lunch house, luncheonhouse
cajole vb soft-soap, sweet-talk, wheedle
calamari n cuttlefish
calcaneüs n heelbone
calculate vb reckon, work out
calculation n tale, reckoning
calculator n -
calendar n daiböck
calisthenics n drills
calligraphy pen n calligraphiquill
callous adj hardened, cold-hearted, flint-hearted, heartless, soulless, stony, stony-hearted, steely, thick-skinned, unfeeling
calm adj lown, flack
calm vb lull, settle, soothe
calque n loanword, borrowing
calyx n -
camel n -
camouflage n

dapple, (dappling, dappleshell, dapplehide, dappleclad, dappleteld)

dazzle-painting (attested)

camomile n -
campaign n campagne
campaign vb take the stump, barnstorm
canal n leat, waterway
cancer n crabgrowth
candelabrum n -
candidate n hopeful, ?runner
candied adj sweetened
candy n sweets
canine adj doggy, houndlike, doglike, doggish
cannon n -
canoe n dugout
canyon n gulch
capacity n room, berth; strength, gift, readiness
capital city n hedboro, hedburgh, hedburg.
capitate bone n -
capsize vb keel, upset, overwend
captain n headman, leader
caption n -
captivate vb wile
captive n/adj penned, locked up
captivity n -
capture vb nail, take, kidnap, steal, swipe, nab
car n wagon, horseless buggy (obsolete), buggy, slang: wheels, ride, hot rod, roadster
caravan n tradewagon
carcass n bones, stiff, lich
cardboard n headboard
cardiac arrest n heartstop
career n calling, game (inf.), walk of life
caress vb fondle, stroke
cargo n freit
cargo ship n freiter
caribou n reindeer
carnal adj fleshly
carnation n -
carnivore n meateater, flesheater
carouse vb birl
carousel n -
carpal bone n -
carpenter n wödkraftsman, wödkraftswömmen
carpentry n wödkraft, woodcraft, becraftliness, craftliness,
carpet n -
carriage n bearing
carrot n more (<OE moru; cf. NHG Möhre)
carry vb bear, weigh, ferry, take 
cartilage n grissel
cartouche n -
cartridge n patrone
cashew n -
cashewnut n -
casing n shell
casual adj breezy, blithe, light-hearted
catch vb snare, snarl, snag, latch, fang, nab
catechize vb grill, sweat slang
caterpillar n leafwerm
cathedral n headchurch,
cattle n kine
Caucasian (race) n white
cauldron n kettel
cauliflower n kole-blossem
cause n bring-about, let-on, wherefrom
cause vb beget, breed, drive, make, work, yield
caustic adj burning
caution n reck, heeding
cavalier n horseman
cavalry n cavallery
cavalry(wo)man n cavalleriman, cavalleriwömmen
cave n kove
cave(wo)man n kove-man, kove-wömmen
cavil vb carp
cavity n dint, hollow, pit
cease vb stop, lay off, halt, give up, leave off, blin
ceasefire n truce
cede vb yield, hand over, give up,
ceiling n firstroof, highroof, loftroof
cell division n -
cemetery n graveyard, boneyard, burying-ground. Obsolete: lich-rest (in OED)
census n tale
centipede n hundredfötter
century n yearhundred (<NHG. Jahrhundert)
cereal n -
certain adj wis
certainly adv wisly, soothly
certainty n - truthfulness, soothness
certificate n - witnessword
certify v -
cerulean adj -
cerumen n earwax
chain n shackle, fetter
chair n seat, stool
chalice n bowl
chalk n limestone
challenge n/vb knot; dare; becall
change vb/n

shift, switch, makeover

dough (cash), warp

channel n fairway, race, ford
chaotic adj caotical
Charlemagne n Carl/Charles the Great
character n in a story: hoad (<OE hād)

feature: folklihood (cf. Du. persoonlijkheid)
moral strength: wilstrength (will + strength) (cf. Du. viljestyrke)
symbol: token (cf. NHG Zeichen, Dn. tegn)

charge n/vb fill, load, outlay; lading
charged adj owing, laden (electric)
charitable adj kind, freehanded, freehearted, unselfish, unsparing, unstinting
charity n help, gift, hand-out; goodness, goodwill, fellow feeling; alms, dole; ruth; brotherhood
charlatan n swindler
charming adj friendly, lovely, winsome, comely
charter n -
chase vb hotfoot, put to flight
chastise vb chew out, chide, flay, hammer, jaw, keelhaul, ream out, tongue-lash, upbraid
cheat n/vb

shark, bilk, do in, nobble, rip off, rig, swindle; shark, dodger, swindler, lirt, belirt, threap

checkers (game) n drots
cheer n glee, merriness, mirthfulness
cheer vb gladden, root, hearten, perk up, blithen
chemistry n kemy
cherish vb hold dear, cleave to; care for, love, look after, shelter; harbor
cherry n chirsse
chief n ringleader
chieftain n -
chimpanzee n -
chivalrous n big, greathearted, high-minded, lofty, lordly
chivalry n knightliness
chlorine n clor
choice n choosing, picking, wale
cholesterol n -
chrestomathy n -
Christian n Krissen, Sheekrissen (female)
Christianity n Krissendom
Christmas n Yule
chromosome n -
chronicle n ledger, tale, saga
chronology n timeline
chrysanthemum n crysanþeme
cider n apple wine
cinquefoil n -
cipher n -
circa prep about,
circle n ring, loop, wreath, trindle, trundle
circuit n ringway
circulate vb flow; broadcast
circulation n flow
circulatory system n bloodstream
circumcise vb cut, unhood, unforeskin
circumference n rim, outring
circumspect adj careful, watchful
circumstance n doom, hap, luck
circumvent vb shortcut, sidestep; girdle, ring
citizen n townsman, burgher
citizenship n -
citroen n sourapple
city n borough, burgh, stead, town
civil adj folk
civil law n -
civilian n -
civility n -
clairvoyance n throughsight
claim n call, dibs, right; share, stake
clamor n din
clan n body, crowd, network, ring, set, blood, folks, house, kindred, line, set
clarify vb shed light on
classical adj -
classification n tagging, branding
classify vb tag, brand
claustrophobia n narrowfear, heminfear
clavicle n -
clergy n church, cloth
clergyman n churchman, father, shepherd, man of the cloth
climate n weatherbelt
cloaca n cloäke
clock n timer
clockwise adj sunwise
close vb shut, narrow
close adj near, narrow, nearby
co- pref fellow, by-, i-
coagulate vb clot
coast n seashore, seaboard, strand; sail, drift
coat of arms n wappen
coccyx n tailboan
cockroach n shrab (cf. NHG Schrabe)
cocoa (bean) n bitternut, bitterbean, bitterseed
cocoa (drink) n bitterbrew
coffer n -
coffin n casket
cognate n -
cognizant adj aware
coin n -
coincidence n happen-so (in OED, US regional colloq.)
coitus n -
cojones n balls, guts
colic n -
collapse n/vb downfall, infall, swooning
colleague vb workmate, fellow worker
collect vb gather
collection n gathering, thingstock
colonize vb settle, take over, spread through(out)
colo(u)r n hue, cast, blee, light wavelength
colo(u)r vb hue, dye, shade, blee
column n upright
combat n fight, hild
combination n binding, tying, knotting, fastening, gathering
combine vb bind, tie, knot, fasten, gather 
combustible n/adj adj: fiery

n: tinder

comedian n comick, sheecomick (female)
comet n shooting star
comfort n liss, frover
comfortable adj soft, lithe, snug 
comestible adj eating
command n behest, bidding
command vb bid, lead, behest; spearhead
commander n head
commandment n behest; (Torah) teachings
commence vb begin, start
commensurate adj fitting
comment n -
commenting n -
commerce n business, trade; dealings
commercial n businesswise
commit vb do, betake, plight
common adj mean
commonly adv meanly
communicative adj chatty
communion n fellowship
community n fellowship
compact adj hard, stiff, unyielding; crowded, packed, thick, tight; thumbnail (expression)
companion n fellow, mate, mone
company n business, outfit; brotherhood, fellowship
comparative n -
compare vb liken, stack up
comparable adj alike
compassion n feeling; kindness, ruth; goodwill
compassionate adj kind, feeling, ruthful
compatible adj kindred
compatriot n kinsman
compel vb -
compensation n meed
competent adj fit, good; fair, right
compete v -
competition n -
compile vb put together
complain vb whine, bitch, caterwaul, moan, gripe, whinge
complete adj full, whole; done, over, through, up; in depth, thorough; all-ou-, downright, flat-out, sheer, stark, stone, straight-out, thorough, utter; out-and-out; skillful, full-standing, thoroughgoing
complete vb fulfill, end, overcome
completely adv outright, fully, utterly, thoroughly, through and through, inside-out, to the hilt, altogether, deeply. soundly,
complexion n hue, look, blee, ilk, kind, suchness, way, outlook
compliant adj toward, abiding
complicate vb/adj -
complicated adj knotty, tangled
compliment n/vb -
complimentary adj -
compline n -
compose vb to make
composer n -
composition n layout
compound n cocktail, meld, mix
comprehensive adj

all-in, thorough; whole; all-out

adv: fully, inside-out, throough and through

comprise vb make up
compromise vb/n tradeoff, deal, vb: meet halfway
compunction n qualm, misgiving
computation n reckoning
compute(r) n/vb -
comrade n fellow
conceal vb hide, shroud
concealment n hiding; hideaway, lair, nest
conceivable adj thoughtworthy
conceive vb dream; make out, twig
concern n care, worry, reck
concerning prep as for, as far as, on, toward


vb end, wind up, wrap up; break up, leeave off, let up, wind up, wink out; name, settle upon; gather, make out


n ending, finding(s)
concrete n beton
concurrently prep meanwhile, all-the-while, all along
concussion n shell shock
condemn vb -
condescend vb belittle, stoop, talk down, lower
condition n onlay, fettle
condominium n tounhous
conduct vb lead, drive
confectionary n sweets, sweet-shop
confederacy n confederation
confederate adj\n confederal
confer vb bestow, lend, give over
conference n meeting
confess vb shrive
confession n shrift
confidence n belief, hope
configuration n setting, set up, of elements layout
confine vb lock in, keep, trap, fetter, bind, latch, grasp, abed (by illness), bedrid
confirm vb strengthen, starken, acknowledge
confirmation n strengthening, starkening
confiscate vb filch
conflict vb/n fight
confluence n -
conform vb dovetail; blend, groove; key
conformism n -
conformity n -
confound vb befuddle, bewilder, addle
confront vb take on, come at, be up against
confuse vb befuddel, mistake, ravel, bewilder, muddel, mangel, addel
confusing adj manifold, bewildering, muddlesome, misleading
confusion n muddling, mishmash
congregate v forgather
congress n gathering, moot, lawmaker body
connect vb link, fit, tie-in, bind
conquer vb do down, overcome, upend, worst
conquest n overwin
consanguinity n kinship
conscience n -
conscious adj aware, mindful, heedful, waken
consciousness n awareness, mindfulness, heedfulness, wake
conscript vb draft, call-up
consecrate vb bless, hallow, bename
consent n/vb leave
conservation n -
consequence n aftermath, backwash, outcome, upshot; wightiness
consequently adv hence, thereby, thereupon, thus, wherefore, sithence (obsolete)
consider vb

heed, bethink, think about, reckon, set down

consideration n thought
consist of vb be made up of
consistency n -
consistent adj -
console vb frover, soothe, allay sorrow, share grief, give strength and hope
consolation n -
consonant n streave (Barnes) blend of 'stop' & 'breathe')
conspicuous adj -
conspiracy n plot
conspiracy theorist n plotþeorist, sheeplotþeorist
conspiracy theory n plotþeory
conspire vb plot
constant adj ongoing, abiding, steadfast, steady,
constitution n clay, self; build, frame, shape; law
constraint n -
constrict vb tighten
consulation n -
consult v check out
consume vb eat (up), drain, spend, intake
consummate adj crack, good, great, skilled; blooming, straight-out; utmost
consumption n intaking
contact vb get, reach
contain vb hold, inhold, have in itself
contaminate vb befoul
contemplate vb -
contemplation n thought
contemporary adj today's
contempt n loathing, hatred
contemptuous adj -
contend n set to
contend (argue) vb flite, hold
content n/vb vb: gladden
content adj pleased (This is not Theedish, it's French), happy, gladdened
contention n wrangling
contest n match
context n light, framework, ins and outs, layout,

basis: underlay

contiguous adj abutting
continent n mainland
continue vb go on, abide, keep on, keep at, wendg,
continuous adj unbroken, ongoing
contort vb writhe
contract n bond, deal, settlement
contradict vb gainsay, withsay, withspeak 
contradiction n gainsaying
contrary adv against
contrast vb/n
controversy n -
contribute vb pitch in
contribution n input, giving
control n hands; oversight, running, stewardship; arm, grip, hold, sway, steering
control vb bridle, hold, steer, keep, tame; steward
conundrum n riddle
conurbation n -
convergence n meeting
conversation n talk, mailing
converse vb speak, talk


on the other hand, otherwise
convert vb wend, make over
convey vb give, spread; bear, ferry; deed, make over
convict n lag
convince vb wheedle, talk round, talk into
convoy n -
coöperate vb work together
cop vb nab
cop n hound, pig (slang, slightly vulgar)
cope vb deal
copious adj beteeming
copper n -
copse n thicket, shaw
copy & paste vb -
coral n/adj -
cord n line, rope, string, wire
cord vb fasten
cordial adj friendly, hearty, warm
cords n -
corduroy n ribbed cloth
core n kernel, heart, yolk, innermost being
cormorant n sea raven
cornea n hornflesh
corner n nook, winkle, hirn, edge
coronation n -
corpor(e)al adj bodily
corpse n

body, dead body

corpus n body
correct adv/adj right, aright, befitting
correct vb right, righten, (acad) mark
correction n righting
correction fluid n white out
corridor n hallway
corroborate vb bear out
corrode vb gnaw
corrugated adj -
corslet n byrnie
cosmetics n cosmetick
cosmolabe n -
cost n outlay, worth
costly adj dear
costume n outfit, get-up, fake dress
Côte d'Ivoire n -
cottage n hut
cottager n -
cotton n -
council n gathering, huddle; board, brotherhood, fellowship, thingstead (<OE þingstede), thingstow (<OE þingstōw)
counsel n/vb lead, shepherd
counsel(l)or n alder(wo)man
count vb tell, reckon
count n earl
countenance n cast
counter- prefix

with-gain-, wither-

counterbalance n offset
counter-clockwise adj withershins
counterculture n -
counterfeit goods n -
counterpart n match
countersign n -
countersign v -
counterstroke n -
country n land, weald, upland (rural, as in countryside), kith, fatherland, homeland, motherland, rike,
county n shire, ethel, earldom, wapentake, erd, fold
county council n thing (<ON þing), folkmoot (<OE folcgemōt), folkesmoot (<ME folkesmōt/folkesmot)
coup vb strike
coup de grâce n topper
coupling, train/carriage n thill
coupon n -
courage n mettle, boldness, fearlessness, heart, heartiness, daring, mood
courageous adj bold, daring, doughty, fearless, full-hearted, unfrightened, stouthearted
course n line, pathway
course (academic) n -


courteous adj fairspoken
courtyard n -
cousin n kins(wo)man
covenant n oath, deal, bond, binding
cover n holster, sheath
cover vb thatch/thack, overlay, hide, deck, overspread
covered area n deck, roofed deck
covering n skin, feathers, hackles
cover with vb lay on
covert adj hidden, shrouded, stealthy, under wraps,
cover-up n whitewash, hush-work
covet vb crave, want, hunger after, thirst after, cast greedy eyes upon
covetous adj greedy, graspy, grabby, hoggish, wanting
coward n wimp, woos, fearer
cowardly adj gutless, thewless, woosy, fearful
co-worker n by-worker, fellow worker, workmate
cranium n skull
cravat n necktie, neckcloth
crayon n -
cream n salve, ream, milk's head
crease n/vb wrinkle, rumple, rimple, runkle
credence n belief
credibility n -
credible adj -
credit n hail, acknowledgement
creme de la creme n bee's knees, dog's bollocks, best of the best, fat of the land, best
crescent n moonsickle
crest n ridge, noon, top; high-water mark
cretaceous adj -
cretin n blighter; nit
crevasse n cleft
crevice n cleft, gap, hole
crime n lawbreaking; shame, sin; wrongdoing, misdeed
criminal n crook, outlaw, lawbreaker
crimson n -
crisis n crise
criterion n yardstick; hallmark, need
critic n criticist, sheecriticist
critical adj weighty, key, scathing
criticise vb

slag, knock, brand, upbraid 

criticism n critick
croissant n -
crown n kine-helm
crown vb -
crucifix n -
crude adj rough, raw
cruel adj harsh, mean, ruthless, cold, unfeeling
cruelty n meanness, harshness, ruthlessness
cruise vb -
cruiser n -
crusade n krosscampagne
crust n -
cry n roop, yell, shout, whine, wail, moan
cry vb weep, shout, wail, yell, howl, sob, roup, cleep, wail
crypt n -
cryptocurrency n crypto
crystal n krissel
cub n -
cube n -
cuckoo n -
cucumber n kuke
cuisine n köcking
cull vb choose, pick, pick out, pitch on, pitch upon, sift, winnow, gather, pluck, pickup
cull n pickings, siftings
cul de sac n dead end
culminate vb -
cultivate vb till, harvest, work 
culture n couth, folklore, way of life
culvert n -
cure vb heal
curiosity n witfire
curious adj Newsgreedy
curious vb funny
curlew n whaup
current adj nowaday, today's, now's, nowadays', running, nowen
current n run, drift, leaning, tide, wind, now
currently adv as of yet, now, nowenly
curriculum vitae n -
cursive adj handwritten
cursor n runner
curtail vb cut back, foreshorten, clip 
curtain n -
curve n bow, bend, wind 
custody n hold, hands
custom adj bespoken
custom n wone, wont, business, trade
customary adj -
cutaneous adj skin, hide
cute adj pretty, sweet, lief
cutlass n backsword
cutlery n silverware
cyclist n -
cyclone n -


n swanling
cynical adj sneering
cynosure n -

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