The Anglish Moot

English Wordbook/A

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Staff A of the English Wordbook.

Basic abbreviations:

  • OE=Old English
  • NHG=New High German
  • Du.=Dutch

For a full list of etymological and other abbreviations used in these wordlists, see: Offshortenings.


Chancery English Class Anglish/English
Attested Unattested
a Capella n mouthglee
aardvark n ant bear, ant-bear, antbear earthpig, earthswine, earthfarrow
aardwolf n earthwolf
abandon vb

shed, forgo, forsake (Barnes)
give up, forget

forlet UK dialectal ~ cf. Fr. ferlitte, Du. verlaten, Nw. forlate, NHG verlassen) of-give, up-give, forleave, forlese, unget

abandon n wantonness, recklessness overgive
abandonment n forsaking shedding
abase vb cheapen, warp; shame, sink unar, anether
abash vb faze, rattle -
abate vb drain away, drop off, dwindle, ease, ebb fall (away), lessen, let up, lower, shrink, wane -
abattoir n slaughterhouse -
abbess n - overmother
abbreviation n - forshortening
abdicate vb step down, step aside from -
abdomen n midriff, belly kite, quith (<OE cwiþ) riff (<OE hrif)
abduct vb kidnap, steal, lead away, offlead, nab -
aberrant n black-sheep -
aberration n - unfollowing
abet vb goad, spur, hearten fuse (<ME fusen)
abhor vb hate, loathe, mislike -
ability n skill, might, craft, knack
abject adj low heanly (<OE heanlic), downcast (Barnes)
abjure vb foreswear, take back, unsay, withdraw of-swear, aftercwethe
ablactate vb wean -
ablation n offtaking, offferrying -
ablative adj - atbraidingly, shiftfall (<Ic. skiftafall)
ablaut n - offlloud
able adj fit, skilled

dow, stand (cf. Dn, Nw, NHG)

-able sfx -worthy

-endly/-ingly, -cannish, -canny

-worth (<OE -wierþe) -ber (cf. OE -bære, Fr. -ber, NHG -bar)


able to phr can, may dow to, skilled to
ablution n washing, cleansing furbing
abnegate vb forgo, forswear -
abnormal adj amiss, unwonted, odd unmean, unshapely (Barnes)
abolish vb black out, stamp out, sweep away, wipe out

fordo, forend, adiley (<OE ādīlegian)

abominable n aweful, dreadful, evil, loathsome, sickening shandful (<OE scandful, cf. NGH/Du. schandvoll), slithely, besmearful, wargedly (<OE)
aboriginal adj inborn orfolkish, orfolkly firstfolkish
aborigine n - orfolk (OE or 'origin') firstfolk
abort vb lay off, call off -
abortion n misbirth forbirthing, awaywarpness (<OE)
abound vb brim, teem, overflow -
abrasion n graze, scrape -
abridge vb cut back, forshorten, cut,  littlen (<OE)
abrupt adj quick, fast, steep scorn (<OE scoren)
abscess n swelling -
abscond vb break out, run off, steal away -
absence n

time off, lack, needfulness, want; dearth

offwardness (<OE)
absent adj missing, wanting offward (<OE)
absenteeism n - offwardness
absent-mindedness n daydreaming, flighty, thoughtless, unheeding, unmindful, woolgathering -
absinthe n wormwood -
absolute adj

outright, utter, full, rank
checkless (Barnes)

absolutely adv fully, wholly, dead -
absolve vb forgive offloosen (Barnes)
absorb vb drink, soak up, suck up, take up; grip; burn, drain, draw down, play out bedrink (<OE bedrincan)
up-soak, forsoak (Barnes)
abstain vb forbear (Barnes), forego
withhold, hold back
abstinence n - forbearing, forhaveness (<OE forhæfnes)
abstract vb withdraw, take from, pull out -
abstract adj - fallenly
abstract n withdrawal, outline outpulling, outdraught, offdrawal (abstraction)
abundance n wealth, lot fullsomeness (<OE)
abundant adj teeming, swarming
overflowing, fulsome
rife, fat, thick, awash
abuse vb scathe, mishandle hean (<OE hienan), smittle, misbrook
abysmal adj 1. hellish, hopeless, dreadful
2. fathomless, bottomless
netherly, unfathomly
abyss n 1. hell
2. depth, ground, deep, pit, netherworld
newel (<OE neowol)

offground (cf. NGH. Abgrund, Du. Afgrond)

acacia n thorn tree, whistling thorn, wattle thornbloom, hookthorn
academia n - learnedom, loredom, frod (<OE)
academic n/adj highbrow, book-learned moot, booksome, lorewise, mighty-brained
n: loreman
accede vb - agree: thware (<OE)
accelerate vb speed up, spur, quicken (Barnes) yare, swiften
acceleration n speeding up yareness
accent n - tungfall (cf. Du. tongval ), word-strain (Barnes)
accept vb swallow, trust; bear, shoulder; intake (Barnes)

thave, thware (<OE þwarian 'to bring into agreement, make harmonious') ontake, onfang (<OE onfon)

acceptable adj all right, fairish, good thwaringly, thewsome
access n doorway, gateway, key infare, ingoing
accessible adj at hand yea-fare, thuringly
accessory n - bykeeper, deedmate (Barnes)
accident n mishap; hap, luck onfall, hapliness (Barnes)
accidental adj unwitting fallenly, happensome (Barnes)
accompany vb go with, follow

beglide (cf. Du. begeleiden, NHG begleiten), samodsithe (<OE samodsīðian)

accomplish vb phr fulfill, sow up, bring about, reach -
accord n deal, meeting of minds thaving, thwaring
accordion n - bellowharp
according to adj as of, by nigh (cf. NHG nach), after, following (calque)
account n ledger, reckoning reckoning (cf. Du. rekening, Fr. rekken)
account of vb witness (give) forof (on)
accountant n - teller (cf. Du. tal, NHG Zahle 'number')
accumulate vb heap, upheap, build up, gather up -
accumulation vb unheaping -
accurate adj right on, spot-on swotel (<OE sweotol)

narrowcore (calque of Du. nauwkeurig, narrow - core 'choice')

accusative (case) adj -

wrayingly (<OE wregendlic), end-case (Barnes), whonefall (<OE hwone, the accusative of "hwæt", refer to German "wen" and "Wenfall")

accuse vb wray, guilt


fromtyghtle (<OE frumtyhtle, originally meaning first accusation)

falsely: forwray (<OE forwregan)

accustom vb wean, wean on, wean to onwone (Barnes)
accustomed adj wont, used to -
acephalous adj headless (Barnes) -
acetone n - sourghost
acid n/adj - sour
acne n - redmeal (OE mal 'spot')
aconite n wolfsbane -
acoustics n - dinlore
acquaint vb befriend kennen (<OE cunnan (“to become acquainted with, to know”))
acquaintance n friend, neighbor kenning
acquiesce vb bow thave (<OE)
acquire vb earn, foster, get, win beget (<OE)
acquisition n

windfall (unexpected)

acrobat n - stringtumb
acropolis n - highburg
across adv over thwarse, thweer, athwart (Barnes)
act n deed, work, play -
act vb do, work -
action n deed (Barnes), doing, work dodrive
active adj snell, deedy; mettlesome, springy; hopping, tied-up ongoing, doingsome (Barnes), doughty,
sprack (Barnes)
actor(ess) n player showplayer(in)
actual adj sooth, true nowly
actually adv indeed, truly, soothly, forsooth workly, wittedly (<OE)
acupuncture n pinpricking nailhealing
acute adj sharp, high (Barnes), keen, honed; shrill (accent) swotel
A.D. adv - Y.L.
ad infinitum adv forevermore at eke, ekely, for eke, unto everness
adamant adj unyielding, unswayed -
adaptable adj - onwending (cf. Du. aanwendbaar)
adapter n - eck-on, fayfitter
add vb eke reckon up, put on, onput (Barnes), at-eke (OE)
add up vb cast up, tally up -
addiction n craving, yearning -
addition n - togive
additionally adv

again, also, besides, either, further, furthermore, likewise, moreover, then, too, withal, yet, over and above

eke (also)
address vb call, name, clip, bespeak at-speak, bequethe, hote
address n - sitline (<OE: asittan 'to live together'), callword
adept adj skillful, skilled, good, deft -
adequate adj right, even, fair, fit, befitting, becoming makeshift/ make-do
adhere vb cling, stick, cleave to, follow, stand by at-cleave (<OE)
oncleave (Barnes)
adherence to good morals n - thewfastness
adherent n follower liever
adiposis n overweight -
adjacent adj near, next, neighboring -
adjective n - mark-word (Barnes)
adjunct n helpmate, sidekick -
adjust vb set, fit offstal (cf. Du. afstellen)
administer vb wield, deal, lot,  bewit
admiral n - fleethelm, fleetleader
admire vb look up to bewonder
admission n doorway thwaring
admit vb

let in, acknowledge, welcome, greet, take in

confess: own up

andet (<OE andhetan)

give to (cf. NHG zugeben, Du. toegeven)

admonish vb chide, forewarn, upbraid, warn tell off, man (<OE manian)
adolescence n youthhood -
adolescent n youth, youngling, youngster, teen -
adopt vb take on, follow; take in, mother, rear, foster, bring up, take care of intake
adoption n fostering intaking
adorable adj comely, lovely, looksome -
adorn vb bedeck (Barnes), yare, trim

breen (<OE berenian)

with precious '​stones: astean (<OE āstæna āstænan)

adrenaline n - thringweald
adulation n - hallowing
adult n grown-up fullwaxener
adultery n - wedlock breach
adumbrate vb outline -
advance vb make inroads, forward, further, go (on)

trans. put forth

forthgo, wade on
advance n inroads, headway; breakthrough
in advance: beforehand
advancing adj striding -
advantage n high ground, upper-hand boot, behoof, upside
advantageous adj helpful, worthwhile behovely, frimful (<OE frimlic)
advent n coming, onset -
adventure n happening, time; flutter, throw, undertaking wayspell (cf. Sw.vågspel)
adventurous adj daring, free-swinging, gutsy, bold -
adverb n - byword (cf. NHG. Beiwort, Du. bijwoord, Dn. biord)
adversarial n - thwartsome (Barnes), witherlike
adversary n foe, witherling withersak (<OE wiþersaca, cf. NGH. Widersacher)
adversity n ill, knock, mishap; hardship, hurdle, pitfall thwartsomeness, hardhap, witherness
adversive n - thwartsome, withersome
advertize vb play up showmede
advice n tip, help rede (<OE raed, cf. Du. raad, NGH. Rat)
advise vb - rede, mind
advocacy n backing forespeech (<OE forespræċ, cf. NHG. Fürsprache, Du. voorspraak)
advocate n/vb plead for, uphold, back up; spokesman, stand up for forspeak (<OE foresprecan, NHG fürsprechen)
ærial adj - loften (<OE lyften)
ærodynamic adj streamlined wind deft, windfit, loftlithe
ærodynamics n - loftcraft (calque Gk.)
æronaut n - roomfarer (room = space; cf. NHG Raum...)
ærospace n - loftroom
æsir n - oasses (<OE os, -ir is an ON plural)
æsthetic adj comely, fair wlitty (<OE wlitig)
affair n fling; blowout; handiwork; happening; business -
affection n fondness; illness; leaning; hallmark child: bairnlove (<OE bearnlufe)
affectionate adj loving, warm-hearted lovesome (Barnes)
affinity n leaning, kinship -
affirm vb -

foraye (Barnes), begean (<OE begæn)

affirmative adv aye, yea, so, yes, yeah, yep yea-some, yea-ly, ayesome
affix n - wordfastening
afflict vb ail, smite, dretch

swench (<OE swinc), beweal (<OE bewælan), thrysk (<OE ġeþryscan)

affluence n wealth, riches, fat weal
affluent adj wealthy, well-off, well-to-do
rich, fat
afraid adj aghast, fearful, frightened afeared
Africa n - Highsun
age n - eld, tide (era)
age vb olden: mellow, ripen, elden eld
aged adj elderly, old(en), yore forolden, full-blown, full-fledged, grown.
agenda n to-do-list worklist (cf. Fr. wurklist)
agglomerate vb huddle clodden (Barnes)
agglomeration n crowding, heaping, clodding, swelltown
agglutinate vb wordlink upcleam (Barnes)
aggressive adj go-getting fightsome (Barnes)
aggressor n raider scather
agile adj nimble, limber, lithe
light-footed, yare
agitate(d) vb stir, toss, keyed-up -
agitation n worry mindfret, ything, seething, churning
agoraphobia n - steadfear
agree vb settle on, fit, 
hold with (Barnes)

thware (<OE þwǽrian)
thave (<OE þafian)

forewyrd (<OE forewyrdan)

agreement n deal, meeting of minds mirth, thwaring, thaving, soom (<OE som)
agrarian adj field (Barnes) -
agriculture n farming, tilling, harvest fieldlore, earth-tilth (Barnes), croplore
landwardship (cf. NHG Landwirtschaft)
aichmophobia n needlefright -
aid n helpmate, sidekick; backing, helping hand, leg up filst (<OE fylst)

atstall (<OE ætstæl) fultum (<OE fultum/fulteam)

aid vb help, bestead filst (<OE fylstan), andfilst (<OE andfylstan)
aimsome adj single-minded (Barnes) -
AIDS n - Earned Bodyweir Scantness Sickness
aim n goal, mark tiel (<OE tilian "to aim", cf. NHG Ziel)


aim at vb - eye for, nought in, tiel (<OE tilian, NHG zielen)
air n/vb

wind, breath; vb: broadcast; freshen

loft (<OE lyft, cf. NHG Luft, Du. lucht)

life's breath

air force n - loft-weir, loftmight (cf. Du. luchtmacht), luftwaffe, loftshiphere.
airplane/ aeroplane n - flycraft (OE, floegan; loftcraft,
stycraft from OE: upstigen to move up rise ascend)
airport n - lofthub, lofthaven (calque)
aisle n path, lane gangway
alarm clock n - wak(k)er (cf. NHG: Wecker, Du wekker)

wire-waker, wirerooster
lilter, uprouser, uprearer

alas interj alack, ay, woe welaway, lackaday, alack
albedo n - whiteness (<ME<OE hwitness), whiteshine
albino n - whiteling
album n - whitebook
albumen n egg white egg lime
alcohol n booze, firewater wineghost
alcoholic adj boozen -
alcoholic n sot, drunkard, boozen malt-worm
alert adj awake, watchful; heedful, wary; numble, sharp-witted; ready, willing gleg
rathe (<OE rathe)
algorithm n - reckonwrit
alien n/adj way-out, fremd, outlandish, outsider unkith
alienate vb - unkithen, unfriend
alienation n unfriendliness unkithenness
allegory n likeness forlikening (Barnes)
allergy n - overfeeling
alleviate vb allay, lighten -
alley n walk, lane, pathway -
alliance n bond, tie -
allied adj bound, wed fayed
alligator n - dread athex
alliteration n - staverime, mate-penning (Barnes)
allocate vb earmark, let fordeal
allotment n - fordealing
allow vb let (Barnes), leave, give the green light for thware (<OE þwárian)

thave (<OE þafian)

aleave (<OE ālīefan, cf. NHG erlauben)

allowable adj - thwaresome, thavesome
alloy n mix, blend, meld mastling
allude vb hint (at), touch (on) anent
allure vb draw to span (<OE spanan), adwell
almanac n yearbook -
alphabet n


alphabet: futhorc

abecede (<OE),  runeline, runecraft, runebook, staffhoard, staverow, staffrow (<OE stæfrǣw, Ic. stafrófið, Fa. stavraðið)

runstaf (Plural: Runstaffen)

altar n - giftboard, worship board
glowstead (<OE glédstede)
waybed (<OE wigbed)

hearg (<OE, cf. OHG harug)

alter vb wend frother (cf. Fr. feroar, Du. veranderen, NHG. verändern)
altercation n flite, brangle, brawl, row, dust-up -
alternative adj other -
altitude n height highmete, aloftness
altruism n selflessness -
altruistic adj selfless, unselfish -
amass vb gather, heap, huddle mill
amateur n greenhorn, beginner, starter -
ambassador n - rikesboder, landspellsman
amber n - brimstone, glarestone, burnstone
ambidextrous vb both-handed, two-handed umberight, umbecrafty, umbehandy


ambience n mood, feeling roomfeel
ambiguous adj - twowordy (<OE twiwyrdig), twysided (Barnes); twy-meaning.

twymeaning, unsifer, unswotel

ambiguity n - twowordiness
ambivalence n - waver
ambulance n - sickwain crankwain (<NHG Krankenwagen)
ambulant adj roving, wandering, wayfaring -
ambush n/ vb net, web; waylay (Barnes), forlay inbush
ameliorate vb better eather
amen interj


soothly (<OE soþlice) so be it (used in the early English Reformation), true dat (colloquial), yelayay

America n New World
Markland (<OE mearcland "borderland," cognate to ON markland, the name given by Leif Eriksson to a Labrador shoreline; the element m a r k incidentally shares the same three consonant sounds as A m e r i c a)

Westlands, Redlands

amicable adj friendly, hail-fellow-well-met blithe
amigo n friend -
ammonia n - hartshorn
amnesia n blackout eftmind loss
amoeba n - shapeshifter, slimebrick, slimedeer (cf. Ic. slímdýr), slimewight
amorphous adj shapeless -
amount n score, lot, whit, deal (Barnes) manith (cf. Dan. mængde, mange “many” + -de “-th”)
amphibian n - lurrow (cf. NHG Lurche), shorewight, frogdeer (cf. Ic. froskdýr), frogwight
amphibious adj - two-breathed (Barnes)
amphitheater n - playstow, umbewitstow
amplifier n - forstronger
amplify vb - outbroaden (Barnes)
amplitude n breadth, reach, width -
amputate v cut (off) rend, snithe, forcarve (Barnes), Belimb
amusement n fun gamon (<OE)
amusing adj delightful listing
anachronism n mistiming (Barnes) -
anaconda n - whipsnake
anaesthetic adj unsightly dwale
anagram n - stavewrixel
anal adj bottom arsely, arsen
analgesic n andwark
analyze vb forloosen (Barnes); think through, unthread, unriddle.
anarchism n/adj - lawlessholth
anarchy n lawlessness

redelacking, rikelessness
dwolma (<OE)

anastomosis n shunt -
anathema n - forputting (calque Gk. anathema)
anatomy n - bodylore
ancestor n forebear (Barnes)
forefather (Barnes)
elder, forerunner
fore-elder (Barnes)

foreolder (cf. Du. voorouder)

ancestry n strain, seed, bloodties, house strind
ancient adj hoary, olden, old-time

foreold (Barnes)

fern (<OE fyrn)

orold (calque of NHG uralt), yoren

ancient times n yore -
andiron n firedog firegoat
androgyny n -

manwomanhood (Calque of the Greek + "hood")

android n - manshape (cf. Greek andr 'man' and oeidēs 'shape')
anemometer n - windmeter (Barnes)
anemone n - windrose
angel n - rotherer, errand-ghost (<OE ærendgást)
anger? n ire, wrath greme (<OE grama); 'anger' O.N. loanword circa 1220AD
angle n nook, bight, winkle nookspan, nookwidth, hook, hurn (<OE hyrne)
Anglish adj Onglish
angry adj wrathful, uptight, waspish -
anguish n woe, sorrow, heartbreak, heartache, throe angsomeness, bosom-hell
angular adj - nook-shot, sharp-nooked, straight-edged, hyrned (<OE hyrnen)
animal n - deer, wight (<OE wiht), wilder, soulend, livle, nite (<OE nēat)
animate vb liven
quicken (Barnes)
besoul (cf. NHG beseelen, Du. bezielen)
anime n - dawnlandish livedrawing
animosity n hate(red) -
annals n - year-bookings
annelid n ringworm -
annihilate vb wipe out, be'nothing fornaughten (Barnes)
annihilation n wrecking fornaughting, spild (OE)
anniversary n yearday, yeartide (Barnes) mind day (<OE gemynddaeg)
Anno Domini adv in the year of our lord -
announce vb ban, bode, bid, kithe forcyndan (<OE cýðan, cf. NHG verkünden)

meld (<OE meldian, cf. NHG./Du. melden)

forthspell, spell out

annoy vb irk (Barnes), nettle -
annoying adj irksome (Barnes) -
annual adj yearly -
annual n yearbook -
annul vb fordo, call off -
anoint v smear anele, throughsmear (<OE þūrhsmyrian)
anonymous adj nameless, unnamed -
anorexia n - fastlust
antagonist n

fiend, foe

witherling, gainstander
antarctic n southend -
Antarctica n South End South Hern
antecedence n beforemath, foregoing -
antediluvian adj - foreflood
Ante Meridiëm phr Before Midday (calque) -
anterior adj foreward; foregoing, former -
anterior n fore, foreside -
anthem n - folksong (cf. NHG./Du. volkslied)
anthology n reader fayness
anthropology n - theedlore, manlore, werelore
anti- n wither- gain-, off-, Agan-
antisemite adj Jew-hater witherjew
anticipate vb foretell, foresee -
anticlockwise adj/adv - withclockwise, withershins
antics n - odd behaveness, childishness
anticonstitutionally adv - witherlawwritly
antidote n - atterloathe (<ME atterllothe)
antigen n - offweirstuff
antilope n - bloomgoat
antimatter n - gainstuff, unbeing, unstuff
antipathy n mislike -
antiquated adj careworn, timestruck -
antiquity n olden days; oldness, eldnerliness

afern (OE fyrn 'former, ancient')

antiseptic adj - withersmite
anti-statism n -


anti-statist adj - witherlawmootish
anti-statist n - leedward witherling
antitoxin n - gainatter
antler n - blowhorn (<OE blōwan)
antonym n - witherword
anulus n ring -
anus n asshole(vulgar) arse-thirl (OE: earsþerl); back-tharm.
anxiety n worry, fear angness, angens, angs
aorta n - loftleat
apart adj cleaved, sundered, shedded -
apart from adv aside -
apartment n flat, room, by-room -
apathetic adj samewise -
aperture n opening, breech, hole -
apex n tip, yop, top -
aphid n greenfly, blackfly wortlice
aphrodisiac n - lustdrive
apogee n - hightip
apologise vb - besorrow, forshild (cf. Du. verontschuldigen, NHG. entschuldigen)
apology n sorry (rare)

rueword, sorroword

defense: besaying, forespeech (<OE forespræċ)

postle n - errander, sendling (cf. NHG 'Sendling'),

fro-sent (Sir John Cheke)

apothecary n - leefwinkle (leef 'medicine', see Ic. lyf)
apparel n clothes, wear, threads, weed glad rags, donnings, step-outs
apparent adj seeming -
apparently adv/phr seemingly, at first sight, in name only, on the outside,
openly, to the eye
appeal vb call (upon) ask, beckon, clepe
appealing adj fair, winsome, sightly -
appear vb show up tew up (cf. OE ætīwan, ætywan), forshine (cf. Du. verschijnen, NHG. erscheinen)
appearance n

blee, look, cast, hue

appease vb soothe, allay frithen
appellation n name -
appendage n limb -
appendicitis n - blindgut addle
appendix n - organ: blindgut
blindtharm (cf. Fr. blineterm, NHG Blinddarm)

book: tack-on
onhang (cf. NHG Anhang)

appetite n craving, hunger -
appetizer n starter foremeal
application n bearing, putting-on -
apply vb beseech -
appoint vb afix, set up, earmark, deem, settle, name wend out
apprehension n foreboding, misgiving -
apprentice n beginner, learner learnend
approach vb near, nigh, draw near to, come forth, creep up on nighletch (<OE neahlæcan)
approaching adj nearing, forthcoming, upcoming, oncoming nighleching
appropriate adj befitting, seemly, meet roadly (cf. OE geradlic)
approximate adj rough, near, loose -
approximately adv about, roughly, nearly, nigh umbe
appurtenance n - sidemarking, nethermark
April n - Eastermonth
apron n - barmcloth
apt adj fit deve (<OE defe), eroadly (<OE ġerādliċ)
aquaculture n fish-farming -
aqualung n - waterlung
aquamarine adj seagreen -
'aquaphobia" n - waterfear
aquaphobic adj afraid of (the) water -
aquarium n - fishglass
aquatic adj waterly -
aqueduct n - waterleat
aqueous adj water like, water bearing -
arable adj - ploughsome
arachnid n - eight-legger
arboreal adj - treewise
arbitrary adj whimsy fallenly (cf. Du. toeval) willkeirly (<OE willa + cyre 'choice' + 'līc)
arboretum n - treestead
arc n bow -
archaeology n - delvelore, fernfrod (cf. Ic. fornleifafræði)
archaeopterix n - stoneset orfowl (cf. NHG Urvogel)
stonelayed oldenwing
archangel n - high-ghost
archer n bowman bowyer, shooter (<OE scytta, cf. NHG.

Schütze, Du. schutter)

archery n - bowcraft
archipelago n - itune (<OE ieg 'island' + tun); island-cluster.
architecture n shell, framework orshafting
architrave n - silebeam
archive n - leafwritsam (b.f. Ic. 'skjalasafn' document collection/museum), logsam, deedsam, writsam
arctic adj - bear- (Ursa Minor), far-northern
Arctic n Land of the Midnight Sun northend
ardour n keenness, lust hotheartedness (<OE hatheortnes)
area n land, landspan, swathe field of knowledge: breadth
argent n silver -
Argentina n - Silverland
arguable adj moot sakebere
argue vb flite, wrestle, squabble, wrangle, bicker, tilt sake (<OE sacan)
argument n flite rake (<OE racu)
aridity n drought, dryness rainlack, dryth
aristocrat n blue-blood rikeborn, richard
aristocratic adj full-blooded, highborn, highbred rikeborn, richborn, athelborn
arithmetic n - telcraft (<OE getælcræft)
arm vb - beweapon
arm n - handweapon
armadillo n - shieldling, girdledeer (cf. NHG Gürteltier, Du. gordeldier)
arming n - weaponing

outrysting (cf. NHG Ausrüstung)

armistice n truce weaponstandstill (calque from german Waffenstillstand)
armo(u)r n shield, byrnie

shieldwear, helmcladding, heraweed (< OE herewǣde), firedskeerp (<OE fierdsceorp)

rysting (<OE hyrstan, cf. NHG Rüstung)

armory n shieldhouse

shieldwearhouse, helmcladdenhouse, heraweedhouse, firedskeerphouse, weaponhouse (<OE wæpenhūs)


army n -

hera, landfird, dright, weremight, ganghera (foot men), thrim (<OE þrymm; cf. MnE trim), herë (<OE ​here)

aroma n smell duft
around prep/adj/adv about umb dialectal (<OE)
arouse vb stir, awake, arear -
arrange vb

fix, set, settle; draw up, lay out

stight, berede (cf. OE geradian)
arrangement n layout -
array vb lay out, set out -
arrest vb nab, avast -
arrive at vb reach, come upon, get to oncome (<OE ancuman)
arrogant adj proud, highhanded
overbearing, overweening
wlonk (<OE wlank)
arsenal n - weaponhoard
arsonist n fire-raiser firestarter
art n craft list (calque)
artery n - loftblood adder
artesian adj - thringrising
arthritis n - lithbulge (cf. Ic. Liðbólga)
article n thing writ
grammar: lithword (cf. Du. lidwoord)
artificer n maker, craftsman, smith, wright worldcrafter (<OE woruldcræfta) pl: worldcraftren (<OE woruldcræftan)
artificial adj manmade, craftly -
artillery n gunware -
artisan n craftsman, wright, handyman -
artistry n craft, deftness -
Asatru(ar) (maður) n - Esetroth(er), Ostroth(er)
asbestos n - thrumstone, stone-flax, earthflax, (sl) devil dust, devil's dust.
ascend vb climb, stigh/sty -
Ascension Day n - Gang-Day (<OE gangdæg)
ascent n upgoing -
asexual n - swiveless
Asia n the East easterngreatland
Asian (race) n yellow (vulgar slang) Eastern, Far-Eastern
asparagus n sparrowgrass -
asphalt n - streettar
assail vb scathe lay into col.; raid, storm -
assassin n hitman, murderer -
assault n onset, onrush

andfeng (<OE) 

crime: eaghlype (<OE æhlȳp)

assemble vb cleave, gather, huddle, band
frame, build, set up
samen (<OE samnian, cf. ON samna, NHG sammeln, Du. zamelen), evencome (<OE efencuman)
assembly n ingathering, meeting; church; get-together, huddle


samening (<OE samnung), leedstefen (<OE léodstefn), thing (dead sense of OE þing, shifted to object by c. 1300. Still retained in NHG Sache, which has both meanings.)

asset n holding -
assiduous adj hopping, tied-up, working workfast
assign vb allot, deed, trust -
assimilate vb - inblend, upnim (cf. NHG. aufnehmen)
assist vb help, bestead, prop up filst (<OE fylstan)
assistance n help, backing, helping hand, lift filst (<OE fylst)

midhelp (<OE midhelp), atstall (<OE ætstæl) fultum (<OE fultum), byhelp (cf. NHG Beihilfe)

assistant n helper

filstend (<OE fylstend)

atstandand (<OE ætstandend)

association n hookup, linkup, tie-up; brotherhood, guild, club, fellowship underbind
forband (cf. NHG Verband)
assume vb deem; foreguess, bear, shoulder, undertake

huy, hedge (<OE hycgan 'bear in mind, confide, trust')

smigh (<OE smēagan 'consider think about mediate examine scrutinize') ween, behowe (<OE behawian), ettle (<OE eahtian)

aster n - starbloom
asterisk n star starling; starkin
asteroid n - roomrock, rock wanderer
asthma n - angbreast (<OE angbreost)
astonish vb astound, dumbfound, amaze
bewilder, bewonder,startle
astonished n astounded, dumbfounded, amazed, bewildered, bewondered, startled offwondered (<OE ofwundrod)
astonishing adj amazing, astounding, blindsiding, eye-opening
startling; stunning, wonderful
astral adj - rotherly (OE rodor)
astrology n starcraft tungle sway, tungleshed (<OE tungolgescead)
astronaut n - heavensfarer , skytaker
astronomy n starlooking, starcraft heavenlore
astute adj shrewd, cunning, sharp
yepe (<OE geap)
asylum n grith, haven; madhouse -
asymptote n - ameetend
atavism n throwback -
atelier n workshop -
atheïst adj godless liefless, unliefsome, ungodsome
-ative suffix - -ingly
atlas n - land book
atmosphere n -

welkin, lofthelm (<OE lyfthelm)

atom n grot (ME, <OE  grōt, "particle") formote, uncleft
atrocious adj frightful; rotten. -
atrophy n withering, dying, waning -
attack n onslaught, onset, onrush, strike hildrush, onshot

ongripe (<OE ongrype, cf. NHG Angriff)

attack vb raid, rush, strike -
attack helicopter n - strikenchopper pl: strikenchoppru
attain vb reach -
attempt n bid, crash, fling, go , shot, whack, whirl cunning, fanding, minting
attempt vb seek cun (<OE cunnian), fand, mint
attend vb hearken, mind; care, oversee, watch -
attendant n steward thew, theen, atstandand (<OE ætstandend)
attention n heed, mind bemarkening
attest vb witness; swear; bear out -
attic n loft thackroom
attire n cladding -
attitude n standing, outlook, mood installing (cf. Du. instelling)
attorney n lawyer (french suffix), lawman -
attract vb draw, draw in

span (<OE spannan), adwell (<OE adwellan)

attractive adj comely, fair, good-looking, handsome, winsome, sightly wlitty (<OE wlitig)
attribute n ownship -
aubergine n - eggwort
auction n - bidding-sale
audacious adj daring, bold, ballsy, fearless, unafeared, cheeky, dare-all, dareful, unfearing, reckless
audacity n gall, guts, mettle
hardihood, hardiness
boldness, balls
audible adj - hearly, hearsome
audience n hearing, listeners -
audio n loud -
augment vb eke bemore
August n - Weedmonth
augury n - ontoken
aunt n - father's sister: fathe (<OE Faðe or Faðu)
mother's sister: Modrey, Mothrey (<OE Modrige or Modrie)
aurora n

dawning, daylight

aurora borealis n northern lights -
aurum n gold yellow dust
auscultation n harkening lossening (<OE hlosnian: to listen wait be on the lookout for)
austere adj - yarewit
austerity n hardliness tighthold
Australia n - Andland (cf. H Ic. proposal 'Andland,' found here ), Austerland
Austria n - Easternrick (<OHG Osterrici, cf. NHG 'Österreich)
author n writer bookwright
authority n headship, shark; death grip elderdom (<OE ealdordóm)

lorowdom, learnedom (<OE láréowdóm) swinge

auto- pref self- -
autodidact adj self-taught -
automaker n wainwright -
automatic adj


gunning: self-loading, half-tilt, full-tilt

machinery: self-working
autonomy n - selflaw, self-standing
autonym n selfname -
autopsy n - open bodychecking
autumn n fall till, harvest
auxiliary adj backup, fallback eke

helpand (cf. Du. helpend, NHG helfend)

avail vb - dow (< archaic NE dow < ME duʒen < OE dugan; cf. Sc. dow )

frim, miling

available adj free, in stock, at hand, forthcoming Atworthsome (calque), Athandsome, Atputsome
avalanche n snowslide bergfall, fellfall
avant garde n forhead -
avarice n greed yetzing (<OE gitsung)
avatar n - fleshbilth
avenge vb wreak -
average adj mean, middling evenscore
avert vb forestall, head off, stave off mithe, forecome, offwend, umbewend (redirect)
aviary n birdhouse, birdstow. -
aviator n birdman, flyer loftman, rotherer
avid adj eager -
avocado n butter pear -
avoid vb miss, shun, ware

mithe, forecome, sedge (<OE ġesecgan)

avow vb swear, trow, own yea-say
award vb bestow -
axis n axle -
azimuth n - south hern (cf. Ic. Attarhorn)
azure adj haw (ME <OE hæwen) swail blee

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