Staff A of the English Wordbook.

Basic abbreviations:

  • OE = Old English
  • NHG = New High German
  • Du. = Dutch

For a full list of etymological and other abbreviations used in these wordlists, see: Offshortenings.


Chancery English Class Anglish/English
Attested Unattested/Obsolete
a Capella n singing mouthglee, mouthly
aardvark n ant bear, ant-bear, antbear earthpig, earthswine, earthfarrow
abandon vb

shed, forgo, forsake (Barnes)
give up, forget

forlet UK dialectal ~ cf. OE forlǣtan, Fr. ferlitte, Du. verlaten, Nw. forlate, NHG verlassen) of-give, up-give, forleave, forlese, unget

abandon n wantonness, recklessness overgive
abandonment n forsaking shedding
abase vb cheapen, warp; shame, sink, belittle unar, anether
abash vb faze, ashame -
abate vb drain away, drop off, dwindle, ease, ebb fall (away), lessen, let up, lower, shrink, wane -
abattoir n slaughterhouse -
abbess n - overmother
abbreviation n short (for) offshortening, forshortening, shortening
abdicate vb step down, step aside from -
abdomen n midriff, belly kite, quith (<OE cwiþ) riff (<OE hrif)

bouk (Eng., calque of all Ger. speeches)

abduct vb kidnap, steal, lead away, offlead, nab -
aberrant n black-sheep -
aberration n - unfollowing
abet vb goad, spur, hearten fuse (<ME fusen)
abhor vb hate, loathe, mislike -
ability n skill, might, craft, knack
formay (cf. Du. vermogen)
abject adj low heanly (<OE heanlic), downcast (Barnes)
abjure vb forswear, take back, unsay, withdraw swear off (cf. NHG abschwören), aftercwethe
ablactate vb wean -
ablation n offtaking, offferrying -
ablative adj - atbraidingly, shiftfall (<Ic. skiftafall)
ablaut n - offlloud
able adj fit, skilled

dow, stand (cf. Dn, Nw, NHG)

-able sfx -worthy

-endly/-ingly, -cannish, -canny

-worth (<OE -wierþe)

-ber (cf. OE -bære, Fr. -ber, NHG -bar)


able to phr can, may,

to be canny enough,

to be cunning enough

up to

dow to, skilled to
ablution n washing, cleansing furbing
abnegate vb forgo, forswear -
abnormal adj amiss, unwonted, odd unmean, unshapely (Barnes)
abolish vb black out, stamp out, sweep away, wipe out

fordo, forend, adiley (<OE ādīlegian)

offship (cf. NHG abschaffen)

abominable adj aweful, dreadful, evil, loathsome, sickening shandful (<OE scandful, cf. NGH/Du. schandvoll), slithely, besmearful, wargedly (<OE)
aboriginal adj inborn orfolkish, orfolkly firstfolkish (see or- )
aborigine n - orfolk (OE or 'origin') firstfolk (see or- )
abort vb lay off, call off, end -
abortion n misbirth forbirthing, awaywarpness (<OE)
abound vb brim, teem, overflow -
abrasion n graze, scrape -
abridge vb cut back, forshorten, cut,  littlen (<OE)
abrupt adj quick, fast, steep shorn (<OE scoren)
abscess n swelling -
abscond vb break out, run off, steal away -
absence n

time off, lack, needfulness, want; dearth

offwardness (<OE)
absent adj missing, wanting, out offward (<OE)
absenteeism n - offwardness
absent-mindedness n daydreaming, flighty, thoughtless, unheeding, unmindful, woolgathering -
absinthe n wormwood -
absolute adj

outright, utter, full, rank
checkless (Barnes)

absolutely adv fully, wholly, dead -
absolve vb forgive offloosen (Barnes)
absorb vb drink, soak up, suck up, take up; grip; burn, drain, draw down, play out bedrink (<OE bedrincan)
up-soak, forsoak (Barnes)
abstain (from) vb forbear (Barnes), forego
withhold, hold back

swear off

abstinence n - forbearing, forhaveness (<OE forhæfnes)
abstract vb withdraw, take from, pull out -
abstract adj - fallenly
abstract n withdrawal, outline outpulling, outdraught, offdrawal (abstraction)
abundance n wealth, lot fullsomeness (<OE)
abundant adj teeming, swarming
overflowing, fulsome
rife, fat, thick, awash
abuse vb scathe, mishandle hean (<OE hienan), smittle, misbrook
abysmal adj 1. hellish, hopeless, dreadful
2. fathomless, bottomless
netherly, unfathomly
abyss n 1. hell
2. depth, ground, deep, pit, netherworld
newel (<OE neowol)

offground (cf. NGH. Abgrund, Du. Afgrond)

acacia n thorn tree, whistling thorn, wattle thornbloom, hookthorn
academia n - learnedom, loredom, frod (<OE)
academic or academik n/adj highbrow, book-learned moot, booksome, lorewise, mighty-brained
n: loreman
accede vb - agree: thware (<OE)
accelerate vb speed up, spur, quicken (Barnes) yare, swiften
acceleration n speeding up yareness
accent n twang, drawl tungfall (cf. Du. tongval ), word-strain (Barnes)
accept vb swallow, trust; bear, shoulder; intake (Barnes)

thave, thware (<OE þwarian 'to bring into agreement, make harmonious') ontake, onfang (<OE onfon)

acceptable adj all right, fair, good thwaringly, thewsome
access n doorway, gateway, key infare, ingoing
accessible adj at hand yea-fare, thuringly
accessory n - bykeeper, deedmate (Barnes)
accident n mishap; hap, luck, befall unfall (cf. NHG unfall) , hapliness (Barnes)
accidental adj unwitting fallenly, happensome (Barnes)
accompany vb go with, follow

beglide (cf. Du. begeleiden, NHG begleiten), samodsithe (<OE samodsīðian)

accomplish vb phr fulfill, sow up, bring about, reach -
accord n deal, meeting of minds thaving, thwaring
accordion n - bellowharp
according to adj as of, by, true to


nigh (cf. NHG nach), after, following (calque)
account n ledger, reckoning reckoning (cf. Du. rekening, Fr. rekken)
account of vb witness (give) forof (on)
accountant n - teller (cf. Du. tal, NHG Zahle 'number')
accumulate vb heap, upheap, build up, gather up -
accumulation vb unheaping -
accurate adj right on, spot-on swotel (<OE sweotol)

narrowcore (calque of Du. nauwkeurig, narrow - core 'choice')

accusation noun bewrayment -
accusative (case) adj - wrayingly (<OE wregendlic)

end-case (Barnes)

tholfall (cf. Ic. þolfall)

whonefall (<OE hwone, the accusative of "hwæt", refer to German "wen" and "Wenfall")

accuse vb wray, guilt


fromtyghtle (<OE frumtyhtle, originally meaning first accusation)

falsely: forwray (<OE forwregan)

accustom vb wean, wean on, wean to onwone (Barnes)
accustomed adj wont, used to -
acephalous adj headless (Barnes) -
acetone n - sourghost
acid n/adj - sour
acne n - redmeal (OE mal 'spot')
aconite n wolfsbane -
acoustics n - dinlore
acquaint vb befriend, get to know ken (<OE cunnan (“to become acquainted with, to know”))
acquaintance n friend, neighbor kenning
acquiesce vb bow thave (<OE)
acquire vb earn, foster, get, win beget (<OE)
acquisition n

windfall (unexpected)

acrobat n - stringtumb
acropolis n - highburg
across adv over thwarse, thweer, athwart (Barnes)
act n deed, work, play -
act vb do, work -
action n deed (Barnes), doing, work, do (as, 'all talk and no do'), liveliness ysheon (<OE ġescēon, cf. NHG Geschehen)


activate vb switch on -
active adj switched on, snell, deedy; mettlesome, springy; hopping, tied-up ongoing, doingsome (Barnes), doughty,
sprack (Barnes)
activist n backer, upholder, fighter, nut, diehard -
actor(ess) n player, showman showplayer(in)
actual adj sooth, true nowly
actually adv indeed, truly, soothly, forsooth, truthfully,

all in all, truth to tell, word for word

workly, echtly (see echt), wittedly (<OE)
acupuncture n pinpricking nailhealing
acute adj sharp, high (Barnes), keen, honed; shrill (accent) swotel
A.D. adv in the year of our lord Y.L.
ad infinitum adv forevermore at eke, ekely, for eke, unto everness
adamant adj unyielding, unswayed -
adaptable adj - onwending (cf. Du. aanwendbaar)
adapter n - eck-on, fayfitter
add vb eke reckon up, put on, onput (Barnes), at-eke (OE)
add up vb cast up, tally up -
addiction n craving, yearning sought (<ME soght cf. NHG Sucht)
addition n - togive
additional adj - bycoming (Du. bijkomend), coming by
additionally adv

again, also, besides, either, further, furthermore, likewise, moreover, then, too, withal, yet, over and above

eke (also)
address vb call, name, clip, bespeak at-speak, bequethe, hote
address n - sitline (<OE: asittan 'to live together'), callword
adept adj skillful, skilled, good, deft -
adequate adj right, even, fair, fit, befitting, becoming makeshift/ make-do
adhere vb cling, stick, cleave to, follow, stand by at-cleave (<OE)
oncleave (Barnes)
adherence to good morals n - thewfastness
adherent n follower -
adiposis n overweight -
adjacent adj near, next, neighboring -
adjective n - mark-word (Barnes)
adjunct n helpmate, sidekick -
adjust vb set, fit forstell (cf. NHG/Du. verstellen)

(see stell)

administer vb wield, deal, lot,  bewit
administration n dealing
admiral n - fleethelm, fleetleader
admire vb look up to bewonder
admission n doorway thwaring
admit vb

let in, acknowledge, welcome, greet, take in

confess: own up

andet (<OE andhetan)

give to (cf. NHG zugeben, Du. toegeven)

confess: beknow (Eng.)

admonish vb chide, forewarn, upbraid, warn tell off, man (<OE manian)
adolescence n youthhood -
adolescent n youth, youngling, youngster, teen -
adopt vb take on, follow; take in, mother, rear, foster, bring up, take care of intake
adoption n fostering intaking
adorable adj comely, lovely, looksome -
adorn vb bedeck (Barnes), yare, trim

breen (<OE berenian)

with precious '​stones: astean (<OE āstæna āstænan)

adrenaline n - thringweald
adulation n - hallowing
adult n grown-up fullwaxener (see Eng. waxen)
adultery n - wedlock breach, Farlegarness (<OS Farlegarnessi)
adumbrate vb outline -
advance vb make inroads, forward, further, go (on)

trans. put forth

forthgo, wade on
advance n inroads, headway; breakthrough
in advance: beforehand
advanced adj manifold, knotted, snarled -
advancing adj striding -
advantage n foredeal, high ground, upper-hand boot, behoof, upside
advantageous adj helpful, worthwhile behovely, frimful/frimly (<OE frimlic)
advent n coming, onset -
adventure n happening, time; flutter, throw, undertaking rose (<OE rās)

wayspell (cf. Sw.vågspel)

adventurous adj daring, free-swinging, gutsy, bold rosey
adverb n - byword (cf. NHG. Beiwort, Du. bijwoord, Dn. biord)
adversarial n - thwartsome (Barnes), witherlike
adversary n foe, witherling withersake (<OE wiþersaca, cf. NGH. Widersacher)
adversity n ill, knock, mishap; hardship, hurdle, pitfall thwartsomeness, hardhap, witherness
adversive n - thwartsome, withersome
advertize vb play up showmede
advertisement n showing
advice n tip, help rede (<OE raed, cf. Du. raad, NGH. Rat)
advisable adj Redesome (cf. NHG ratsam)
advise vb - berede, mind
advocacy n backing forespeech (<OE forespræċ, cf. NHG. Fürsprache, Du. voorspraak)
advocate n/vb plead for, uphold, back up; spokesman, stand up for forspeak (<OE foresprecan, NHG fürsprechen)
aerial adj - loften (<OE lyften)
aerodynamic adj streamlined wind deft, windfit, loftlithe
aerodynamics n - loftcraft (calque Gk.)
aeronaut n - roomfarer (room = space; cf. NHG Raum...)
aerospace n - loftroom
aesir n - oasses (<OE os, -ir is an ON plural)
aesthetic adj comely, fair wlitty (<OE wlitig)
affair n fling; blowout; handiwork; happening; business inting (<OE intinga)
affect vb inflow, sway; wend, shift, switch frother (Du. veranderen)
affection n fondness; illness; leaning; hallmark child: bairnlove (<OE bearnlufe)
affectionate adj loving, warm-hearted lovesome (Barnes)
affiance vb betroth -
affinity n leaning, kinship -
affirm vb -

foraye (Barnes), begean (<OE begæn)

affirmative adv aye, yea, so, yes, yeah, yep yea-some, yea-ly, ayesome
affix n - wordfastening
afflict vb ail, smite, dretch

swench (<OE swinc), beweal (<OE bewælan), thrysk (<OE ġeþryscan)

affluence n wealth, riches, fat weal
affluent adj wealthy, well-off, well-to-do
rich, fat
afraid adj aghast, fearful, frightened afeared
Africa n - Highsun
age n time eld, tide (era)
age vb olden: mellow, ripen, elden eld
aged adj elderly, old(en), yore forolden, full-blown, full-fledged, grown.
agenda n to-do-list worklist (cf. Fr. wurklist)
agglomerate vb huddle clodden (Barnes)
agglomeration n crowding, heaping, clodding, swelltown
agglutinate vb wordlink upcleam (Barnes)
aggressive adj go-getting fightsome (Barnes)
aggressor n raider scather
agile adj nimble, limber, lithe
light-footed, yare
agitate(d) vb stir, toss, keyed-up -
agitation n worry mindfret, seething, churning
agoraphobia n - steadfear
agree vb settle on, fit, 
hold with (Barnes)

thwear (<OE þwǽrian)
thave (<OE þafian)

forewyrd (<OE forewyrdan)

agreeable adj - likeworthy
agreement n deal, meeting of minds mirth, thwaring, thaving, soom (<OE som)
agrarian/agricultural adj field (Barnes) -
agriculture n farming, tilling, harvest fieldlore, earth-tilth (Barnes), croplore
landwardship (cf. NHG Landwirtschaft)
aichmophobia n needlefright -
aid n helpmate, sidekick; backing, helping hand, leg up filst (<OE fylst)

atstall (<OE ætstæl) fultum (<OE fultum/fulteam)

aid vb help, bestead filst (<OE fylstan), andfilst (<OE andfylstan)
aimsome adj single-minded (Barnes) -
AIDS n - Earned Bodyweir Scantness Sickness
aim n goal, mark till (<OE tilian "to aim", cf. NHG Ziel)


aim at vb - eye for, nought in, till (<OE tilian, NHG zielen)
air n/vb

wind, breath; vb: broadcast; freshen

loft (<OE loft (through Old Norse), cf. NHG Luft, Du. lucht), lift (<OE lyft)

life's breath

air force n - loft-weir, loftmight (cf. Du. luchtmacht)
airplane/ aeroplane n - flycraft (OE, floegan; loftcraft,
stycraft from OE: upstigen to move up rise ascend)
airport n - lofthub, lofthaven (calque)
aisle n path, lane gangway
alarm clock n - waker (cf. NHG: Wecker, Du wekker)

wire-waker, wirerooster
lilter, uprouser, uprearer

alas interj alack, ay, woe welaway, lackaday, alack
albedo n - whiteness (<ME<OE hwitness), whiteshine
albino n - whiteling
album n - whitebook
albumen n egg white egg lime
alcohol n booze, firewater wineghost
alcoholic adj boozen -
alcoholic n sot, drunkard, boozen malt-worm
alert adj awake, watchful; heedful, wary; numble, sharp-witted; ready, willing gleg
rathe (<OE rathe)
algorithm n - reckonwrit
alien n/adj way-out, fremd, outlandish, outsider Fremd (Eng./NHG. fremd)
alienate vb - Befremd (NHG. Befremden) see fremd
alienation n unfriendliness Befremding
align vb set up, fit, shape (into a line) -
allegory n likeness forlikening (Barnes)
allergy n - overfeeling
alleviate vb allay, lighten -
alley n walk, lane, pathway -
alliance n bond, tie -
allied adj bound, wed fayed
alligator n - broadmouthnix
alliteration n - staverime, mate-penning (Barnes)
allocate vb earmark, let fordeal
allotment n - fordealing
allow vb let (Barnes), leave, give the green light for thwore (<OE þwárian)

thave (<OE þafian)

aleave (<OE ālīefan, cf. NHG erlauben)

allowable adj - thwaresome, thavesome
alloy n mix, blend, meld mastling
All Saints Day n Allhallowmas, Hallowmas -
allude vb hint (at), touch (on) anent
allure vb draw to span (<OE spanan), adwell
almanac n yearbook -
alphabet n


alphabet: futhorc

staffrow (<OE stæfrǣw, Ic. stafrófið, Fa. stavraðið), runeline, runecraft, runebook, staffhoard, runestaff
altar n - giftboard, worship board
glowstead, gleedstead (<OE glédstede)
waybed (<OE wigbed)

harrow (<OE hearg, cf. OHG harug)

alter vb wend frother (cf. Fr. feroar, Du. veranderen, NHG. verändern)
altercation n flite, brangle, brawl, row, dust-up -
alternate v waver, switch, become, shift -
alternative adj other -
altitude n height highmete, aloftness
altruism n selflessness -
altruistic adj selfless, unselfish -
amass vb gather, heap, huddle mill
amateur n greenhorn, beginner, starter -
amazon n - bandfighters (calque of Old Persian *hamazan)

wyewoman (calque of Irish banghaiscíoch and Scottish Gaelic ban-laoch)

ambassador n - rikesboder, landspellsman
amber n - brimstone, glarestone, burnstone, elksand (<OE eolhsand)
ambidextrous adj both-handed, two-handed, either-handed umberight, umbecrafty, umbehandy
ambience n mood, feeling roomfeel
ambiguous adj - twowordy (<OE twiwyrdig), twisided (Barnes); twi-meaning.

twimeaning, unsifer,

ambiguity n - twowordiness
ambivalence n - waver
ambulance n - sickwain crankwain (<NHG Krankenwagen)
ambulant adj roving, wandering, wayfaring -
ambush n/ vb net, web; waylay (Barnes), forlay inbush
ameliorate vb better eather
amen interj


soothly (<OE soþlice) so be it (used in the early English Reformation), true dat (colloquial), yelayay

America n New World
Markland (<OE mearcland "borderland," cognate to ON markland, the name given by Leif Eriksson to a Labrador shoreline; the element m a r k incidentally shares the same three consonant sounds as A m e r i c a)

Westlands, Redlands

amicable adj friendly, hail-fellow-well-met blithe
amigo n friend -
ammonia n - hartshorn
amnesia n blackout eftmind loss
amoeba n - shapeshifter, slimebrick, slimedeer (cf. Ic. slímdýr)
amorphous adj shapeless -
amount n score, lot, whit, deal (Barnes) -
ampersand n - andtoken
amphibian n - lurrow (cf. NHG Lurche), shoredeer, frogdeer (cf. Ic. froskdýr)
amphibious adj - two-breathed (Barnes)
amphitheater n - playstow, umbewitstow
ample adj broad, large, roomy
amplifier n - forstronger
amplify vb - outbroaden (Barnes)
amplitude n breadth, reach, width -
amputate v cut (off) rend, snithe, forcarve (Barnes), belimb
amusement n fun, game, fun and games
amusing adj - listing
anachronism n mistiming (Barnes) -
anaconda n - whipsnake
anaesthetic adj unsightly dwale
anagram n - stavewrixel
anal adj bottom, ?bum — arsely, arsen
analgesic n andwark
analogy n - alikeword
analyze vb forloosen (Barnes); think through, unthread, unriddle.
anarchism n/adj - lawlessholth, lawlesshood
anarchy n lawlessness

redelacking, ethellessness
dwolma (<OE)

anastomosis n shunt -
anathema n - forputting (calque Gk. anathema)
anatomy n - bodylore
ancestor n forebear (Barnes)
forefather (Barnes)
elder, forerunner
fore-elder (Barnes)

foreolder (cf. Du. voorouder)

ancestry n strain, seed, bloodties, house strind
ancient adj hoary, olden, old-time

foreold (Barnes)

fern (<OE fyrn)

orold (calque of NHG uralt), yoren

ancient times n yoretide -
andiron n firedog firegoat
androgyny n -

werewifehood (Calque of the Greek + "hood")

android n - manshape (cf. Greek andr 'man' and oeidēs 'shape')
anemometer n - windmeter (Barnes)
anemone n - windrose
anesthesia n - unfeeler (calque)

number (one who numbs)

angel n - rotherer, errandghost (<OE ærendgást)
anger? n ire, wrath greme (<OE grama); 'anger' O.N. loanword circa 1220AD
angle n nook, bight, winkle nookspan, nookwidth, hook, hurn (<OE hyrne), whem (<OE hwemm)
angry adj wrathful, uptight, waspish -
anguish n woe, sorrow, heartbreak, heartache, throe angsomeness, bosom-hell
angular adj - nook-shot, sharp-nooked, straight-edged, hyrned (<OE hyrnen)
animal n being deer, wight (<OE wiht), wilder, soulend, livle, nite (<OE nēat), neat (from OE, like neatsfoot oil), neatenkind (<OE)
animate vb liven
quicken (Barnes)
besoul (cf. NHG beseelen, Du. bezielen)
anime n - dawnlandish livedrawing
animosity n hate(red) -
annals n - year-bookings
annelid n ringworm -
annex vb - onend (on+end) (cf. NHG Anschluss)
annihilate vb wipe out, fornaughten (Barnes)

benothing (Eng.)

annihilation n wrecking fornaughting, spild (OE)
anniversary n yearday, yeartide (Barnes) mind day (<OE gemynddaeg)
Anno Domini adv in the year of our lord -
annotate vb mark bemark
annotation n marking bemarking (NGH Bemerkung)
announce vb ban, bode, bid, kithe forcouth (<OE cýðan, cf. NHG verkünden)

meld (<OE meldian, cf. NHG./Du. melden)

forthspell, spell out

announcement n - oncouthing (cf. NHG Ankündigung)
annoy vb irk (Barnes), nettle -
annoying adj irksome (Barnes) -
annual adj yearly -
annual n yearbook -
annul vb fordo, call off -
annuli astronomici n Gemma's Rings -
anoint v smear anele, throughsmear (<OE þūrhsmyrian)
anonymous adj nameless, unnamed -
anorexia n - fastlust
antagonist n

fiend, foe

witherling, gainstander
antarctic n southend -
Antarctica n South End South Hern
antecedence n beforemath, foregoing -
antediluvian adj - foreflood
Ante Meridiëm phr Before Midday (calque) -
anterior adj foreward; foregoing, former -
anterior n fore, foreside -
anthem n - folksong (cf. NHG./Du. volkslied)
anthology n reader fayness
anthropology n - theedlore, manlore, werelore
anti- n wither-, with-, gain- off-
antisemite adj Jew-hater -
anticipate vb foretell, foresee -
anticlockwise adj/adv widdershins withclockwise, withershins
antics n - odd behaveness, childishness
anticonstitutionally adv - witherlawwritly


antidisestablishmentarianism n - gainunstathelingmanness
antidote n - atterloathe (<ME atterllothe)
antigen n - offweirstuff
antihero n - gainheleth, withheleth, witherheleth
antilope n - buck (cf. Afr. bok)


antimatter n - gainstuff, witherstuff, unbeing, unstuff
antipathy n mislike -
antipope n gainfather (cf. NHG gegenpapst)
antiquated adj careworn, timestruck -
antique n/adj eldern -
antiquity n olden days; oldness, eldnerliness

afern (OE fyrn 'former, ancient')

antiseptic adj - withersmite
anti-statism n -


anti-statist adj - witherlawmootish
anti-statist n - leedward witherling
antitoxin n - gainatter
antler n - blowhorn (<OE blōwan)
antonym n - witherword

gainword (cf. NHG gegenwort)

anulus n ring -
anus n asshole(vulgar) arse-thirl (OE: earsþerl); back-tharm.
anxiety n worry, fear angness, angens, angs
aorta n - loftleat
apart adj cleaved, sundered, shedded -
apart from adv aside, asunder -
apartment n flat, room, by-room -
apathetic adj samewise -
aperture n opening, breech, hole -
apex n tip, yop, top -
aphid n greenfly, blackfly wortlice
aphrodisiac n - lustdrive
apogee n - hightip
apologise vb To 


Unshild (cf. Du. verontschuldigen, NHG. entschuldigen) see shild

apology n sorry (rare)

rueword, sorroword, belading (<OE)

defense: besaying, forespeech (<OE forespræċ)

postle n - errander, sendling (cf. NHG 'Sendling'),

fro-sent (Sir John Cheke)

apothecary n - leefwinkle (leef 'medicine', see Ic. lyf)
apparel n clothes, wear, threads, weed glad rags, donnings, step-outs
apparent adj seeming eyeshinely (NHG. augenscheinlich, Du. ogenschijnlijk)
apparently adv/phr seemingly, at first sight, in name only, on the outside,
openly, to the eye
staringly, eyeshinely (NHG. augenscheinlich, Du. ogenschijnlijk)
appeal vb call (upon) ask, beckon, clepe
appealing adj fair, winsome, sightly -
appear vb show up tew up (cf. OE ætīwan, ætywan), forshine (cf. Du. verschijnen, NHG. erscheinen)
appearance n

blee, look, cast, hue

leer, eyeshine (NHG. Augenschein)
appease vb soothe, allay frithen
appellation n name -
appendage n limb -
appendicitis n - blindgut addle
appendix n - organ: blindgut
blindtharm (cf. Fr. blineterm, NHG Blinddarm)

book: tack-on
onhang (cf. NHG Anhang)

appetite n craving, hunger -
appetizer n starter foremeal
application n bearing, putting-on -
apply vb beseech, lay on, spread bewharve (cf. NHG bewerben) wharve
appoint vb afix, set up, earmark, deem, settle, name wend out
appreciate v to be thankful
apprehension n foreboding, misgiving -
apprentice n beginner, learner learnend
approach vb near, nigh, draw near to, come forth, creep up on nighletch (<OE neahlæcan)
approach n means, way
approaching adj nearing, forthcoming, upcoming, oncoming nighleching
appropriate adj befitting, seemly, meet roadly (cf. OE geradlic)
approximate adj rough, near, loose -
approximately adv about, roughly, nearly, nigh umbe
appurtenance n - sidemarking, nethermark
April n - Eastermonth
apron n - barmcloth
apt adj fit deve (<OE defe), yroadly (<OE ġerādliċ)
aquaculture n fish-farming -
aqualung n - waterlung
aquamarine adj seagreen -
aquaphobia n - waterfear
aquaphobic adj afraid of (the) water -
aquarium n - fishglass
aquatic adj waterly -
aqueduct n - waterleat
aqueous adj water like, water bearing -
arable adj - ploughsome
arachnid n - eight-legger
arboreal adj - treewise
arbitrary adj whimsy fallenly (cf. Du. toeval) willkeirly (<OE willa + cyre 'choice' + 'līc)
arboretum n - treestead
arc n bow -
arch n - bow
archaeology n - delvelore, fernfrod (cf. Ic. fornleifafræði)
archaeopterix n - stoneset orfowl (cf. NHG Urvogel)
stonelayed oldenwing
archaic adj. timeworn forold (Eng.) akin to (NHG. veraltet)
archangel n - high-ghost
archer n bowman bowyer, shooter (<OE scytta, cf. NHG.

Schütze, Du. schutter)

archery n - bowcraft
archipelago n - itune (<OE ieg 'island' + tun); island-cluster.
architecture n shell, framework orshafting
architrave n - silebeam
archive n - leafwritsam (b.f. Ic. 'skjalasafn' document collection/museum), logsam, deedsam, writsam
arctic adj - bear- (Ursa Minor), far-northern
Arctic n Land of the Midnight Sun northend
ardour n keenness, lust hotheartedness (<OE hatheortnes)
area n land, landspan, swathe field of knowledge: breadth
argent n silver -
Argentina n - Silverland
arguable adj moot sakebere
argue vb flite, wrestle, squabble, wrangle, bicker, tilt chide
argument n flite rake (<OE racu)
aridity n drought, dryness rainlack, dryth
aristocrat n blue-blood rikeborn, richard
aristocratic adj full-blooded, highborn, highbred rikeborn, richborn, athelborn
arithmetic n - tellcraft (<OE getælcræft)
arm vb - beweapon
arm n - handweapon
armadillo n - shieldling, girdledeer (cf. NHG Gürteltier, Du. gordeldier)
armillary sphere n - ringkuggle
arming n - weaponing

outrysting (cf. NHG Ausrüstung)

armistice n truce weaponstandstill (calque from german Waffenstillstand)
armo(u)r n shield, byrnie

shieldwear, helmcladding, heraweed (< OE herewǣde), firedskeerp (<OE fierdsceorp)

rysting (<OE hyrstan, cf. NHG Rüstung)

armory n shieldhouse

shieldwearhouse, helmcladdenhouse, heraweedhouse, firedskeerphouse, weaponhouse (<OE wæpenhūs)


army n fyrd (attested as historical)=ferd, landfyrd (also attested but I don't know how to show the link as being so)

hera, landferd, dright, weremight, ganghere (foot men), thrim (<OE þrymm; cf. MnE trim), herë (<OE ​here), herg

aroma n smell duft
around prep/adj/adv about umbe (dialectal Eng.)
arouse vb stir, awake, arear -
arrange vb

fix, set, settle; draw up, lay out

arrangement n layout -
array vb lay out, set out -
arrest vb nab, avast -
arrive at vb reach, come upon, get to oncome (<OE ancuman)
arrogant adj proud, highhanded
overbearing, overweening
wlonk (<OE wlank)
arsenal n - weaponhoard
arsonist n fire-raiser firestarter
art n craft list (calque)
artery n - loftblood adder
artesian adj - thringrising
argon n - idlestuff
arthritis n - lithbollow (cf. Ic. Liðbólga)
artichoke n - eatthistle (cf. Ic. ætiþistill)
article n thing writ
grammar: lithword (cf. Du. lidwoord)
artificer n maker, craftsman, smith, wright worldcrafter (<OE woruldcræfta) pl: worldcraftren (<OE woruldcræftan)
artificial adj manmade, craftly -
artillery n gunware -
artisan n craftsman, wright, handyman -
art(s), artistry n craft, deftness, handiwork -
Asatru(ar) (maður) n - Esetroth(er), Ostroth(er)
asbestos n - thrumstone, stone-flax, earthflax, (sl) devil dust, devil's dust.
ascend vb climb, sty -
Ascension Day n - Gang-Day (<OE gangdæg)
ascent n upgoing, rise upgang (Brit.) 
asexual n - swiveless
Asia n the East easterngreatland
Asian (race) n yellow (vulgar slang) Eastern, Far-Eastern
asparagus n sparrowgrass -
asphalt n - streettar
assail vb scathe lay into col.; raid, storm -
assassin n hitman, murderer -
assault v onset, onrush, beset onfall (Eng, NHG. Anfall)
assault n onset, onrush, besetting

andfeng (<OE) Obs.

onfall (Eng., NHG. Anfall)

assemble vb cleave, gather, huddle, band
frame, build, set up, forgather
samen (<OE samnian, cf. ON samna, NHG sammeln, Du. zamelen), evencome (<OE efencuman)
assembly n ingathering, meeting; church; get-together, huddle


samening (<OE samnung), leedstefen (<OE léodstefn), thing (dead sense of OE þing, shifted to object by c. 1300. Still retained in NHG Sache, which has both meanings.)

asset n holding -
assiduous adj hopping, tied-up, working workfast
assign vb allot, deed, trust -
assimilate vb - inblend, uptake/upnim (cf. NHG. aufnehmen)
assist vb help, bestead, prop up filst (<OE fylstan)
assistance n help, backing, helping hand, lift filst (<OE fylst)

midhelp (<OE midhelp), atstall (<OE ætstæl) fultum (<OE fultum), byhelp (cf. NHG Beihilfe)

assistant n helper

filstend (<OE fylstend)

atstandand (<OE ætstandend)

association n hookup, linkup, tie-up; brotherhood, guild, club, fellowship underbind
forband (cf. NHG Verband)
assume vb deem; foreguess, bear, shoulder, undertake

hie/huy (<OE hycgan 'bear in mind, confide, trust)

smigh (<OE smēagan 'consider think about mediate examine scrutinize') ween,

behowe (<OE behawian), ettle (<OE eahtian)

aster n - starbloom
asterisk n star starling; starkin
asteroid n - roomrock, rock wanderer
asthma n - angbreast (<OE angbreost)
astonish vb astound, dumbfound, amaze
bewilder, bewonder,startle
astonished n astounded, dumbfounded, amazed, bewildered, bewondered, startled offwondered (<OE ofwundrod)
astonishing adj amazing, astounding, blindsiding, eye-opening
startling; stunning, wonderful
astral adj - rotherly (OE rodor)
astrarium n - tungletimer
Astrarium of Giovanni Dondi dell'Orologio
n - liefbound tungletimer
astrolabe n - starreckoner
astrology n starcraft tungle sway, tungleshed (<OE tungolgescead)
astronaut n - heavensfarer , skytaker
astronomy n starlooking starlore, heavenlore
astute adj shrewd, cunning, sharp
yepe (<OE geap)
asylum n grith, haven; madhouse -
asymptote n - ameetend
atavism n throwback -
atelier n workshop -
atheïsm n godlessness -
atheïst adj godless liefless, unliefsome, ungodsome
-ative suffix - -ingly
atlas n - land book
atmosphere n -

welkin, lofthelm (<OE lyfthelm)

atom n grot (ME, <OE  grōt, "particle") formote, uncleft
atrocious adj frightful; rotten. -
atrophy n withering, dying, waning -
attack n onslaught, onset, onrush, strike hildrush, onshot

ongripe (<OE ongrype, cf. NHG Angriff)

attack vb raid, rush, strike -
attack helicopter n - strikenchopper pl: strikenchoppru
attain vb reach -
attempt n bid, crash, fling, go, shot, whack, whirl cunning, fanding, minting
attempt vb seek cun (<OE cunnian), fand, mint
attend vb hearken, mind; care, oversee, watch -
attendant n steward thew, theen, atstandand (<OE ætstandend)
attention n heed, mind, aught bemarking
attest vb witness; swear; bear out Beshine (NHG. bescheinigen)

Besteady (NHG. bestätigen)

attic n loft thackroom
attire n cladding -
attitude n standing, outlook, mood installing (cf. Du. instelling)
attorney n lawman -
attract vb draw, draw in

span (<OE spannan), adwell (<OE adwellan)

attractive adj comely, fair, good-looking, handsome, winsome, sightly wlitty (<OE wlitig)
attribute n ownship -
aubergine n - eywort, wind-healing wort (calque from Sanskrit)
auction n - biddingsale
audacious adj daring, bold, ballsy, fearless, unafeared, cheeky, dare-all, dareful, unfearing, reckless
audacity n gall, guts, mettle
hardihood, hardiness
boldness, balls
audible adj - hearly, hearsome
audience n hearing, listeners greetinghouse (<OE)
audio n loud -
augment vb eke bemore
August n - Weedmonth
augury n - ontoken
aunt n - father's sister: fathe (<OE Faðe or Faðu)
mother's sister: modrey, mothrey (<OE Modrige or Modrie)
aurora n

dawning, daylight

aurora borealis n northern lights -
aurum n gold yellow dust
auscultation n harkening lossening (<OE hlosnian: to listen wait be on the lookout for)
austere adj - yarewit
austerity n hardliness tighthold
Australia n - Andland (cf. H Ic. proposal 'Andland,' found here )
Austria n - Easternrick (<OHG Osterrici, cf. NHG 'Österreich)
author n writer bookwright
authentic adj true -
authority n headship, shark; deathgrip elderdom (<OE ealdordóm)

lorewdom, learnedom (<OE láréowdóm) swinge

auto- pref self- -
autodidact adj elftaught selflerarned
automaker n wainwright -
automatic adj


gunning: self-loading, half-tilt, full-tilt

machinery: selfworking
automobile n - selfshitfter (calque)
autonomy n - selflaw, selfstanding
autonym n selfname -
autopsy n - open bodyunderseeching
autumn n fall till, harvest
auxiliary adj backup, fallback-, helping eke
avail vb - dow (< archaic NE dow < ME duʒen < OE dugan; cf. Sc. dow )

frim, miling

available adj free, in stock, at hand, forthcoming arworthsome (calque), athandsome, atputsome
avalanche n snowslide bergfall, fellfall
avant garde n forhead -
avarice n greed yetsing (<OE gitsung)
avatar n - fleshbilth
avenge vb wreak -
avenue n - drive
average adj mean, middling -
avert vb forestall, head off, stave off mithe, forecome, offwend, umbewend (redirect)
aviary n birdhouse, birdstow. -
aviator n birdman, flyer loftman, rotherer
avid adj raring -
avocado n butter pear; soft apple -
avoid vb miss, shun, ware

mithe (obs.), forecome, sedge (<OE ġesecgan)

umgang, umgo (cf. NHG umgehen)

(see um-)

avow vb swear, trow, own yea-say
award vb bestow -
axis n axle -
azimuth n - south hern (cf. Ic. Attarhorn)
azure adj haw (ME <OE hæwen) swail, blee

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